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Zhixiang Lu, Yongping Wei, Qi Feng, Jiali Xie, Honglang Xiao, Guodong Cheng
There is limited quantitative understanding of interactions between human and environmental systems over the millennial scale. We aim to reveal the co-evolutionary dynamics of the human-environment system in a river basin by simulating the water use and net primary production (NPP) allocation for human and environmental systems over the last 2000years in Heihe River basin (HRB) in northwest China. We partition the catchment total evapotranspiration (ET) into ET for human and environmental systems with a social-hydrological framework and estimate the NPP for human and environmental systems using the Box-Lieth model, then classify the co-evolutionary processes of the human-environment system into distinct phases using the rate of changes of NPP over time, and discover the trade-offs or synergies relationships between them based on the elasticity of change of the NPP for humans to the change of NPP for environment...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Junjie Zhang, Chen Guo, Wenfeng Chen, Philippe de Lajudie, Zhiyan Zhang, Yimin Shang, En Tao Wang
Three chickpea rhizobial strains (WYCCWR 10195T =S1-3-7, WYCCWR 10198=S1-4-3 and WYCCWR 10200=S1-5-1) isolated from Northwest China formed a group affiliated to Mesorhizobium based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison. To clarify their species status, multilocus sequence analysis and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values of whole genome sequences between the novel group and the type strains of the related species were further performed. Similarities of 95.7-96.6 % in the concatenated sequences of atpD-recA-glnII and 91...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Robert E Schmidt, Nathaniel F Shoobs, Erin R McMullin
Four populations of the large freshwater ostracod, Chlamydotheca unispinosa (Baird, 1862), were discovered on the Caribbean island of Montserrat. These are the first records of the species on Montserrat and extend its known distribution approximately 113 km northwest and 63 km southeast of the closest known populations on Îles des Saintes (Guadeloupe) and Nevis, respectively. We provide the first DNA barcode for C. unispinosa , a 686 bp fragment of the COI gene which may be used for future comparative studies of this widely distributed species...
2018: ZooKeys
Adrián Nieto-Montes de Oca, Helder Sánchez-Vega, Itzel Durán-Fuentes
A new species of Xenosaurus in the X. tzacualtipantecus clade is described from the Sierra Madre Oriental of northern Puebla, Mexico. The new species differs from all of its congeners in possessing a unique combination of characters. The new species appears to be allopatric and fills in the geographic gap between the geographic distributions of X. tzacualtipantecus and the species in the newmanorum clade to the north and northwest and those of the species in the grandis and rackhami clades to the south and southeast...
2018: ZooKeys
Ewa Bielska, Marta Arch Sisquella, Maha Aldeieg, Charlotte Birch, Eloise J O'Donoghue, Robin C May
The Pacific Northwest outbreak of cryptococcosis, caused by a near-clonal lineage of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii, represents the most significant cluster of life-threatening fungal infections in otherwise healthy human hosts currently known. The outbreak lineage has a remarkable ability to grow rapidly within human white blood cells, using a unique 'division of labour' mechanism within the pathogen population, where some cells adopt a dormant behaviour to support the growth of neighbouring cells...
April 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Luis Fernando Lares-Jiménez, Manuel Alejandro Borquez-Román, Rosalía Alfaro-Sifuentes, María Mercedes Meza-Montenegro, Ramón Casillas-Hernández, Fernando Lares-Villa
The presence of free-living amoebae of the genera Naegleria, Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia, which contain pathogenic species for humans and animals, has been demonstrated several times and in different natural aquatic environments in the northwest of Mexico. With the aim of continuing the addition of knowledge about immunology of pathogenic free-living amoebae, 118 sera from children and adolescents, living in three villages, were studied. Humoral IgG response against B. mandrillaris, N. fowleri and Acanthamoeba sp...
