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Michael McRae, François Bouchard-Boivin, Stéphanie Béland, Réal Noël, Isabelle Côté, Isabelle Lapointe, Julie Lesage, Eva Latulippe, Julie Riopel, Dominick Santoriello, Syed A Husain, Olivier Désy, Isabelle Houde, Ibrahim Batal, Sacha A De Serres
BACKGROUND: Since the borderline changes suspicious for acute T-cell-mediated rejection (BL) category was broadened, there has been a debate regarding the right threshold for tubulitis (t) and interstitial inflammation (i) scores. METHODS: We studied a first cohort of 111 patients with BL found on an indication biopsy between 2006 and 2016 and compared those with scores of t1i0 (BLt1i0) to those with higher scores (BL≥t1i1). A second cohort of 56 patients with BL was used for external validation...
June 18, 2018: Transplantation
Bayard C Carlson, Nicholas M Desy, Joshua D Johnson, Robert T Trousdale, Michael Leunig, Reinhold Ganz, Rafael J Sierra
BACKGROUND: Redislocation of the native hip is rare. An anterior fulcrum between the proximal part of the femur and the pelvis must be present for a posterior dislocation to occur. The purpose of this study is to describe the cases of 9 patients with posterior redislocation or recurrent subluxation of the native hip that was treated with hip preservation surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively identified the cases of 9 patients, from 2 institutions, who had undergone hip preservation surgery for the management of posterior redislocation or recurrent subluxation of the native hip after a dislocation...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Kristen Watts, Anthony Lagalante
RATIONALE: Art conservation science is in need of a relatively nondestructive way of rapidly identifying the binding media within a painting cross-section and isolating binding media to specific layers within the cross-section. Knowledge of the stratigraphy of cross-sections can be helpful for removing possible unoriginal paint layers on the artistic work. METHODS: Desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was used in ambient mode to study cross-sections from mock-up layered paint samples and samples from a 17th century baroque painting...
June 6, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Katherine Margulis, Albert S Chiou, Sumaira Z Aasi, Robert J Tibshirani, Jean Y Tang, Richard N Zare
Detection of microscopic skin lesions presents a considerable challenge in diagnosing early-stage malignancies as well as in residual tumor interrogation after surgical intervention. In this study, we established the capability of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) to distinguish between micrometer-sized tumor aggregates of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), a common skin cancer, and normal human skin. We analyzed 86 human specimens collected during Mohs micrographic surgery for BCC to cross-examine spatial distributions of numerous lipids and metabolites in BCC aggregates versus adjacent skin...
June 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nicholas Drury, Robert Ramotowski, Mehdi Moini
Ambient ionization mass spectrometry is gaining momentum in forensic science laboratories because of its high speed of analysis, minimal sample preparation, and information-rich results. One such application of ambient ionization methodology includes the analysis of writing inks from questioned documents where colorants of interest may not be soluble in common solvents, rendering thin layer chromatography (TLC) and separation-mass spectrometry methods such as LC/MS (-MS) impractical. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry uses a variety of ionization techniques such as penning ionization in Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART), and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in Direct Sample Analysis (DSA), and electrospray ionization in Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI)...
May 23, 2018: Forensic Science International
Kyana Y Garza, Clara Leigh Feider, Dustin R Klein, Jake A Rosenberg, Jennifer S Brodbelt, Livia S Eberlin
Ambient ionization mass spectrometry imaging has been extensively used to detect small molecules such as lipids and metabolites directly from biological tissue sections. However, analysis of larger biomolecules including proteins has proven challenging with these methodologies. Here, we have successfully optimized desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) to detect intact proteins directly from tissue sections, and further integrated DESI-MS to a high field asymmetric waveform ion mobility (FAIMS) device for protein imaging...
May 25, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
S Béland, O Désy, R V Ung, P Vallin, E Latulippe, J Riopel, S A De Serres
Little is known about the endothelial injury caused directly by circulating donor-specific antibodies during antibody-mediated rejection. Von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a highly thrombotic glycoprotein stored in Weibel-Palade bodies in endothelial cells. It has been shown that its secretion is triggered by allostimulation. Calcineurin-like phosphatases regulate pathways involved in vWF secretion. Therefore, we hypothesized that tacrolimus would prevent alloantibody-induced glomerular lesions in part via inhibition of vWF secretion from endothelial cells...
May 22, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Michael Woolman, Arash Zarrine-Afsar
Ambient Mass Spectrometry (MS) analysis is widely used to characterize biological and non-biological samples. Advancements that allow rapid analysis of samples by ambient methods such as Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (DESI-MS) and Rapid Evaporative Ionization Mass Spectrometry (REIMS) are discussed. A short, non-comprehensive overview of ambient MS is provided that only contains example applications due to space limitations. A spatially encoded mass spectrometry analysis concept to plan cancer resection is introduced...
May 22, 2018: Analyst
Ximeng Li, Chris J Blackman, Paul D Rymer, Desi Quintans, Remko A Duursma, Brendan Choat, Belinda E Medlyn, David T Tissue
Manipulative experiments have suggested that embolism-induced hydraulic impairment underpins widespread tree mortality during extreme drought, yet in situ evidence is rare. One month after drought-induced leaf and branch dieback was observed in field populations of Eucalyptus piperita Sm. in the Blue Mountains (Australia), we measured the level of native stem embolism and characterized the extent of leaf death in co-occurring dieback and healthy (non-dieback) trees. We found that canopy dieback-affected trees showed significantly higher levels of native embolism (26%) in tertiary order branchlets than healthy trees (11%)...
