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Xuehu He, Xiuzhong Li, Yaqi Guo, Yue Zhao, Hui Dong, Jie Dong, Li Zhong, Zhiyun Shi, Yuying Zhang, Mario Soliman, Chunhua Song, Zhijun Zhao
Purpose: This study screens for deafness gene mutations in newborns in the Northwest China population. Method: The 9 sites of 4 common deafness genes (GJB2, GJB3, SLC26A4, and mt 12S rRNA) were detected by bloodspot-based gene chip array in 2,500 newborns. Results: We detected mutations of the 4 genes in 101 (4.04%) newborns; particularly, 0.20% detected the double mutations. In the Hui population, 4.58% of the newborns tested positive for mutations, whereas 4...
December 12, 2017: American Journal of Audiology
Shaoxiong Ding, Mrinal Mishra, Haohao Wu, Shuang Liang, Michael M Miyamoto
The northwest Pacific marginal seas are a primary center of phylogeographic and evolutionary research, because of their dynamic geographic history of falling and rising sea levels during the glaciations and interglaciations of the last one million years. Here we present new molecular and morphological data for geographic samples of the four-eyed sleeper (Bostrychus sinensis), which reinforce the evidence for secondary contact and hybridization between two phylogeographic lineages in the East China Sea. Specifically, we find that the secondary contact region is characterized by a low frequency of hybridization, where mitochondrial DNA introgression is relatively common, whereas F1 hybrids are correspondingly scarce...
January 2018: Heredity
Shuhe Zhao, Dianmin Cong, Kexun He, Hong Yang, Zhihao Qin
Droughts cause huge losses of society and environment, therefore it is important to study the spatial-temporal pattern of drought. The traditional remote sensing drought indices (AVI, VCI and TCI) only consider the single factor representing the soil moisture (surface temperature or NDVI). The comprehensive remote sensing drought indices (VSWI and TVDI) can estimate the soil moisture more accurately, but they are not suitable for large scale region especially with great elevation variation. In this study, a modified Temperature Vegetation Drought Index (mTVDI) was constructed based on the correction of elevation and dry edge...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kotaro Shirai, Kaoru Kubota, Naoko Murakami-Sugihara, Koji Seike, Masataka Hakozaki, Kazushige Tanabe
A sclerochronological and radiocarbon-based study of life history traits of Stimpson's hard clam (Mercenaria stimpsoni), collected alive from Funakoshi Bay, northeast Japan, showed the lifespan of the species to be at least 92 years (determined from annual growth line counts). Three M. stimpsoni specimens exhibited the following synchronous growth pattern, suggestive of environmental control; annual increment width increasing after 1955 to a maximum value between 1970 and 1980, subsequently decreasing gradually until 2000, and thereafter remaining constant or increasing slightly...
October 21, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Amina Traore Schartup, Asif Qureshi, Clifton Dassuncao, Colin Pike Thackray, Gareth Harding, Elsie M Sunderland
Methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations can increase by up to 100,000 times between seawater and marine phytoplankton but levels vary across sites. To better understand how ecosystem properties affect variability in planktonic MeHg concentrations, we develop a model for MeHg uptake and trophic transfer at the base of marine food webs. The model successfully reproduces measured concentrations in phytoplankton and zooplankton across diverse sites from the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Highest MeHg concentrations in phytoplankton are simulated under low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ultra-oligotrophic conditions typical of open ocean regions...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Mucheye Gizachew Beza, Emirie Hunegnaw, Moges Tiruneh
Background: Tuberculosis, mainly in prisoners, is a major public health problem in Ethiopia where there is no medical screening during prison admission. This creates scarcity of TB data in such settings. Objective: To determine prevalence and associated factors of TB in prisons in East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May 2016 among 265 prisoners in three prison sites. Sputum was processed using GeneXpert MTB/RIF...
2017: International Journal of Bacteriology
Mulusew Asferaw, Geoffrey Woodruff, Clare Gilbert
Objectives: To determine the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL) among students in schools for the blind in Northwest Ethiopia and to identify preventable and treatable causes. Method: Students attending nine schools for the blind in Northwest Ethiopia were examined and causes assigned using the standard WHO record form for children with blindness and low vision in May and June 2015. Results: 383 students were examined, 357 (93%) of whom were severely visually impaired or blind (<6/60 in their better eye)...
2017: BMJ Global Health
Martin D Van Den Berghe, Heather E Jamieson, Michael J Palmer
The controls on the mobility and fate of arsenic in lakes impacted by historical gold ore roasting in northern Canada have been examined. A detailed characterization of arsenic solid and aqueous phases in lake waters, lake sediments and sediment porewaters as well as surrounding soils was conducted in three small lakes (<200ha) downwind and within 5 km of the historic mining and roasting operations of Giant Mine (Northwest Territories). These lakes are marked by differing limnological characteristics such as area, depth and organic content...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Inmaculada Ramírez de Ocáriz Landaberea, María F Brezmes Valdivieso, Sara C García Sanz, Fernando Simón Martín
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Viktor Kalinchuk, Evgeny Lopatnikov, Anatoly Astakhov
Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) is a prolific and persistent contaminant in the atmosphere. Atmospheric concentrations of Hg0 were determined from 17 September to 7 October 2015 in the northwest Sea of Japan aboard the Russian research vessel Professor Gagarinsky. Simultaneous measurements of Hg0 concentrations were performed 2 m and 20 m above the sea surface using automatic Hg0 analysers RA-915M and RA-915+, respectively. Concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 25.9 ng/m3 (n = 5207) and from 0.3 to 27.8 ng/m3 (n = 4415), with medians of 1...
