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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214115/warm-summers-and-moderate-winter-precipitation-boost-rhododendron-ferrugineum-l-growth-in-the-taillefer-massif-french-alps
#1
L Francon, C Corona, E Roussel, J Lopez Saez, M Stoffel
Rhododendron ferrugineum L. is a widespread dwarf shrub species growing in high-elevation, alpine environments of the Western European Alps. For this reason, analysis of its growth rings offers unique opportunities to push current dendrochronological networks into extreme environments and way beyond the treeline. Given that different species of the same genus have been successfully used in tree-ring investigations, notably in the Himalayas where Rhododendron spp. has proven to be a reliable climate proxy, this study aims at (i) evaluating the dendroclimatological potential of R...
February 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214093/educating-religious-leaders-to-promote-uptake-of-male-circumcision-in-tanzania-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#2
Jennifer A Downs, Agrey H Mwakisole, Alphonce B Chandika, Shibide Lugoba, Rehema Kassim, Evarist Laizer, Kinanga A Magambo, Myung Hee Lee, Samuel E Kalluvya, David J Downs, Daniel W Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: Male circumcision is being widely deployed as an HIV prevention strategy in countries with high HIV incidence, but its uptake in sub-Saharan Africa has been below targets. We did a study to establish whether educating religious leaders about male circumcision would increase uptake in their village. METHODS: In this cluster randomised trial in northwest Tanzania, eligible villages were paired by proximity (<60 km) and the time that a free male circumcision outreach campaign from the Tanzanian Ministry of Health became available in their village...
February 14, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212625/prevalence-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-associated-factors-among-visceral-leishmaniasis-infected-patients-in-northwest-ethiopia-a-facility-based-cross-sectional-study
#3
Mekuriaw Alemayehu, Mamo Wubshet, Nebiyu Mesfin, Abebaw Gebayehu
BACKGROUND: Visceral Leishmaniasis coinfection with HIV/AIDS has emerged as a series of disease pattern. It most often results in unfavorable responses to treatment, frequent relapses, and deaths. Scarce data is available regarding the prevalence of HIV and associated factors among Visceral Leishmaniasis coinfected patients. This study sought to determine the prevalence of HIV and associated factors among Visceral Leishmaniasis infected patients. METHODS: Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from October, 2015 to August, 2016 in Northwest Ethiopia...
February 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209209/perceived-quality-of-life-among-visceral-leishmaniasis-and-hiv-coinfected-migrant-male-workers-in-northwest-ethiopia-a-qualitative-study
#4
Mekuriaw Alemayehu, Mamo Wubshet, Nebiyu Mesfin, Abebaw Gebayehu
BACKGROUND: There is paucity of data on quality of life as a dimension of treatment outcome among Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV coinfected patients. This study sought to explore perceived quality of life among Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV coinfected male migrant workers in Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Twenty Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV coinfected study participants took part in the in-depth interviews at Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV treatment centers. Ten participants were on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and the remaining 10 have not yet started ART...
February 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202811/small-birds-big-effects-the-little-auk-alle-alle-transforms-high-arctic-ecosystems
#5
Ivan González-Bergonzoni, Kasper L Johansen, Anders Mosbech, Frank Landkildehus, Erik Jeppesen, Thomas A Davidson
In some arctic areas, marine-derived nutrients (MDN) resulting from fish migrations fuel freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, increasing primary production and biodiversity. Less is known, however, about the role of seabird-MDN in shaping ecosystems. Here, we examine how the most abundant seabird in the North Atlantic, the little auk (Alle alle), alters freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems around the North Water Polynya (NOW) in Greenland. We compare stable isotope ratios (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) of freshwater and terrestrial biota, terrestrial vegetation indices and physical-chemical properties, productivity and community structure of fresh waters in catchments with and without little auk colonies...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199413/low-prevalence-of-human-papillomavirus-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-the-northwest-region-of-the-philippines
#6
Pia Marie Albano, Dana Holzinger, Christianne Salvador, Jose Orosa, Sheryl Racelis, Modesty Leaño, Danilo Sanchez, Lara Mae Angeles, Gordana Halec, Markus Schmitt, John Donnie Ramos, Michael Pawlita
BACKGROUND: Geographic heterogeneity of human papillomavirus (HPV) involvement in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has been observed over the last few years. This trend has not been evaluated in the Philippines. Hence, this study aims to provide for the first time a data on the prevalence of HPV in HNSCC in the northwestern region of the Philippines. METHODS: Two hundred one (201) biopsy samples (179 formalin fixed paraffin embedded and 22 fresh frozen) from 163 Filipino HNSCC cases (oral cavity = 88; larynx = 60; oropharynx = 15) diagnosed between 2003 to 2013 were initially included in this study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199373/prevalence-of-maternal-hiv-infection-and-knowledge-on-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-and-its-prevention-among-antenatal-care-attendees-in-a-rural-area-in-northwest-cameroon
#7
Carlson-Babila Sama, Vitalis F Feteh, Maxime Tindong, John T Tanyi, Nestor Mbinkar Bihle, Fru F Angwafo
