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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774051/alosetron-use-in-clinical-practice-significant-improvement-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-symptoms-evaluated-using-the-us-food-and-drug-administration-composite-endpoint
#1
Brian E Lacy, Jean Paul Nicandro, Emil Chuang, David L Earnest
Background: Alosetron is approved to treat women with severe IBS and diarrhea (IBS-D) who have failed standard therapy. In our study, we aimed to evaluate alosetron efficacy using new US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) endpoints and utilization in clinical practice. Methods: This prospective, open-label, multicenter, observational 12-week study evaluated women with severe IBS-D enrolled in the alosetron prescribing program. The coprimary FDA endpoints were changes from baseline in stool consistency and abdominal pain severity...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774015/comparative-proteomic-and-morphological-change-analyses-of-staphylococcus-aureus-during-resuscitation-from-prolonged-freezing
#2
Biao Suo, Hua Yang, Yuexia Wang, Haipeng Lv, Zhen Li, Chao Xu, Zhilu Ai
When frozen, Staphylococcus aureus survives in a sublethally injured state. However, S. aureus can recover at a suitable temperature, which poses a threat to food safety. To elucidate the resuscitation mechanism of freezing survived S. aureus , we used cells stored at -18°C for 90 days as controls. After resuscitating the survived cells at 37°C, the viable cell numbers were determined on tryptic soy agar with 0.6% yeast extract (TSAYE), and the non-injured-cell numbers were determined on TSAYE supplemented with 10% NaCl...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771567/enacting-rituals-to-improve-self-control
#3
Allen Ding Tian, Juliana Schroeder, Gerald Häubl, Jane L Risen, Michael I Norton, Francesca Gino
Rituals are predefined sequences of actions characterized by rigidity and repetition. We propose that enacting ritualized actions can enhance subjective feelings of self-discipline, such that rituals can be harnessed to improve behavioral self-control. We test this hypothesis in 6 experiments. A field experiment showed that engaging in a pre-eating ritual over a 5-day period helped participants reduce calorie intake (Experiment 1). Pairing a ritual with healthy eating behavior increased the likelihood of choosing healthy food in a subsequent decision (Experiment 2), and enacting a ritual before a food choice (i...
June 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770249/snorkel-rapid-training-data-creation-with-weak-supervision
#4
Alexander Ratner, Stephen H Bach, Henry Ehrenberg, Jason Fries, Sen Wu, Christopher Ré
Labeling training data is increasingly the largest bottleneck in deploying machine learning systems. We present Snorkel, a first-of-its-kind system that enables users to train state-of- the-art models without hand labeling any training data. Instead, users write labeling functions that express arbitrary heuristics, which can have unknown accuracies and correlations. Snorkel denoises their outputs without access to ground truth by incorporating the first end-to-end implementation of our recently proposed machine learning paradigm, data programming...
November 2017: Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770050/enhancing-antimicrobial-stewardship-by-strengthening-the-veterinary-drug-regulatory-framework
#5
M Mehrotra, X-Z Li, M J Ireland
Antimicrobial resistance is a major and growing public health threat. Recently, Health Canada introduced multiple regulatory changes to strengthen the oversight of antimicrobial drugs for veterinary use. These changes aim specifically at increasing control over importation of veterinary drugs and active pharmaceutical ingredients, mandatory reporting of antimicrobial sales data from manufacturers, importers and compounders and facilitating access to low risk veterinary health products. Additional policy changes under existing authorities are also being made to enhance veterinary supervision of antimicrobial use and to remove production claims for food animals from labels of medically important antimicrobial drugs...
November 2, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767760/influence-of-the-nutrition-and-health-information-presented-on-food-labels-on-portion-size-consumed-a-systematic-review
#6
Hannah M Brown, Megan E Rollo, Nienke M de Vlieger, Clare E Collins, Tamara Bucher
Context: In recent decades, portion sizes have increased significantly. Although previous research indicates that food labels impact on product choice and healthiness perception, their impact on portion sizes consumed is less clear. Objective: This systematic review examined whether food label information influenced portion size consumption. Data sources: A search of 7 major electronic databases for studies published from 1980 to April 2016 was conducted...
