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Zhibo Cheng, Fenghua Zhang, William Jeffrey Gale, Weichao Wang, Wen Sang, Haichang Yang
The objective of this study was to evaluate bacterial community structure and diversity in soil aggregate fractions when salinized farmland was reclaimed after > 27 yr of abandonment and then farmed again for 1, 5, 10, and 15 yr. Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing was performed to characterize the soil bacterial communities in five aggregate size classes in each treatment. The results indicated that reclamation significantly increased macro-aggregation (> 0.25 mm), as well as soil organic C, available N, and available P...
October 18, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Hélène Genet, Yujie He, Zhou Lyu, A David McGuire, Qianlai Zhuang, Joy Clein, David D'Amore, Alec Bennett, Amy Breen, Frances Biles, Eugénie S Euskirchen, Kristofer Johnson, Tom Kurkowski, Svetlana Kushch Schroder, Neal Pastick, T Scott Rupp, Bruce Wylie, Yujin Zhang, Xiaoping Zhou, Zhiliang Zhu
It is important to understand how upland ecosystems of Alaska, which are estimated to occupy 84% of the state (i.e. 1,237,774 km(2) ), are influencing and will influence state-wide carbon (C) dynamics in the face of ongoing climate change. We coupled fire disturbance and biogeochemical models to assess the relative effects of changing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ), climate, logging and fire regimes on the historical and future C balance of upland ecosystems for the four main Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) of Alaska...
October 17, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Benedikt Lohr, Yvonne Pfeifer, Ursel Heudorf, Christoph Rangger, Douglas E Norris, Klaus-Peter Hunfeld
The ongoing Libyan conflict constantly causes victims among the military and civilian population. Cross-border transfer of patients represents a high risk of introducing multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs), for example, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and carbapenem-resistant gram-negative organisms (CROs), into the country of destination. This study assessed the MDRO status in Libyan war casualties (n = 67) admitted to Northwest Medical Centre in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, from August 2016 till January 2017...
October 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
S Amuno, A Jamwal, B Grahn, S Niyogi
Previous gold mining activities and arsenopyrite ore roasting activities at the Giant mine site (1948 to 2004) resulted in the release of high amounts of arsenic and trace metals into the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada. While elevated levels of arsenic has been consistently reported in surface soils and vegetation near the vicinity of the Giant mine area and in surrounding locations, systematic studies evaluating the overall health status of terrestrial small mammals endemic to the area are lacking...
October 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Rahim Sharafkhani, Narges Khanjani, Bahram Bakhtiari, Yunes Jahani, Rasool Entezar Mahdi
Diurnal Temperature Range (DTR) is a meteorological index which represents temperature variation within a day. This study assesses the impact of high and low values of DTR on mortality. Distributed Lag Non-linear Models combined with a quasi-Poisson regression model was used to assess the impact of DTR on cause, age and gender specific mortality, controlled for potential confounders such as long-term trend of daily mortality, day of week effect, holidays, mean temperature, humidity, wind speed and air pollutants...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Xiaohui Wen, Haixia Su, Yang Wang, Zhongshu Pu, Jie Gao, Zhaohua Ji, Xiaojie Yuan, Xiaochun Li, Weilu Zhang, Lei Zhang, Yong Long, Yongping Yan, Zhongjun Shao
Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is characterized by serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA positive (HBsAg-/HBV DNA+). OBI in community-based populations has been scarcely investigated, and OBI outcomes remain unclear, especially in Wuwei, a region located in Northwest China. This region is one of the areas in China that has the highest prevalence of chronic HBV infection. A prospective study was performed in the general population of two towns of Wuwei from June 2011 to May 2014...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Yong-Tao Wang, Dilare Adi, Zi-Xiang Yu, Yi-Tong Ma, Yi-Ning Yang, Xiao-Mei Li, Xiang Ma, Fen Liu, Bang-Dang Chen
The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and associated risk factors of hypertension among rural population in Xinjiang Province in Northwest China. The Cardiovascular Risk Survey study was conducted on a representative sample of the Northwest China adult population. A four-stage stratified cluster random sampling scheme was adopted to recruit representative samples. The data were collected by trained staff. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify the associated risk factors...