BACKGROUND: In 2010, an estimated 141 new HIV infections occurred per day in Cameroon and reports suggest an upsurge of these rates by 2020 if current trends continue. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV is a major public health challenge, and maternal knowledge on HIV transmission during pregnancy and its prevention is important in curtailing paediatric HIV acquisition. OBJECTIVES: We aimed at establishing the prevalence of maternal HIV infection as well as assessing knowledge on HIV, MTCT and prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) of HIV among pregnant women in a rural area of Cameroon...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198546/a-molecular-epidemiology-study-investigating-familial-clustering-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-families-with-unfavorable-prognoses-in-northwest-china
#8
Yuan Yang, Dan Du, Li Jin, Zhen Tian, Qian Li, Ruitian Yi, Ting Qiu, Daokun Yang, Yingli He, Jinfeng Liu, Tianyan Chen, Yingren Zhao
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and adverse outcome have been demonstrated to show characteristics of familial clustering. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of different HBV genotypes, HBV sub-genotypes, and Pre-S mutations associated with familial HBV infection clusters with unfavorable prognoses. Families presenting with clustered HBV infections and unfavorable prognoses were enrolled in this study. Non-clustered HBV-infected individuals were used as the control group. DNA extracted from patient serum samples was used to facilitate characterization of the HBV genotypes, HBV sub-genotypes, and Pre-S mutations by phylogenetic analysis...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197948/mercury-in-soil-earthworms-and-organs-of-voles-myodes-glareolus-and-shrew-sorex-araneus-in-the-vicinity-of-an-industrial-complex-in-northwest-russia-cherepovets
#9
V T Komov, E S Ivanova, N Y Poddubnaya, V A Gremyachikh
The characteristic properties of uptake and distribution of mercury in terrestrial ecosystems have received much lesser attention compared to aquatic particularly in Russia. Terrestrial ecosystems adjacent to large industrial manufactures-potential sources of mercury inflow into the environment frequently remain unstudied. This is the first report on mercury (Hg) levels in the basic elements of terrestrial ecosystems situated close to a large metallurgical complex.Mean values of mercury concentration (mg Hg/kg dry weight) in the vicinity of city of Cherepovets were the following: 0...
March 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197732/effects-of-street-canyon-design-on-pedestrian-thermal-comfort-in-the-hot-humid-area-of-china
#10
Yufeng Zhang, Xiaohan Du, Yurong Shi
The design characteristics of street canyons were investigated in Guangzhou in the hot-humid area of China, and the effects of the design factors and their interactions on pedestrian thermal comfort were studied by numerical simulations. The ENVI-met V4.0 (BASIC) model was validated by field observations and used to simulate the micrometeorological conditions and the standard effective temperature (SET) at pedestrian level of the street canyons for a typical summer day of Guangzhou. The results show that the micrometeorological parameters of mean radiant temperature (MRT) and wind speed play key roles in pedestrian thermal comfort...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194673/assessment-of-groundwater-vulnerability-using-supervised-committee-to-combine-fuzzy-logic-models
#11
Ata Allah Nadiri, Maryam Gharekhani, Rahman Khatibi, Asghar Asghari Moghaddam
Vulnerability indices of an aquifer assessed by different fuzzy logic (FL) models often give rise to differing values with no theoretical or empirical basis to establish a validated baseline or to develop a comparison basis between the modeling results and baselines, if any. Therefore, this research presents a supervised committee fuzzy logic (SCFL) method, which uses artificial neural networks to overarch and combine a selection of FL models. The indices are expressed by the widely used DRASTIC framework, which include geological, hydrological, and hydrogeological parameters often subject to uncertainty...
February 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193183/factors-associated-with-the-length-of-delay-with-tuberculosis-diagnosis-and-treatment-among-adult-tuberculosis-patients-attending-at-public-health-facilities-in-gondar-town-northwest-ethiopia
#12
Selamsew Bogale, Ermias Diro, Atsede Mazengia Shiferaw, Melaku Kindie Yenit
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is essential for an effective tuberculosis (TB) control program. However, significant proportion of cases remains undiagnosed and untreated. Delay in diagnosis and treatment increases transmission. Hence, the study assessed the length of delay and associated factors with tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment among adults attending public health facilities in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. METHOD: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May, 2016...
February 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192755/how-do-men-and-women-help-validation-of-a-multidimensional-measure-of-prosocial-behavior
#13
Matthew G Nielson, Laura Padilla-Walker, Erin K Holmes
The current study sought to address gender differences in prosocial behavior by creating and validating a multidimensional measure of prosocial behavior that more fully captures the ways that men help others. The new measure is directed toward family, friend, and strangers, and has five factors: defending, emotional support, inclusion, physical helping, and sharing. In Study 1, CFA analyses performed on a sample of 463 emerging adults online (mean age 23.42) revealed good model fit and divergent validity for each of the five factors...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191360/self-medication-pattern-among-social-science-university-students-in-northwest-ethiopia
#14
Dessalegn Asmelashe Gelayee
Background. Inappropriate self-medication causes wastage of resources among others. Method. This survey study was conducted to determine self-medication pattern of 404 social science university students in Northwest Ethiopia, who were selected through stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS version 20 statistical software. Binary Logistic Regression analysis was employed with P value < 0.05 considered statistically significant...