May 14, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767697/perspective-structure-function-claims-on-infant-formula
#7
John C Wallingford
In the context of a food product label, the term "claim" refers to information that attributes value to the product. The term extends to many different types of information, from product identity, descriptors of intended use, and identification of characteristic properties to the physiologic effects in the body of substances in the food, including the reduction of risk of disease. Food labeling, which includes claims, provides information that consumers want and use to improve their diets. Consumers prefer short statements on the front label claims to longer, more detailed information, including ingredients statements and a nutrition panel...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766524/a-tool-to-assure-the-geographical-origin-of-local-food-products-glasshouse-tomatoes-using-labeling-with-rare-earth-elements
#8
Donata Bandoniene, Thomas Meisel, Alessandra Rachetti, Christoph Walkner
BACKGROUND: Trace element fingerprinting has been widely used for identification of provenance of regional food. In the case of the products from conventional agriculture, it is expected that the elemental composition will comply that of the commercially available substrate at the plants. Therefore, for products without direct relationship with the regional soil the region-specific differences in elemental composition are no longer recognisable. The idea of this work is labeling of tomatoes with rare earth elements (REE) in the ultra-trace range for food authentication...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764392/5-a-day-fruit-and-vegetable-food-product-labels-reduced-fruit-and-vegetable-consumption-following-an-exaggerated-compared-to-a-modest-label
#9
K M Appleton, H J Pidgeon
BACKGROUND: Food product labels based on the WHO 5-a-day fruit and vegetable (FV) message are becoming increasingly common, but these labels may impact negatively on complementary or subsequent FV consumption. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a '3 of your 5-a-day' versus a '1 of your 5-a-day' smoothie product label on subsequent FV consumption. METHODS: Using an acute experimental design, 194 participants (90 males, 104 females) were randomised to consume a smoothie labelled as either '3 of your 5-a-day' (N = 97) or '1 of your 5-a-day' (N = 97) in full, following a usual breakfast...
May 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761380/saliva-production-and-enjoyment-of-real-food-flavors-in-people-with-and-without-dysphagia-and-or-xerostomia
#10
Angela M Dietsch, Cathy A Pelletier, Nancy Pearl Solomon
Non-food gustatory stimulation has multiple potential therapeutic benefits for people with dysphagia and xerostomia. This study examined palatability and saliva flow associated with dissolvable flavored films. Taste strips with real-food flavors dissolved on the tongues of 21 persons with dysphagia and/or xerostomia and 21 healthy age- and sex-matched adults while sublingual gauze pads absorbed saliva over randomized 3-min trials. Participants rated taste enjoyment for each trial on a hedonic general labeled magnitude scale...
May 14, 2018: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761165/a-real-world-observational-cohort-of-patients-with-primary-biliary-cholangitis-target-primary-biliary-cholangitis-study-design-and-rationale
#11
Cynthia Levy, Christopher L Bowlus, Elizabeth Carey, Julie M Crawford, Karen Deane, Marlyn J Mayo, W Ray Kim, Michael W Fried
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a rare chronic cholestatic liver disease that may progress to biliary cirrhosis if left untreated. The first-line therapy for PBC is ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Unfortunately, 1 of 3 patients does not respond to UDCA. These patients are at risk for developing clinical events, including cirrhosis, complications of portal hypertension, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplant, or death. Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved obeticholic acid to be used in certain patients with PBC...
May 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759211/triplex-dna-formation-mediated-strand-displacement-reaction-for-highly-sensitive-fluorescent-detection-of-melamine
#12
Xiaojuan Liu, Ningning Xu, Panpan Gai, Feng Li
Since melamine is a strong hazard to human health, the development of new methods for highly sensitive detection of melamine is highly desirable. Herein, a novel fluorescent biosensing strategy was designed for sensitive and selective melamine assay based on the recognition ability of abasic (AP) site in triplex towards melamine and signal amplification by Mg2+ -dependent DNAzyme. In this strategy, the melamine-induced formation of triplex DNA was employed to trigger the strand displacement reaction (SDR). The SDR process converted the specific target recognition into the release and activation of Mg2+ -dependent DNAzyme, which could catalyze the cleavage of fluorophore/quencher labeled DNA substrate (FQ), resulting in a significantly increased fluorescent signal...
August 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757979/cost-effectiveness-of-product-reformulation-in-response-to-the-health-star-rating-food-labelling-system-in-australia
#13
Ana Maria Mantilla Herrera, Michelle Crino, Holly E Erskine, Gary Sacks, Jaithri Ananthapavan, Cliona Ni Mhurchu, Yong Yi Lee
The Health Star Rating (HSR) system is a voluntary front-of-pack labelling (FoPL) initiative endorsed by the Australian government in 2014. This study examines the impact of the HSR system on pre-packaged food reformulation measured by changes in energy density between products with and without HSR. The cost-effectiveness of the HSR system was modelled using a proportional multi-state life table Markov model for the 2010 Australian population. We evaluated scenarios in which the HSR system was implemented on a voluntary and mandatory basis (i...
