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Carlos Cardoso-Palacios, Ingela Lanekoff
Counterfeit pharmaceutical drugs imply an increasing threat to the global public health. It is necessary to have systems to control the products that reach the market and to detect falsified medicines. In this work, molecules in several pharmaceutical tablets were directly analyzed using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-DESI MS). Nano-DESI is an ambient surface sampling technique which enables sampling of molecules directly from the surface of the tablets without any sample pretreatment...
2016: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Parveen Kumari, B S Khatkar
Phenolic content, antioxidant activities and antimicrobial activities of methanolic, ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of five different varieties of aonla (Emblica officinalis) fruits as well their powders were evaluated. Total polyphenolic content in fresh aonla fruit extracts varied from 70.6 to 159.4 mg GAE/g and their EC 50 (effective concentration) values for antioxidant activity ranged from 46.72 to 359.7 µg/ml. Significant varietal difference were observed in antioxidant activity of the extracts of fresh aonla fruit and powder...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Wen Donq Looi, Laura Chamand, Blake Brown, Anna F Brajter-Toth
The ionization of liquid samples in desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LS DESI MS), supplied continuously through a liquid interface separated in space from the spray emitter, was investigated in this work. The role of electrochemistry (EC) in the ionization process was addressed. The visual (observation) of the operation of the LS DESI MS system showed a thick spray plume generated by electrosonic ionization (ESSI) forming a liquid cone at the liquid interface. When the liquid interface was grounded the cone collapsed and the MS ion signal was lost, indicating that the LS was carried to the MS inlet by the spray that emerged from the cone...
October 20, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Brad Meulenkamp, C Ryan Martin, Nicholas Desy, Paul Duffy, Rob Korley, Shannon Puloski, Richard Buckley
OBJECTIVES: To define the incidence, risk factors and anatomic location of articular malreductions in operatively treated lateral tibial plateau fractures DESIGN:: Prospective Cohort Study SETTING:: Academic Level 1 Trauma CentrePatients/Participants: Study subjects were patients entered into a prospective cohort study of tibial plateau fractures. INTERVENTIONS: Surgical Fixation of tibial plateau fractures and post-operative computed tomography (CT) scans. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was incidence of articular malreduction...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Tyler B Mason, Ralitsa S Maduro, Valerian J Derlega, Desi S Hacker, Barbara A Winstead, Jacqueline E Haywood
Objective: This research focused on how race-based rejection sensitivity (RS-Race) and components of racial identity intensify negative psychological reactions to an incident of vicarious racism. We examined how these individual difference variables directly and/or indirectly predicted African American students' reactions to the trial of George Zimmerman in the killing of the African American teenager, Trayvon Martin. Method: In Study 1, 471 African American students completed measures of RS-Race, thought intrusions about the Zimmerman trial, and outcome variables (negative affect about the Zimmerman trial and forgiveness for Mr...
October 13, 2016: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
Alessandra Tata, Michael Woolman, Manuela Ventura, Nicholas Bernards, Milan Ganguly, Adam Gribble, Bindesh Shrestha, Emma Bluemke, Howard J Ginsberg, Alex Vitkin, Jinzi Zheng, Arash Zarrine-Afsar
Identification of necrosis in tumors is of prognostic value in treatment planning, as necrosis is associated with aggressive forms of cancer and unfavourable outcomes. To facilitate rapid detection of necrosis with Mass Spectrometry (MS), we report the lipid MS profile of necrotic breast cancer with Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (DESI-MS) imaging validated with statistical analysis and correlating pathology. This MS profile is characterized by (1) the presence of the ion of m/z 572.48 [Cer(d34:1) + Cl](-) which is a ceramide absent from the viable cancer subregions; (2) the absence of the ion of m/z 391...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rodrigo Dutra Nunes, Guilherme Ventura-Martins, Débora Monteiro Moretti, Priscilla Medeiros-Castro, Carlucio Rocha-Santos, Carlos Renato de Oliveira Daumas-Filho, Paula Rego Barros Bittencourt-Cunha, Karina Martins-Cardoso, Cecília Oliveira Cudischevitch, Rubem Figueiredo Sadok Menna-Barreto, José Henrique Maia Oliveira, Desiely Silva Gusmão, Francisco José Alves Lemos, Daniela Sales Alviano, Pedro Lagerblad Oliveira, Carl Lowenberger, David Majerowicz, Ricardo Melo Oliveira, Rafael Dias Mesquita, Georgia Correa Atella, Mário Alberto Cardoso Silva-Neto
BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes feed on plant-derived fluids such as nectar and sap and are exposed to bioactive molecules found in this dietary source. However, the role of such molecules on mosquito vectorial capacity is unknown. Weather has been recognized as a major determinant of the spread of dengue, and plants under abiotic stress increase their production of polyphenols. RESULTS: Here, we show that including polyphenols in mosquito meals promoted the activation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK)...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Michael Woolman, Alessandra Tata, Emma Bluemke, Delaram Dara, Howard J Ginsberg, Arash Zarrine-Afsar
