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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107545/food-acid-content-and-erosive-potential-of-sugar-free-confections
#1
P Shen, G D Walker, Y Yuan, C Reynolds, M A Stacey, E C Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Dental erosion is an increasingly prevalent problem associated with frequent consumption of acidic foods and beverages. The aim of this study was to measure the food acid content and the erosive potential of a variety of sugar-free confections. METHODS: Thirty sugar-free confections were selected and extracts analysed to determine pH, titratable acidity, chemical composition and apparent degree of saturation with respect to apatite. The effect of the sugar-free confections in artificial saliva on human enamel was determined in an in vitro dental erosion assay using change in surface microhardness...
January 20, 2017: Australian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105903/criteria-to-define-a-more-relevant-reference-sample-of-titanium-dioxide-in-the-context-of-food-a-multiscale-approach
#2
William Dudefoi, Hélène Terrisse, Mireille Richard-Plouet, Eric Gautron, Florin Popa, Bernard Humbert, Marie-Hélène Ropers
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a transition metal oxide widely used as a white pigment in various applications, including food. Due to the classification of TiO2 nanoparticles as potentially harmful for humans by inhalation (IARC, 2006), the presence of nanoparticles in food products needed to be confirmed by a set of independent studies. Seven samples of food grade titanium dioxide (E171) were extensively characterised for their size distribution, crystallinity, and surface properties by the currently recommended methods...
January 20, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105598/clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-dexmedetomidine
#3
REVIEW
Maud A S Weerink, Michel M R F Struys, Laura N Hannivoort, Clemens R M Barends, Anthony R Absalom, Pieter Colin
Dexmedetomidine is an α2-adrenoceptor agonist with sedative, anxiolytic, sympatholytic, and analgesic-sparing effects, and minimal depression of respiratory function. It is potent and highly selective for α2-receptors with an α2:α1 ratio of 1620:1. Hemodynamic effects, which include transient hypertension, bradycardia, and hypotension, result from the drug's peripheral vasoconstrictive and sympatholytic properties. Dexmedetomidine exerts its hypnotic action through activation of central pre- and postsynaptic α2-receptors in the locus coeruleus, thereby inducting a state of unconsciousness similar to natural sleep, with the unique aspect that patients remain easily rousable and cooperative...
January 19, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105545/does-pregnancy-increase-use-and-awareness-of-nutrition-information-in-food-labels
#4
Juhee Kim, Satomi Imai, Holly Mathews
Objectives This study aims to examine food label use, specific reading behaviors and the awareness of dietary recommendations among U.S. pregnant women in comparison to non-pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional data analysis was conducted using a representative national sample of U.S. women aged 16 to 44 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 (n = 1875). Food label users were defined as woman who used the Nutrition Facts panel when making a food choice in the frequency of always, most of the time, or sometimes...
January 19, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102520/us-fda-perspective-on-elbasvir-grazoprevir-treatment-for-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1-or-4-infection
#5
Sarita D Boyd, LaRee Tracy, Takashi E Komatsu, Patrick R Harrington, Prabha Viswanathan, Jeff Murray, Adam Sherwat
Elbasvir/grazoprevir demonstrated high sustained virologic response rates 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12) across five clinical trials in subjects infected with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1, including those with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), and GT4. Despite favorable results overall, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) encountered challenging regulatory issues due to the limitations of clinical trial data in certain subpopulations. In GT1a-infected subjects, baseline NS5A resistance-associated polymorphisms emerged as the strongest baseline characteristic associated with diminished SVR12 rates following 12 weeks of elbasvir/grazoprevir treatment...
January 19, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099783/ketosis-and-diabetic-ketoacidosis-in-response-to-sglt2-inhibitors-basic-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-perspectives
#6
REVIEW
Hongyu Qiu, Aleksandra Novikov, Volker Vallon
Inhibitors of the sodium-glucose cotransporter SGLT2 are a new class of anti-hyperglycemic drugs that have been approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These drugs inhibit glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubules of the kidney thereby enhancing glucosuria and lowering blood glucose levels. Additional consequences and benefits include a reduction in body weight, uric acid levels, and blood pressure. Moreover, SGLT2 inhibition can have protective effects on the kidney and cardiovascular system in patients with T2DM and high cardiovascular risk...
January 18, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098765/validation-of-an-online-food-frequency-questionnaire-against-doubly-labelled-water-and-24-h-dietary-recalls-in-pre-school-children
#7
Christine Delisle Nyström, Hanna Henriksson, Christina Alexandrou, Anna Bergström, Stephanie Bonn, Katarina Bälter, Marie Löf
The development of easy-to-use and accurate methods to assess the intake of energy, foods and nutrients in pre-school children is needed. KidMeal-Q is an online food frequency questionnaire developed for the LifeGene prospective cohort study in Sweden. The aims of this study were to compare: (i) energy intake (EI) obtained using KidMeal-Q to total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water and (ii) the intake of certain foods measured using KidMeal-Q to intakes acquired by means of 24 h dietary recalls in 38 children aged 5...