May 14, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757269/combining-quantitative-food-intake-assays-and-forcibly-activating-neurons-to-study-appetite-in-drosophila
#14
Lifen Jiang, Yinpeng Zhan, Yan Zhu
Food consumption is under the tight control of the brain, which integrates the physiological status, palatability, and nutritional contents of the food, and issues commands to start or stop feeding. Deciphering the processes underlying the decision-making of timely and moderate feeding carries major implications in our understanding of physiological and psychological disorders related to feeding control. Simple, quantitative, and robust methods are required to measure the food ingestion of animals after experimental manipulation, such as forcibly increasing the activities of certain target neurons...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756702/non-nutritive-sweeteners-children-and-adolescent-consumption-and-food-sources
#15
María B Garavaglia, Vanesa Rodríguez García, María E Zapata, Alicia Rovirosa, Verónica González, Florencia Flax Marcó, Esteban Carmuega
The availability of food and beverages with non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) has increased in recent years. OBJECTIVES: To estimate NNSs consumption among children and adolescents in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, the prevalence of a daily intake higher than acceptable, and the main food and beverages contributing to it. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive study about the information collected in the First Food and Nutritional/Nutrition Survey of Buenos Aires City, which was conducted in 2011 and included 2664 children and adolescents aged 2-18 years...
June 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753332/parent-perspectives-on-school-food-allergy-policy
#16
S Shahzad Mustafa, Anne F Russell, Olga Kagan, Lauren M Kao, Diane V Houdek, Bridget M Smith, Julie Wang, Ruchi S Gupta
BACKGROUND: Food allergy affects up to 8% of children in the U.S. There is minimal research to date on food allergy policies that are currently in place in schools and the opinions of parents of children with food allergy on the effectiveness of or need for these policies. METHODS: An electronic survey was disseminated to parents of children with food allergy. Frequencies were calculated to describe respondent characteristics and responses. Chi-square tests were performed to examine associations between school and child characteristics and outcomes...
May 12, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751990/conversion-of-iodine-to-fluorine-18-based-on-iodinated-chalcone-and-evaluation-for-%C3%AE-amyloid-pet-imaging
#17
Sho Kaide, Masahiro Ono, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Yoichi Shimizu, Yuji Nakamoto, Kaori Togashi, Aiko Yamaguchi, Hirofumi Hanaoka, Hideo Saji
In the amyloid cascade hypothesis, β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques is one of the major pathological biomarkers in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. We report the synthesis and evaluation of novel radiofluorinated chalcones, [18 F]4-dimethylamino-4'-fluoro-chalcone ([18 F]DMFC) and [18 F]4'-fluoro-4-methylamino-chalcone ([18 F]FMC), as Aβ imaging probes. The conversion of iodine directly introduced to the chalcone backbone into fluorine was successfully carried out by 18 F-labeling via the corresponding boronate precursors, achieving the direct introduction of fluorine-18 into the chalcone backbone to prepare [18 F]DMFC and [18 F]FMC...
May 3, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751917/effect-of-food-matrix-and-thermal-processing-on-the-performance-of-a-normalised-quantitative-real-time-pcr-approach-for-lupine-lupinus-albus-detection-as-a-potential-allergenic-food
#18
Caterina Villa, Joana Costa, Cristina Gondar, M Beatriz P P Oliveira, Isabel Mafra
Lupine is widely used as an ingredient in diverse food products, but it is also a source of allergens. This work aimed at proposing a method to detect/quantify lupine as an allergen in processed foods based on a normalised real-time PCR assay targeting the Lup a 4 allergen-encoding gene of Lupinus albus. Sensitivities down to 0.0005%, 0.01% and 0.05% (w/w) of lupine in rice flour, wheat flour and bread, respectively, and 1 pg of L. albus DNA were obtained, with adequate real-time PCR performance parameters using the ΔCt method...
October 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751153/the-health-and-economic-outcomes-of-peanut-allergy-management-practices
#19
Marcus Shaker, Matthew Greenhawt
BACKGROUND: Peanut allergy is managed with strict avoidance, epinephrine carriage, and promptly treating reactions. OBJECTIVES: Assess the health and economic benefits of pre-emptively injecting epinephrine for peanut ingestion in the absence of any symptoms, and avoiding products with peanut precautionary allergen labeling (PAL). METHODS: We used Markov modeling and simulations, assuming a base-case 10-fold fatality risk increase for less conservative management, with sensitivity analysis investigating 100-1,000-fold increased fatality risk, incorporating risks of accidental exposures, reactions, fatality, and family costs of food allergy...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749716/comparative-randomized-single-dose-two-way-crossover-open-label-study-to-determine-the-bioequivalence-of-two-formulations-of-dalfampridine-tablets
#20
Abdel Qader Al Bawab, Bashar A Alkhalidi, Esra'a Albarahmieh, Sami M A Qassim, Mohammad A D Al-Saifi
Dalfampridine is a medication that is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to improve walking impairments in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The branded dalfampridine is enormously expensive; hence, the availability of generic dalfampridine will provide better access to the medication, especially for uninsured patients with MS. Bioequivalence studies are demanded by the regulatory authorities to allow the marketing of new generics of dalfampridine. The aim of this study was to assess the bioavailability of the generic (test) and branded (reference) formulations of 10 mg dalfampridine of extended-release tablets after oral administration to healthy adults under fed conditions...
May 11, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
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