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Maryam Ghahremani, Nima Hosseini Jazani, Yaeghob Sharifi
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the frequency, the, phenotypic and molecular characteristics of methicillin- resistant, Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), from clinical specimens at three university teaching hospitals in Urmia-North West of Iran (2012- 2015). METHODS: After identification of the isolates, the antibiotic, susceptibility, the presence of mecA, vanA, pvl genes and staphylococcal, cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing were evaluated...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Ofelia Morton-Bermea, Rodrigo Garza-Galindo, Elizabeth Hernández-Álvarez, Sara L Ordoñez-Godínez, Omar Amador-Muñoz, Laura Beramendi-Orosco, Javier Miranda, Irma Rosas-Pérez
In this study, atmospheric mercury concentration in airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ) was analyzed by ICP-MS. Samples were collected in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), during 2013, in five locations, Northwest, Northeast (NE), Central, Southwest and Southeast, along three seasons: dry warm, rainy, and dry cold (DC). It can be observed that NE shows the highest mercury concentration (p < 0.05), where pollution events were identified. The seasonal distribution shows that samples collected during DC present the highest concentration (p < 0...
February 16, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Ali Akbar Sabziparvar, Fatemeh Khoshhal Jahromi
The daily minimum air temperature data from 18 stations located in the northwest of Iran during the period 1986-2015 was used to analyse the inter-annual variations and trends of thermal growing season indices (tGSI) and their relations with different atmospheric teleconnection patterns (ATPs). To analyze the changes in tGSI, tGSS (thermal growing season start), tGSE (thermal growing season end), and tGSL, the time period between tGSS and tGSE were considered. Using non-parametric Mann-Kendall and Spearman tests, the existence of a significant trend for time series of the tGSI and the correlation between ATPs and tGSI was evaluated...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Nan Dong, Ming-Ming Tang, Wei-Ping Zhang, Xing-Guo Bao, Yu Wang, Peter Christie, Long Li
Intercropping studies usually focus on yield advantage and interspecific interactions but few quantify temporal niche differentiation and its relationship with intercropping yield advantage. A field experiment conducted in northwest China in 2013 and 2014 examined four intercropping systems (oilseed rape/maize, oilseed rape/soybean, potato/maize, and soybean/potato) and the corresponding monocultures. Total dry matter data collected every 20 d after maize emergence were fitted to logistic models to investigate the temporal dynamics of crop growth and interspecific interactions...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Paola Moffa-Sánchez, Ian R Hall
In the original version of this Article, the third sentence of the first paragraph of the "Changes in the input of polar waters into the Labrador Sea" section of the Results originally incorrectly read 'During the spring-summer months, after the winter convection has ceased in the Labrador Sea, its northwest boundary currents (the EGC and IC) support restratification of the surface ocean through lateral transport.' The correct version states 'northeast' instead of 'northwest'. The fifth sentence of the second paragraph of the same section originally incorrectly read "In contrast, in the western section of the Nordic Seas, under the presence of warm Atlantic waters of the Norwegian Current, Nps was found to calcify deeper in the water column (100-200 m), whereas in the east under the influence of the EGC polar waters it calcified closer to the surface at a similar depth as Tq 23 ...
February 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Abiy Maru Alemayehu, Gizchewu Tilahun Belete, Nebiyat Feleke Adimassu
INTRODUCTION: Refractive error is an important cause of correctable visual impairment in the worldwide with a global distribution of 1.75% to 20.7% among schoolchildren. Teacher's knowledge about refractive error play an important role in encouraging students to seek treatment that helps in reducing the burden of visual impairment. OBJECTIVE: To determine knowledge, attitude and associated factors among primary school teachers regarding refractive error in school children in Gondar city...