December 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Xungui Li
Evaluating the quantity of flood season floodwater that is difficult to control or use in rivers with high sediment concentration is an important part of water resource evaluation and floodwater resource utilisation. This study proposes a method coupling water quantity and quality to evaluate such floodwater. The method divides floodwater into floodwater that is difficult to control ('difficult-controllable') and floodwater that is controllable but difficult to use ('controllable but difficult-use'). A case study of the Bajiazui Reservoir in the Jing River in China's Loess Plateau is presented...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hailing Xie, Tian Zhou, Qiang Fu, Jianping Huang, Zhongwei Huang, Jianrong Bi, Jinsen Shi, Beidou Zhang, Jinming Ge
The detection of cloud and aerosols using a modified retrieval algorithm solely for a ground-based micropulse lidar (MPL) is presented, based on one-year data at the Semi-Arid Climate Observatory and Laboratory (SACOL) site (35.57°N, 104.08°E, 1965.8 m), northwest of China, from March 2011 to February 2012. The work not only identifies atmosphere particle layers by means of the range-dependent thresholds based on elastic scattering ratio and depolarization ratio, but also discriminates the detected layers by combining empirical thresholds of the atmosphere's thermodynamics states and scattering properties and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) analyses...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
Sevil Hakimi, Elham Aminian, Sakineh Mohammad- Alizadeh Charandabi, Parvin Bastani, Marzieh Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: Overactive bladder syndrome is a common and annoying complication worldwide that could negatively affect the quality of life of afflicted individuals. We aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of overactive bladder syndrome and its relation to sexual function in healthy menopausal women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was done on 340 women aged 45-60 years in Tabriz, northwest Iran, during 2015-2016. Data were collected using a demographic data questionnaire, the Overactive Bladder Syndrome Score, and the McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire...
December 4, 2017: Urologia
Awoke Derbie, Megbaru Alemu
Background: An estimated 68% of the Ethiopian population, living in 75% of the landmass, is at risk of contracting malaria at any time making it the leading public health problem. The temporal analysis of malaria data could be important to evaluate the performance of malaria prevention programmes. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the trend of malaria at Woreta Health Center (WHC) over a period of five years. Methods: We analyzed the records of 8,057 presumptive malaria patients registered in 2012 to 2016...
September 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Meseret Workineh, Mandie Maru, Ibrahim Seman, Ziyadu Bezu, Markos Negash, Mulugeta Melku, Addisu Gize, Agumas Shibabaw
Background: The sensitivity of smear microscopy for diagnosis of tuberculosis might be improved through treatment of sputum with sodium hypochlorite and application of fluorescent microscopy. This study aimed to determine the agreement between direct Fluorescent Microscopy and Ziehl-Neelsen concentration technique by their ability of detecting acid fast bacilli in resource poor settings. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia...
September 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Tegegne Eshetu, Getinet Sibhatu, Mohammed Megiso, Abrham Abere, Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes, Belete Biadgo, Ayalew Jejaw Zeleke
Background: Most HIV clients die of AIDS related intestinal parasitic infections rather than due to the HIV infection itself. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasite and their associated factors among HIV/AIDS clients at the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: Institution based cross sectional study was conducted using systematic random sampling technique from March to May 2016. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data...
July 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Ayinengida Walle, Mirkuzie Woldie
Background: Clients' needs and their satisfaction are priority issues in studying quality in reproductive health services. However, only 24-37% of Ethiopian women were informed about the available family planning methods and their utilization. High national total fertility rate (4.8) and low contraceptive prevalence rate (29%) might be attributed to these and other reasons. This study assessed the level of client-centeredness of family planning services and their determinants in public health facilities of Bahir Dar Town, Northwest Ethiopia...
July 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Devi Dayal, Keerthivasan Seetharaman, Inusha Panigrahi, Muthuvel Balasubramaniyan, Ashish Agarwal
Monogenic obesity caused by mutations in one of the several genes involved in the control of hunger and satiety is a rare cause of early-onset obesity (EOO). The most common of the single gene alterations affect the LEP gene resulting in congenital leptin deficiency that manifests as intense hyperphagia, EOO and severe obesity associated hormonal and metabolic alterations. Only eight mutations of LEP gene associated with congenital leptin deficiency in humans have been described. In this study, we report a novel homozygous missense mutation in exon 3 of the LEP gene (chr7:127894610;c...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Erin E Scott, Mansoor D K Leh, Brian E Haggard
Pathogens are a major cause of water quality impairment and public health concern world-wide. In the United States, each state is tasked with developing water quality standards (WQS) to protect the designated use(s) of waterbodies. Several streams in the Illinois River Watershed in northwest Arkansas are currently listed as impaired due to elevated levels of pathogens. Our objective was to evaluate Escherichia coli (E. coli) numbers at 29 stream sites, compare these numbers to the applicable WQS, and investigate the relationship between E...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
Johan van Griensven, Tesfa Simegn, Mengistu Endris, Ermias Diro
The approach to treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-HIV co-infection in East Africa has not been systematically examined. Although antiretroviral treatment (ART) should be initiated for all co-infected persons, the extent of ART prescription is not known. We conducted a retrospective cohort study including all VL-HIV co-infected adults at selected referral and district hospitals in northwest Ethiopia from 2010 to 2015. Purposes of the study were to compare the proportion of VL diagnoses made in previously diagnosed HIV-patients versus diagnosis concurrent with HIV diagnosis and to quantify utilization of ART...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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