April 16, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Zewdu Seyoum, Kalkidan Getnet, Mersha Chanie, Samuel Derso, Shumye Fentahun
Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections of sheep and their interaction with selected morbidity parameters were studied in smallholder farms. 120 faecal samples were collected and examined using faecal flotation to determine nematode infection in sheep. Thus, the study demonstrated overall prevalence of 57.5% GIN infections, while the mean faecal egg count (FEC) was 517.5 EPG. The severity of GIN infection was determined based on EPG as a mild infection (EPG <500), 55.1%, moderate infection (EPG = 500-1500), 30...
2018: BioMed Research International
F Müller-Sánchez, R Nevin, J M Comerford, R I Davies, G C Privon, E Treister
Theoretical models and numerical simulations have established a framework of galaxy evolution in which galaxies merge and create dual supermassive black holes (with separations of one to ten kiloparsecs), which eventually sink into the centre of the merger remnant, emit gravitational waves and coalesce. The merger also triggers star formation and supermassive black hole growth, and gas outflows regulate the stellar content1-3 . Although this theoretical picture is supported by recent observations of starburst-driven and supermassive black hole-driven outflows4-6 , it remains unclear how these outflows interact with the interstellar medium...
April 2018: Nature
Mulusew Asferaw, Sisay Yoseph Mekonen, Geoffrey Woodruff, Clare E Gilbert, Samson Tesfaye
AIM: To assess visual acuity outcomes, and factors associated with the outcome, of paediatric cataract surgery at the Child Eye Health Tertiary Facility, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: The medical records of children aged below 16 years who underwent cataract surgery between September 2010 and August 2014 were reviewed for preoperative, surgical and postoperative data. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-six eyes of 142 children (mean age 7...
April 18, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Benjamin D Jaffe, Christelle Guédot, Peter J Landolt
Codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a major pest of pome fruits worldwide. Fruit is damaged by larval feeding, and numbers of larvae are directly related to the numbers of females in the preceding generation. In Pacific Northwest, apple orchards, C. pomonella are generally managed with insecticides and mating disruption. However, additional control methods are needed when these treatments fail or are undesirable. Using a three-component kairomone lure that attracts both sexes, we mass-trapped C...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Yalewayker Tegegne, Tadelo Wondmagegn, Ligabaw Worku, Ayalew Jejaw Zeleke
Introduction: Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in developing countries. Hence, it is significant to explore coinfection with intestinal parasites and pulmonary tuberculosis because coinfection increases the complexity of control and prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis and parasitic diseases. Objective: To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients. Method: Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar Hospital from March to May, 2017...
2018: Journal of Parasitology Research
G Nishanthan, P A D A Kumara, M D S T de Croos, D V P Prasada, D C T Dissanayake
Processing and its impacts on proximate composition and fatty acid profile of six sea cucumber species; Bohadschia marmorata, Stichopus chloronotus, Holothuria spinifera, Thelenota anax, Holothuria scabra and Bohadschia sp. 1 collected from the northwest coast of Sri Lanka were analyzed. Sea cucumbers are processed into bêche - de - mer by both domestic and industrial level processors following the similar steps of cleaning, evisceration, first boiling, salting, second boiling and drying. However, domestically processed bêche - de - mer always reported a higher percentage of moisture, crude ash, crude fat and lower percentage of crude protein than industrially processed products...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Jinjin Tao, Tongshuo Bai, Rui Xiao, Peng Wang, Fuwei Wang, Alexander M Duryee, Yi Wang, Yi Zhang, Shuijin Hu
Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) oxidize ammonia into nitrite, the first and rate-limiting step of microbial nitrification, and exert major controls over soil nitrogen transformations. The Loess Plateau in northwest China is characterized with deep soils that are often exposed to the surface and reactive nitrogen (N) inputs due to erosion and human removal of the surface soil. However, few have examined the distribution of AOA and AOB along the profile of Loess Plateau soils and their responses to N inputs...
April 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ahmadreza Afshar
The American Presbyterian Missionary in Iran accomplished medical activities in Urmia. Doctor Joseph Plumb Cochran established the first modern medical college (the Westminster College) in 1879 and built a modern hospital of that time (the Westminster Hospital). The medical college and hospital trained 34 native physicians that practiced in the northwest of Iran and its neighboring regions. Although the main aim of American Presbyterian Missionary was theological and evangelistic, their devoted activities improved health and welfare in the northwestern part of Iran and its neighboring countries...