2018: PloS One
Juan Fidel Osuna-Ramos, Horacio Rendón-Aguilar, José Manuel Reyes-Ruiz, Rosa María Del Ángel, Alejandra Romero-Utrilla, Efrén Rafael Ríos-Burgueño, Ismael Velarde-Rodriguez, Jesús Salvador Velarde-Félix
Immunological factors, such as cytokines, have been proposed as a cause of changes in the lipid profile of dengue patients. We studied whether serum lipid levels and serum TNF-α levels are associated in a group of dengue patients from an endemic region in the northwest of Mexico. We found statistically important differences in the serum lipid profile and the TNF-α levels of dengue patients compared with the control group, were observed. However, TNF-α levels did not correlate with the lipid profile of dengue patients...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Alehegn Bishaw Geremew, Abebaw Addis Gelagay, Telake Azale
BACKGROUND: Screening services for cervical pre-cancerous lesions is currently available for all women aged 30-49 years at public hospitals in Ethiopia. Though women's knowledge and their attitude are determinants for the uptake the screening service, there is limited information on these regards. Therefore, this study aimed to assess comprehensive knowledge on cervical cancer, attitudes towards the screening, and associated factors among women aged 30-49 years at Finote Selam town, northwest Ethiopia...
February 14, 2018: Reproductive Health
Canan Baydemir, Emrah Gokay Ozgur, Sibel Balci
Introduction This study was conducted to evaluate the eating habits of medical students at Kocaeli University in northwest Turkey in terms of their ability to apply their academic knowledge regarding healthy lifestyles to their own lives using the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED). Methods In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire including demographic information and the KIDMED index was administered to 354 medical school students (206 first-year and 148 third-year students). The students' sex, body mass index, KIDMED score, place of residence, smoking habit, media screen time, and regular exercising variables were evaluated...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Jake A Funkhouser, Jessica A Mayhew, John B Mulcahy
Different aspects of sociality bear considerable weight on the individual- and group-level welfare of captive nonhuman primates. Social Network Analysis (SNA) is a useful tool for gaining a holistic understanding of the dynamic social relationships of captive primate groups. Gaining a greater understanding of captive chimpanzees through investigations of centrality, preferred and avoided relationships, dominance hierarchy, and social network diagrams can be useful in advising current management practices in sanctuaries and other captive settings...
2018: PloS One
Citlalli Osorio-Yáñez, Bizu Gelaye, Daniel A Enquobahrie, Chunfang Qiu, Michelle A Williams
Pregnancy is a period when the mother and her offspring are susceptible to the toxic effects of metals. We investigated associations of intake of frequently consumed foods with urinary metals concentrations among pregnant women in the Pacific Northwest. We measured urinary cadmium (U-Cd), arsenic (U-As) and molybdenum (U-Mo) concentrations from spot urine samples in early pregnancy (15 weeks of gestation, on average) among 558 women from Seattle and Tacoma, Washington. We assessed periconceptional dietary intake using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)...
February 10, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Esayas Aklilu, Ibrahim Abbasi, Araya Gebresilassie, Solomon Yared, Mizan Kindu, Oscar David Kirstein, Aviad Moncaz, Habte Tekie, Meshesha Balkew, Alon Warburg, Asrat Hailu, Teshome Gebre-Michael
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the major public health problems in northwest Ethiopia, mainly in Libo-Kemkem and Metema districts, where Phlebotomus orientalis is the most probable vector of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological age, host preference and vectorial potential of P. orientalis in the highland and lowland foci of the region. Sand flies were collected using CDC light traps between May 2011 and April 2012 in Libo-Kemkem and October 2012 and September 2013 in Metema from household compounds, farm field and mixed forest...
2018: PloS One
Andrej M Grjibovski, Daria Dubovichenko, Shynar Saduakassova, Gulmira Zhatkanbayeva, Gulzhakhan Omarova, Gulnar Shalgumbayeva, Lyudmila Valkova, Mikhail Y Valkov
Background: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer among women. The evidence from Russia, however, is scarce. We studied the incidence of and mortality from cervical cancer in northwest Russia, and assessed determinants of survival among cervical cancer patients. Methods: This registry-based historical cohort study obtained data on all primary cases of cervical cancer in the Arkhangelsk region in 2000-2014 from the Arkhangelsk Regional Cancer Registry. One- and 5-y survival was calculated using life tables...
February 8, 2018: International Health
Z P Zhao, Y C Li, L M Wang, M Zhang, Z J Huang, X Zhang, C Li, Q Deng, M G Zhou
Objective: To investigate the geographical variation of prediabetes in adults in different regions of China, and to analyze the related factors of prediabetes. Methods: Data was obtained from China Chronic Disease and Related Risk Factor Surveillance in 2013. The surveillance adopted multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling method, which sampled 177 099 residents aged above 18 years old among 298 surveillance points in 31 provinces of Chinese Mainland. Questionnaire interview was used to obtain demographic variables, personal living style, and socio-economical information...