January 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098515/a-randomized-open-label-trial-to-assess-the-effect-of-plant-sterols-associated-with-ezetimibe-in-low-density-lipoprotein-levels-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-on-statin-therapy
#8
Gisane Biacchi Gomes, Ana Denise Zazula, Leonardo Seidi Shigueoka, Rosangela Alquieri Fedato, Ana Beatriz Brenner Affonso da Costa, Luiz Cesar Guarita-Souza, Cristina Pellegrino Baena, Marcia Olandoski, José Rocha Faria-Neto
Consumption of food products enriched with plant sterols and the use of ezetimibe reduce cholesterol absorption in the intestine and effectively reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plasma levels. We evaluated the therapeutic effect of the ezetimibe+plant sterol association in patients with coronary artery disease still not reaching recommended lipid levels despite the use of statins. We performed a prospective open-label study with 41 patients with stable coronary disease and LDL >70 mg/dL. Patients were randomized into four groups for a 6-week treatment: the control (CT) group remained on the same statin therapy, the ezetimibe (EZ) group received 10 mg/day of ezetimibe, the plant sterol (PS) group received spread enriched with 2 g of plant sterols, and the ezetimibe+PS (EZ+PS) group received 10 mg/day EZ +2 g PS...
January 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097837/food-and-beverage-advertising-on-children-s-tv-channels-in-argentina-frequency-duration-and-nutritional-quality
#9
Alicia Rovirosa, María E Zapata, Paula Gómez, Susana Gotthelf, Daniel Ferrante
: Food and beverage marketing has been identified as one of the determinants of unhealthy food and beverage consumption in the child population. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and duration of food and beverage advertising in children's programming and the nutritional quality of advertised food and beverages. METHODS: Descriptive, cross-sectional study. Children's cable and broadcast channel programming was recorded in two periods: over the week and on the weekend...
1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096602/surface-plasmon-resonance-based-biosensor-a-new-platform-for-rapid-diagnosis-of-livestock-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Pravas Ranjan Sahoo, Parthasarathi Swain, Sudhanshu Mohan Nayak, Sudam Bag, Smruti Ranjan Mishra
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based biosensors are the most advanced and developed optical label-free biosensor technique used for powerful detection with vast applications in environmental protection, biotechnology, medical diagnostics, drug screening, food safety, and security as well in livestock sector. The livestock sector which contributes the largest economy of India, harbors many bacterial, viral, and fungal diseases impacting a great loss to the production and productive potential which is a major concern in both small and large ruminants...
December 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094505/self-assembly-and-disassembly-of-amphiphilic-zwitterionic-perylenediimide-vesicles-for-cell-membrane-imaging
#11
Yong Ye, Yang Zheng, Chendong Ji, Jie Shen, Meizhen Yin
Animal cells have complicated dynamics of cell membrane structures which require desirable dyes to in vivo imaging. Here, an asymmetric amphiphilic zwitterionic perylenediimide (ZP) has been constructed by introducing an octyl chain and a zwitterionic head to each imide position of perylenediimide chromophore. ZP can self-assemble into vesicles in aqueous solution. The aggregated ZP vesicles have been explored to image cell inner or surface membrane structures by controlled disassembly process. The ZP vesicles, when are uptaken into cells, disassemble into single molecules and incorporate into cell inner membranes...
January 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087644/u-s-fda-approval-summary-nivolumab-for-treatment-of-unresectable-or-metastatic-melanoma-following-progression-on-ipilimumab
#12
Maitreyee Hazarika, Meredith K Chuk, Marc R Theoret, Sirisha Mushti, Kun He, Shawna L Weis, Alexander H Putman, Whitney S Helms, Xianhua Cao, Hongshan Li, Hong Zhao, Liang Zhao, Joel Welch, Laurie Graham, Meredith Libeg, Rajeshwari Sridhara, Patricia Keegan, Richard Pazdur
On December 22, 2014, the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval to nivolumab (OPDIVO®, Bristol-Myers Squibb) for the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma and disease progression following ipilimumab and, if BRAF V600 mutation-positive, a BRAF inhibitor. Approval was based on a clinically meaningful, durable objective response rate (ORR) in a non-comparative analysis of 120 patients who received nivolumab 3 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks with at least 6 months follow-up in an ongoing, randomized, open-label, active-controlled clinical trial...