Mass spectrometry imaging with desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is used to characterize cancer from ex vivo slices of tissues. The process is time-consuming. The use of tissue smears for DESI-MS analysis has been proposed as it eliminates the time required to snap-freeze and section the tissue. To assess the utility of tissue smears for rapid cancer characterization, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to evaluate the concordance between DESI-MS profiles of breast cancer from tissue slices and smears prepared on various surfaces...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Rishi Srivastava, Deepak Bajaj, Yogesh K Sayal, Prabina K Meher, Hari D Upadhyaya, Rajendra Kumar, Shailesh Tripathi, Chellapilla Bharadwaj, Atmakuri R Rao, Swarup K Parida
The discovery and large-scale genotyping of informative gene-based markers is essential for rapid delineation of genes/QTLs governing stress tolerance and yield component traits in order to drive genetic enhancement in chickpea. A genome-wide 119169 and 110491 ISM (intron-spanning markers) from 23129 desi and 20386 kabuli protein-coding genes and 7454 in silico InDel (insertion-deletion) (1-45-bp)-based ILP (intron-length polymorphism) markers from 3283 genes were developed that were structurally and functionally annotated on eight chromosomes and unanchored scaffolds of chickpea...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Anna Maria A P Fernandes, Pedro H Vendramini, Renan Galaverna, Nicolas V Schwab, Luciane C Alberici, Rodinei Augusti, Roger F Castilho, Marcos N Eberlin
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of neurotransmitters has so far been mainly performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) where derivatization reagents, deuterated matrix and/or high resolution, or tandem MS have been applied to circumvent problems with interfering ion peaks from matrix and from isobaric species. We herein describe the application of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI)-MSI in rat brain coronal and sagittal slices for direct spatial monitoring of neurotransmitters and choline with no need of derivatization reagents and/or deuterated materials...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Shuting Xu, Yiding Zhang, Linnan Xu, Yu Bai, Huwei Liu
Since ambient mass spectrometry (AMS) has been proven to have low matrix effects and high salt tolerance, great efforts have been made for online coupling of several analytical techniques with AMS. These analytical techniques include gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), capillary electrophoresis (CE), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and electrochemistry flow cells. Various ambient ionization sources, represented by desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and direct analysis in real time (DART), have been utilized as interfaces for the online coupling techniques...
October 17, 2016: Analyst
Rishi Srivastava, Mohar Singh, Deepak Bajaj, Swarup K Parida
Development and large-scale genotyping of user-friendly informative genome/gene-derived InDel markers in natural and mapping populations is vital for accelerating genomics-assisted breeding applications of chickpea with minimal resource expenses. The present investigation employed a high-throughput whole genome next-generation resequencing strategy in low and high pod number parental accessions and homozygous individuals constituting the bulks from each of two inter-specific mapping populations [(Pusa 1103 × ILWC 46) and (Pusa 256 × ILWC 46)] to develop non-erroneous InDel markers at a genome-wide scale...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Rishi Srivastava, Deepak Bajaj, Ayushi Malik, Mohar Singh, Swarup K Parida
The RNA-sequencing followed by de-novo transcriptome assembly identified 11621 genes differentially xpressed in roots vs. shoots of a wild perennial Cicer microphyllum. Comparative analysis of transcriptomes between microphyllum and cultivated desi cv. ICC4958 detected 12772 including 3242 root- and 1639 shoot-specific microphyllum genes with 85% expression validation success rate. Transcriptional reprogramming of microphyllum root-specific genes implicates their possible role in regulating differential natural adaptive characteristics between wild and cultivated chickpea...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jialing Zhang, Wendong Yu, Seung Ryu, John Lin, Gerardo Buentello, Robert Tibshirani, James Suliburk, Livia Schiavinato Eberlin
Oncocytic tumors are characterized by an excessive eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm due to aberrant accumulation of mitochondria. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA occurs in oncocytic thyroid tumors, but there is no information about their lipid composition which might reveal candidate theranostic molecules. Here we used desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) to image and chemically characterize the lipid composition of oncocytic thyroid tumors, as compared to non-oncocytic thyroid tumors and normal thyroid samples...