February 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
M Zhang, L M Wang, Z H Chen, Z P Zhao, Y C Li, Q Deng, Z J Huang, X Zhang, C Li, M G Zhou, L H Wang
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia among Chinese adults in different geographic areas, and to analyze the related factors. Methods: China Chronic and Non-Communicable Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance was conducted in 2013, based on 298 counties/districts in 31 provinces of Chinese mainland. The adults aged 18 years old were randomly selected using multi-stage stratified clustering sampling method. Information on chronic disease and risk factors was collected using face-to-face questionnaire interview and physical measurement...
February 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
X Yang, S Y Qian, Y M Zhu, X Xu, C F Liu, F Xu, X X Ren, Y Wang, Y C Zhang, G P Lu
Objective: To investigate the current application status of continuous blood purification (CBP) technology and equipment in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to understand the current popularization of CBP technology and equipment, the management of CBP equipment and consumables, and the application of CBP in different diseases. A questionnaire named Application Status of Continuous Blood Purification Technology was applied. Children's hospitals and polyclinic hospitals with the pediatric qualification (pediatric emergency or critical care unit members of Chinese Medical Association and Chinese Medical Doctor Association) were selected...
February 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Momo Kurihara, Yuichi Onda, Hiroaki Kato, Nicolas Loffredo, Tetsuo Yasutaka, Frederic Coppin
Cesium-137 (137Cs) migration in the litter layer consists of various processes, such as input via throughfall, output via litter decomposition, and input from deeper layers via soil organism activity. We conducted litter bag experiments over 2 years (December 2014-November 2016) to quantify the inputs and outputs of 137Cs in the litter layer in a Japanese cedar plantation (Cryptomeria japonica) and a mixed broadleaf forest dominated by Quercus serrata located 40 km northwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Sachiko Ozawa, Tatenda T Yemeke, Alie F Tawah, Vivek Kulkarni, Manuela Villar Uribe
BACKGROUND: Cambodia has one of the highest rates of overall medical injection usage worldwide. Therapeutic injections, which are often unnecessary, contribute to the spread of blood-borne diseases. OBJECTIVE: This study describes injection practices and associated household expenditures in rural northwest Cambodia. METHODS: We assessed care-seeking patterns of surveyed adult family members who sought healthcare in the previous 30 days, including location of care, medical injection use, and out-of-pocket household expenditures for treatment...
February 9, 2018: PharmacoEconomics Open
Olumide Ajibola, Semeeh Akinwale Omoleke, Olusola Akintoye Omisakin
INTRODUCTION: Following the significant reduction of Neisseria meningitidis A (NmA) in most parts of northern Nigeria, a new strain of Neisseria meningitidis C (NmC) emerged in 2013 causing outbreaks in the north and recently spreading to southern parts of the Nigeria. This study provides detailed epidemiological investigation in the last four years. METHODS: Analysis of confirmed and suspected cases of meningitis in Kebbi, Nigeria from 2014 to June 2017 detected through Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response...
February 6, 2018: Vaccine
Peng Yang, Jun Xia, Yongyong Zhang, Chesheng Zhan, Yunfeng Qiao
Droughts are extremely widespread natural disasters, which cause the most severe losses among natural disasters. The comprehensive drought risk in Northwest China (NWC) was evaluated based on the self-calibrating (SC) Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and copula method. The major conclusions are the following: (1) based on the rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF), a significant consistency in the spatial distribution of the monthly averaged SC-PDSI was observed in NWC, especially in the subregions Inner Mongolia Plateau (IM), Hexi Corridor (HX), and Qiangtang Plateau (QT); (2) the largest frequency was obtained for slight drought and slight wet conditions, while extreme drought and extreme wet showed the lowest values; (3) with respect to the PDSI-th, the Clayton, Arch12, Arch12, Arch12, Arch12, and Frank played the major roles in the copula weight in the subregions IM, HX, Qinghai River Basin (QH), QT, North Xinjiang (NXJ), and South Xinjiang (SXJ), respectively...
February 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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