September 28, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
Adel Spotin, Majid Karamat, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Abbas Shahbazi, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Tahereh Mikaeili Galeh, Shirzad Fallahi
Microevolutionary data of Giardia duodenalis sub-assemblages is a prerequisite for determining the invasion zoonotic patterns of the parasite. To infer transmission patterns that could not be differentiated by the phenotypic features, a population genetic investigation is crucial for the elucidation of the genetic structure of G. duodenalis among the continents. Forty G. duodenalis positive fecal samples were collected from different foci of Northwest Iran. The specimens were subjected to Trichrome staining and sucrose gradient flotation...
October 13, 2017: Acta Tropica
Sheina B Sim, Meredith M Doellman, Glen R Hood, Wee L Yee, Thomas H Q Powell, Dietmar Schwarz, Robert B Goughnour, Scott P Egan, Gilbert St Jean, James J Smith, Tracy E Arcella, Jason D K Dzurisin, Jeffrey L Feder
The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious quarantine pest in the apple-growing regions of central Washington and Oregon. The fly is believed to have been introduced into the Pacific Northwest via the transport of larval-infested apples near Portland, Oregon, within the last 40 yr. However, R. pomonella also attacks native black hawthorn, Crataegus douglasii Lindley (Rosales: Rosaceae), and introduced ornamental hawthorn, Crataegus monogyna Jacquin, in the region. It is, therefore, possible that R...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Yufeng Jiang, Leiping Shi, A-Long Guang, Zhongfeng Mu, Huiying Zhan, Yingqin Wu
This study investigated the content, distribution, and contamination levels of toxic metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in street dust in Lanzhou, an industrial city in Northwest China. Meanwhile, the risk these metals posed to the urban ecosystem and human health was also evaluated using the potential ecological risk index and human exposure model. Results showed that concentrations of these metals in the dust are higher than the background value of local soil, with Cu having the highest levels. The districts of Anning and Xigu had the most extreme levels of contamination, while Chengguan and Qilihe districts were lightly contaminated, which can be partly attributed to human activities and traffic densities...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Xian-Jin Zhu, Han-Qi Zhang, Tian-Hong Zhao, Jian-Dong Li, Hong Yin
Spatial and temporal variations are important points of focus in ecological research. Analysing their differences improves our understanding on the variations of ecological phenomena. Using data from the Liaoning Statistical Yearbook, we investigated the spatial and temporal variations of cropland carbon transfer (CCT), an important ecological phenomenon in quantifying the regional carbon budget, in particular, the influencing factors and difference. The results showed that, from 1992 to 2014, the average CCT in Liaoning province was 18...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rabiul Karim, Lene Lindberg, Sarah Wamala, Maria Emmelin
Without taking masculine issues into account, women's participation in development initiatives does not always guarantee their empowerment, health, and welfare in a male-dominated society. This study aimed to explore men's perceptions of women's participation in development (WPD) in rural Bangladesh. In adopting a qualitative approach, the study examined 48 purposively selected married and unmarried men aged 20-76 years in three northwest villages. Data collection was accomplished through four focus group discussions (FGDs) with 43 men clustered into four groups and through individual interviews with five other men...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Men's Health
Helen Green, Andrew Gleadow, Damien Finch
This data article contains mineralogical and chemical data from mineral accretions sampled from rock art shelters in the Kimberley region of north west Australia. The accretions were collected both on and off pigment and engraved rock art of varying styles observed in the Kimberley with an aim of providing a thorough understanding of the formation and preservation of such materials in the context of dating [1]. This contribution includes processed powder X-ray Diffraction data, Scanning Electron Microscopy energy dispersive spectroscopy data, and Laser Ablation ICP-MS trace element mapping data...