2017: Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191020/compliance-with-standard-precautions-and-associated-factors-among-healthcare-workers-in-gondar-university-comprehensive-specialized-hospital-northwest-ethiopia
#15
Tariku Gebre Haile, Eshetu Haileselassie Engeda, Abdella Amano Abdo
Background. In many studies, compliance with standard precautions among healthcare workers was reported to be inadequate. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess compliance with standard precautions and associated factors among healthcare workers in northwest Ethiopia. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 01 to April 30, 2014. Simple random sampling technique was used to select participants. Data were entered into Epi info 3.5.1 and were exported to SPSS version 20...
2017: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187655/-i-digitonthophagus-i-i-gazella-i-auctorum-an-unfortunate-case-of-mistaken-identity-for-a-widely-introduced-species-coleoptera-scarabaeidae-scarabaeinae-onthophagini
#16
François Génier, Adrian L V Davis
At risk of committing entomological heresy, we question the identity of a dung-burying beetle species that originates from Africa and has been introduced first into Hawaii and subsequently to Australasia, North America, and South America (Fincher 1986; Edwards 2007; Noriega et al. 2010) for pasture improvement and biological control of dung-breeding flies (Waterhouse 1974; Bornemissza 1979).  Under the name Onthophagus gazella (Fabricius 1787), it was the first species selected for introduction into Australia by the CSIRO Dung Beetle Project (Bornemissza 1976; Edwards 2007)...
January 19, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187631/rediscovery-and-redescription-of-the-abyssal-squat-lobster-i-munidopsis%C3%A2-petalorhyncha-i-baba-2005-crustacea-decapoda-munidopsidae-from-the-northwest-pacific
#17
Tomoyuki Komai, Ivan Marin, Keiichi Kakui
A poorly known abyssal squat lobster, Munidopsis petalorhyncha Baba, 2005 [= Munidopsis subsquamosa latimana Birstein & Zarenkov, 1970], is redescribed on the basis of the holotype from the Kuril Trench at depths of 5060-5130 m and two recently collected specimens from off Japan at depths of 5353-5382 m. Examination of those specimens enabled us to reassess diagnostic characters of the species. Munidopsis petalorhyncha appears closest to M. thieli Türkay, 1975, known from abyssal plain of the eastern Atlantic, but the spinulose lateral margins of the rostrum, the presence of a distinct lateral eye spine, the presence of a distomesial spine on article 3 of the antennal peduncle and spinose ventral (flexor) margins of meri of pereopods 2-4 distinguish M...
January 25, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187556/new-species-of-i-raphidascaris-i-i-sprentascaris-i-nematoda-anisakidae-in%C3%A2-i-rineloricaria-i-i-steinbachi-i-actinopterygii-loricariidae-from-northwest-argentina
#18
Lorena Gisela Ailán-Choke, Geraldine Ramallo, Dora Davies
During a parasitological survey, we reported specimens of a new species of Raphidascaris (Sprentascaris) in Rineloricaria steinbachi from La Caldera River, province of Salta, Northwest Argentina. The new species, R. (S.) saltaensis sp. nov., is characterized by possessing 16 pairs of preanal papillae, lips with lateral protrusions and membranous elevations, and mature eggs rough-shelled with striations. This is the sixth species of the genus described in the Neotropical Region, and the second from Argentina...
February 9, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183763/full-genomic-characterization-of-a-lentogenic-newcastle-disease-virus-isolated-from-farm-reared-ostriches-struthio-camelus-in-northwest-china
#19
Shanhui Ren, Chongyang Wang, Xiaolong Gao, Xue Zhang, Xiangwei Wang, Yanqing Jia, Yanhong Wang, Xinglong Wang, Zengqi Yang
To our knowledge, our study is the first to report the whole-genome sequence of an ostrich-origin Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolate, abbreviated as Ostrich/SX-01/06. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this isolate belongs to the subgenotype c in class II. The identification of the complete genome will provide useful information regarding ostrich diseases, especially NDV.
February 9, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182726/spatial-patterns-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-and-relationships-to-socio-economic-demographic-and-household-factors-in-northwest-ethiopia
#20
Kefyalew Addis Alene, Kerri Viney, Emma S McBryde, Archie C A Clements
BACKGROUND: Understanding the geographical distribution of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in high TB burden countries such as Ethiopia is crucial for effective control of TB epidemics in these countries, and thus globally. We present the first spatial analysis of multidrug resistant tuberculosis, and its relationship to socio-economic, demographic and household factors in northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: An ecological study was conducted using data on patients diagnosed with MDR-TB at the University of Gondar Hospital MDR-TB treatment centre, for the period 2010 to 2015...
2017: PloS One
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