January 13, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087545/predictors-of-public-support-for-nutrition-focused-policy-systems-and-environmental-change-strategies-in-los-angeles-county-2013
#13
Brenda Robles, Tony Kuo
BACKGROUND: Since 2010, federal and local agencies have invested broadly in a variety of nutrition-focused policy, systems and environmental change (PSE) initiatives in Los Angeles County (LAC). To date, little is known about whether the public supports such efforts. We address this gap in the literature by examining predictors of support for a variety of PSEs. METHODS: Voters residing in LAC (n=1007) were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional telephone survey commissioned by the LAC Department of Public Health...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087497/developing-nutrition-label-reading-skills-a-web-based-practice-approach
#14
Lisa M Soederberg Miller, Laurel A Beckett, Jacqueline J Bergman, Machelle D Wilson, Elizabeth A Applegate, Tanja N Gibson
BACKGROUND: Nutrition labels offer the information needed to follow Dietary Guidelines for Americans, yet many individuals use labels infrequently or ineffectively due to limited comprehension and the effort required to use them. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to develop and test a Web-based label-reading training tool to improve individuals' ability to use labels to select more healthful foods. We were particularly interested in determining whether practice can lead to increased accuracy using labels as well as decreased effort, together reflecting greater efficiency...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079914/intravenous-immunoglobulin-in-pediatric-rheumatology-when-to-use-it-and-what-is-the-evidence
#15
Martha M Rodriguez, Linda Wagner-Weiner
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is given to children with a variety of rheumatologic illnesses. The mechanism of action by which it exerts therapeutic effects is not well understood and likely differs in the medical conditions for which it is given. IVIG is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and is the standard of care for Kawasaki disease, but most IVIG use in pediatric rheumatology is "off-label. " The literature supports the use of IVIG for juvenile dermatomyositis, although it is unclear whether its use should be limited to those children with more severe or refractory disease...
January 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078412/simultaneous-determination-of-four-food-allergens-using-compact-disc-immunoassaying-technology
#16
Ahmed Ali Badran, Sergi Morais, Ángel Maquieira
A multiplex competitive microimmunoassay for the simultaneous determination of gliadin, casein, β-lactoglobulin, and ovalbumin is presented. The assay in microarray format is performed on a DVD where the allergens are physisorbed on the polycarbonate surface of the disc. The immunointeraction is detected using a mixture of specific gold-labeled antibodies and the signal amplified with the silver enhancement method. The optical density of the precipitate, read by a DVD drive, is related to the concentration of the four allergens in sample...
January 11, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078356/-marketability-of-food-supplements-criteria-for-the-legal-assessment
#17
Evelyn Breitweg-Lehmann
To be placed on the market legally, food supplements have to meet national and European food law regulations. This is true for all substances used as well as for the labeling on the packaging of and the advertising for food supplements. The food business operator is responsible for its compliance with all regulations. Therefore, in this article, a concise step-by-step assessment is presented, covering all necessary legal requirements to market food supplements. Additionally, all steps are visualized in a flow chart...
January 11, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077392/bidirectional-crosstalk-between-the-sensory-and-sympathetic-motor-systems-innervating-brown-and-white-adipose-tissue-in-male-siberian-hamsters
#18
Vitaly Ryu, Alan G Watts, Bingzhong Xue, Timothy J Bartness
The brain networks connected to the sympathetic motor and sensory innervations of brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissues were originally described using two transneuronally transported viruses: the retrogradely transported pseudorabies virus (PRV), and the anterogradely transported H129 strain of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 H129). Further complexity was added to this network organization when combined injections of PRV and HSV-1 H129 into either BAT or WAT of the same animal generated sets of co-infected neurons in the brain, spinal cord, sympathetic and dorsal root ganglia...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077126/what-do-we-know-about-the-effects-of-exposure-to-low-alcohol-and-equivalent-product-labelling-on-the-amounts-of-alcohol-food-and-tobacco-people-select-and-consume-a-systematic-review
#19
Ian Shemilt, Vivien Hendry, Theresa M Marteau
BACKGROUND: Explicit labelling of lower strength alcohol products could reduce alcohol consumption by attracting more people to buy and drink such products instead of higher strength ones. Alternatively, it may lead to more consumption due to a 'self-licensing' mechanism. Equivalent labelling of food or tobacco (for example "Low fat" or "Low tar") could influence consumption of those products by similar mechanisms. This systematic review examined the effects of 'Low alcohol' and equivalent labelling of alcohol, food and tobacco products on selection, consumption, and perceptions of products among adults...
January 12, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073144/food-effect-studies-for-oncology-drug-products
#20
Sandeep Parsad, Mark J Ratain
Oral antineoplastic agents provide convenience to the patient, but are accompanied by challenges distinct from parenteral cancer treatment. Challenges include a more complex pharmacokinetic profile with food influencing the absorption of many agents. Standards for evaluating and labeling prandial implications on oral chemotherapy are inconsistent; studies to determine food effects should be conduced early, and potentially often, during drug development with standardization on how rationale fasting or fed recommendations are presented in the package insert...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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