September 22, 2016: Cancer Research
T Lurthu Reetha, J Johnson Rajeswar, T J Harikrishnan, K Sukumar, P Srinivasan, J John Kirubakaran
AIM: To study the effect of Newcastle disease (ND) oral pellet vaccine in egg production and egg quality in desi chicken. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted at Veterinary University Training and Research Centre, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. A total of 48-day-old desi chicks obtained from a private hatchery in Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, were maintained under cage system of rearing up to 52 weeks of age as per standard management practices. All the 48 chicks were divided into six groups having eight chicks in each group were subjected to different treatment regimes...
August 2016: Veterinary World
Ingela Lanekoff, Jeeyeon Cha, Jennifer E Kyle, Sudhansu K Dey, Julia Laskin, Kristin E Burnum-Johnson
Here we demonstrate that conditional deletion of mouse uterine Trp53 (p53(d/d)), molecularly linked to mTORC1 activation and causally linked to premature uterine senescence and preterm birth, results in aberrant lipid signatures within the heterogeneous cell types of embryo implantation sites on day 8 of pregnancy. In situ nanospray desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (nano-DESI MSI) was used to characterize the molecular speciation of free fatty acids, monoacylglycerol species, unmodified and oxidized phosphatidylcholine (PC/Ox-PC), and diacylglycerol (DG) species within implantation sites of p53(d/d) mice and floxed littermates...
2016: Scientific Reports
C M Krishna Murthy, K J Ananda, J Adeppa, M G Satheesha
The study was conducted to ascertain the actual status of gastro-intestinal parasites in pigs maintained under different rearing systems in Shimoga region, Karnataka state. A total of 150 Pigs fecal samples were examined, which includes 50 from organized piggery farm, Veterinary College Shimoga, 50 from private piggery farm of Shimoga and 50 from free range desi pigs of Shimoga city. The fecal samples were processed and examined by direct and sedimentation method. Out of 50 fecal samples examined from organized piggery farm, 19 were found positive for different parasitic eggs, Out of 50 fecal samples screened form private farm, 28 harbored different parasites, whereas from 50 free range desi pigs fecal samples examined, all showed one and other parasitic eggs/ova...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
C Sreedevi, Ch Jyothisree, V Rama Devi, P Annapurna, L Jeyabal
A study was carried out to know the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in desi fowl in and nearby villages of Gannavaram, Andhra Pradesh for a period of 1 year. Screening of 492 samples comprising faecal samples and gastrointestinal tracts from freshly slaughtered desi birds at local poultry shops and samples from post mortem examinations at NTR College of Veterinary Science, Gannavaram revealed 63.21 % of gastrointestinal parasites. Faecal samples were examined by floatation technique using salt solution and samples positive for coccidian oocysts were sporulated in 2...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Nicholas M Desy, Joshua D Johnson, Rafael J Sierra
BACKGROUND: The Exeter cemented femoral stem has demonstrated excellent clinical and radiographic outcomes as well as long-term survivorship free from aseptic loosening. A shorter revision stem (125 mm) with a 44 offset became available for the purpose of cement-in-cement revision situations. In certain cases, this shorter revision stem may be used for various primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs) where the standard length stem would require distally reaming the femoral canal. We sought to report on the early to midterm results of this specific stem when used for primary THA regarding (1) clinical and radiographic outcomes, (2) complications, and (3) survivorship...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
Tim Plath, Philipp Amstutz, Jörn Bödewadt, Günter Brenner, Nagitha Ekanayake, Bart Faatz, Kirsten Hacker, Katja Honkavaara, Leslie Lamberto Lazzarino, Christoph Lechner, Theophilos Maltezopoulos, Matthias Scholz, Siegfried Schreiber, Mathias Vogt, Johann Zemella, Tim Laarmann
Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate femtosecond XUV and X-ray pulses at peak powers in the gigawatt range. The FEL user facility FLASH at DESY (Hamburg, Germany) is driven by a superconducting linear accelerator with up to 8000 pulses per second. Since 2014, two parallel undulator beamlines, FLASH1 and FLASH2, have been in operation. In addition to the main undulator, the FLASH1 beamline is equipped with an undulator section, sFLASH, dedicated to research and development of fully coherent extreme ultraviolet photon pulses using external seed lasers...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
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