December 30, 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Vanessa M Schmidt, Gina Pinchbeck, Tim Nuttall, Steve Shaw, K Marie McIntyre, Neil McEwan, Susan Dawson, Nicola J Williams
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria are increasingly isolated from veterinary patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine risk factors for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among canine mucosal staphylococci following routine antimicrobial treatment with cefalexin (CFX), clavulanate-amoxicillin (AC), cefovecin (CVN), clindamycin (CD) or a fluoroquinolone (FQ). ANIMALS: Mucosal swab samples (n = 463) were collected from 127 dogs pre-treatment, immediately, and at one- and three-months post-treatment...
April 17, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Tariku Nigatu Bogale, Abebaw Gebeyehu Worku, Alemayehu Yalew, Gashaw Andargie Biks, Zemene Tigabu Kebede
This study was conducted to explore the experiences of community members, particularly mothers, concerning their beliefs about the causes, treatment practices, and preferences for WHO-defined neonatal danger signs in northwest Ethiopia. A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted in three districts of north Gondar Zone, Amhara region, Ethiopia, from March 10 to 28, 2016. Twelve focus group discussions were conducted involving 98 individuals. In-depth interviews were conducted with six health extension workers and 30 women who were either pregnant or who delivered in the past 6 months...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jiuwei Zhao, Ruifen Zhan, Yuqing Wang
The recent global warming hiatus (GWH) was characterized by a La Niña-like cooling in the tropical Eastern Pacific accompanied with the Indian Ocean and the tropical Atlantic Ocean warming. Here we show that the recent GWH contributed significantly to the increased occurrence of intense tropical cyclones in the coastal regions along East Asia since 1998. The GWH associated sea surface temperature anomalies triggered a pair of anomalous cyclonic and anticyclonic circulations and equatorial easterly anomalies over the Northwest Pacific, which favored TC genesis and intensification over the western Northwest Pacific but suppressed TC genesis and intensification over the southeastern Northwest Pacific due to increased vertical wind shear and anticyclonic circulation anomalies...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chun Cao, Juan Feng, Hongtao Gu, Hailong Tang, Li Xu, Hongjuan Dong, Baoxia Dong, Mimi Shu, Qingxian Bai, Rong Liang, Tao Zhang, Lan Yang, Zhe Wang, Xiequn Chen, Guangxun Gao
To explore the distribution of lymphoid neoplasms in Northwest China, the clinical and pathological data of lymphoma patients from 2006 to 2014 were analyzed according to the WHO classification in Xijing Hospital. Of the 3244 cases, mature B-cell neoplasms occupied 60.7%, while mature T/NK-cell neoplasms and Hodgkin's lymphomas (HL) occupied 26.2% and 8.1%, respectively. The most common subtype of lymphoma was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (35.0%), followed by extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTCL) (12...
May 12, 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
Qutsia Tabasum, Jagmahender Singh Sehrawat, Manjit Kaur Talwar, Raj Kamal Pathak
Background: Different dental features have contributed significantly toward sex determination in the forensic anthropological contexts. Population-specific standards (discriminant functions or regression formulae) have been suggested for various population groups to identify the sex of an unknown individual from dental dimensions and other odontometric features. The main purpose of the present investigation was to examine the degree of sexual dimorphism exhibited by the human teeth of North Indians and identify importance as a forensic tool in sex determination...
September 2017: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
Ahad Bazmani, Amir Abolhooshyar, Abbas Imani-Baran, Hamid Akbari
Aim: The present study aimed to detect Babesia ovis and Babesia motasi in the blood samples of sheep and goats from Northwest of Iran by the semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Materials and Methods: A total of 166 whole blood samples (including 123 sheep and 43 goats) were collected. In the first stage, the PCR was performed to amplify a piece of 18S rRNA gene of Babesia and Theileria genera. Then, semi-nested PCR was carried out on all PCR products to differentiate B...
March 2018: Veterinary World
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