October 2017: Data in Brief
S N Hosseini, V Rashtchi, K Kamali, M H Moghimi
Burns are calamities with considerable morbidity and mortality rates. We attempted to examine the epidemiology of burns in Zanjan city, in northwest Iran, by a systematic study of existing information. The medical files of 2,590 thermal burn patients treated in our hospital in Zanjan city, Iran, from December 2010 to November 2016 were studied. Patient information, including age, sex, burn degree, season, cause of burn, hospital stay and treatment results were analyzed. About 65% of the patients were male (n=1691)...
June 30, 2017: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
Charles Abongomera, Ermias Diro, Florian Vogt, Achilleas Tsoumanis, Zelalem Mekonnen, Henok Admassu, Robert Colebunders, Rezika Mohammed, Koert Ritmeijer, Johan van Griensven
Background: East Africa, where Leishmania donovani is prevalent, faces the highest burden world-wide of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. However, data on the risk and predictors of VL relapse are scarce. Such information is vital to target medical follow-up and interventions to those at highest risk. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study at a Médecins Sans Frontières-supported health center in northwest Ethiopia...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
B I Canteros, A M Gochez, R C Moschini
Citrus canker is an important bacterial disease of citrus in several regions of the world. Strains of Xanthomonas citri type-A (Xc-A) group are the primary pathogen where citrus canker occurs. After Xc-A entered the Northeast of Argentina in 1974, the disease spread rapidly from 1977 to 1980 and then slowed down and remained moving at slow pace until 1990 when it became endemic. Citrus canker was detected in Northwest Argentina in 2002. This paper presents the main steps in the fight of the disease and the management strategies that have been used to control citrus canker at this time...
October 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Batool Ashraf, Amir AghaKouchak, Amin Alizadeh, Mohammad Mousavi Baygi, Hamed R Moftakhari, Ali Mirchi, Hassan Anjileli, Kaveh Madani
This study explores a general framework for quantifying anthropogenic influences on groundwater budget based on normalized human outflow (hout) and inflow (hin). The framework is useful for sustainability assessment of groundwater systems and allows investigating the effects of different human water abstraction scenarios on the overall aquifer regime (e.g., depleted, natural flow-dominated, and human flow-dominated). We apply this approach to selected regions in the USA, Germany and Iran to evaluate the current aquifer regime...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Amare Tariku, Gashaw Andargie Biks, Molla Mesele Wassie, Abebaw Gebeyehu Worku, Melaku Kindie Yenit
BACKGROUND: Early initiation of breastfeeding has been well-recognized in reducing neonatal mortality; however, it remains sub-optimal in Ethiopia. This study therefore assessed the prevalence of early initiation of breastfeeding and associated factors among mothers with children aged 6-24 months in Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site, northwest Ethiopia, where literature on the issue is markedly scarce. METHODS: This community-based cross-sectional survey was carried out from May to June, 2015, at Dabat HDSS site, Dabat District...
October 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
Xiaoping Wang, Fei Zhang, Jianli Ding, Hsiang-Te Kung, Aamir Latif, Verner C Johnson
Soil salinity is recognized worldwide as a major threat to agriculture, particularly in arid regions. Producers and decision-makers thus require updated and accurate maps of salinity in agronomical and environmentally relevant regions. The goals of this study were to test various regression models for estimating soil salt content based on hyperspectral data, HJ-CCD images, and Landsat OLI data using; develop optimal band Difference Index (DI), Ratio Index (RI), and Normalization Index (NDI) algorithms for monitoring soil salt content using image and spectral data; and to compare the performances of the proposed models using a Bootstrap-BP neural network model (Bootstrap-BPNN) from different data sources...
October 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Md Giashuddin Miah, Hasan Muhammad Abdullah, Changyoon Jeong
Drought is a critical issue, and it has a pressing, negative impact on agriculture, ecosystems, livelihoods, food security, and sustainability. The problem has been studied globally, but its regional or even local dimension is sometimes overlooked. Local-level drought assessment is necessary for developing adaptation and mitigation strategies for that particular region. Keeping this in understanding, an attempt was made to create a detailed assessment of drought characteristics at the local scale in Bangladesh...
October 9, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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