May 11, 2018: Tree Physiology
Naveed Ahmad, M Saleem
Characterisation and thermal deterioration of desi ghee obtained from buffalo milk is presented for the first time using the potential of Fluorescence spectroscopy. The emission bands in non-heated desi ghee centred at 375 nm is labelled for vitamin D, 390 nm for vitamin K, 440-460 nm for isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), 490 nm for vitamin A and the region 620-700 nm is assigned to chlorophyll contents. Fluorescence emission spectra from all the heated and non-heated ghee samples were recorded using excitation wavelengths at 280, and 410 nm which were found best for getting maximum spectral signatures...
2018: PloS One
Tian Bai, Matthew G Nosworthy, James D House, Michael T Nickerson
The impact of infrared heating surface temperature and tempering moisture on the nutritional properties of desi chickpea, hull-less barley, and their blends were examined. Specifically, this included changes to the level of anti-nutritive factors (i.e., trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitors, total phenolics and condensed tannins), amino acid composition and in vitro protein digestibility. Results indicated that both temperature and the tempering/temperature treatment caused a reduction in levels of all anti-nutritional factors for both flours, and the effect was more prominent in the tempering-temperature combination...
June 2018: Food Research International
Chengxin Ma, Rui Feng, N U Farrukh Hameed, Jie Zhang, Dongxiao Zhuang, Jinsong Wu
Treatment of tumor-related epilepsy (TRE), especially for tumors near critical areas, requires surgeons to strike a balance between the epileptic benefit and functional outcome after surgery. Here, we present a case in which multimodal evaluation facilitated the achievement of such surgical balance. Informed patient consent was obtained. A 17-yr-old female presented with seizure attacks for 2 yr. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a right parietal mass lesion with hypointense signal on T1W imaging, hyperintense signal on T2W imaging, and homogeneous enhancement...
May 4, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Ruichuan Yin, Jennifer E Kyle, Kristin E Burnum-Johnson, Kent Bloodsworth, Lori Sussel, Charles Ansong, Julia Laskin
Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization mass spectrometry imaging (nano-DESI MSI) enables ambient imaging of biological samples with high sensitivity and minimal sample pretreatment. Recently, we developed an approach for constant-distance mode MSI using shear force microscopy to precisely control the distance between the sample and the nano-DESI probe. Herein, we demonstrate the power of this approach for robust imaging of pancreatic islets with high spatial resolution of ~11 μm. Pancreatic islets are difficult to characterize using traditional mass spectrometry approaches due to their small size (~100 μm) and molecular heterogeneity...
May 2, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Nelly R Hajizadeh, Daniel Franke, Dmitri I Svergun
The versatility of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) as a structural biology method is apparent by its compatibility with many experimental set-ups. Most advanced SAXS studies are conducted at dedicated synchrotron beamlines yielding high beam brilliance, throughput and temporal resolution. However, utilizing the full potential of the method while preserving a high degree of automation provides a challenge to any SAXS beamline. This challenge is especially pertinent at the P12 BioSAXS beamline of the EMBL at the PETRAIII Synchrotron DESY (Hamburg, Germany), optimized and dedicated to scattering of macromolecular solutions...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Ulrike Boesenberg, Christopher G Ryan, Robin Kirkham, Andreas Jahn, Anders Madsen, Gareth Moorhead, Gerald Falkenberg, Jan Garrevoet
A new fast X-ray absorption spectroscopy scanning method was recently implemented at the Hard X-ray Microprobe endstation P06, PETRA III, DESY, utilizing a Maia detector. Spectromicroscopy maps were acquired with spectra for X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) acquisition in the sub-second regime. The method combines XANES measurements with raster-scanning of the sample through the focused beam. The order of the scanning sequence of the axes, one beam energy axis and two (or more) spatial axes, is a variable experimental parameter and, depending on it, the dwell at each location can be either single and continuous (if the energy axis is the inner loop) or in shorter discontinuous intervals (if a spatial axis is innermost)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Wanpeng Ai, Honggang Nie, Shiyao Song, Xiaoyun Liu, Yu Bai, Huwei Liu
The pursuit of high-throughput sample analysis from complex matrix demands development of multiple ionization techniques with complementary specialties. A versatile integrated ambient ionization source (iAmIS) platform is proposed in this work, based on the idea of integrating multiple functions, enhancing the efficiency of current ionization techniques, extending the applications, and decreasing the cost of the instrument. The design of the iAmIS platform combines flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) source/direct analysis in real time (DART), dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI)/low-temperature plasma (LTP), desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), and laser desorption (LD) technique...
April 30, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Agbo-Oma Uwakweh, Joseph N Mwangi, Daniel Todd, Zhenquan Jia, Norman H L Chiu
Mass spectrometry has proven to be a useful technique for rapid identification of bacterial cells. Among various ionization techniques in mass spectrometry, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) has been commonly used for the identification of bacterial cells. Recently, MALDI mass spectrometry has also been utilized to distinguish cellular responses. Ambient ionization techniques do support whole bacterial cell analysis, which include desorption electrospray ionization (DESI). Nanospray DESI (nDESI) is a new variant of DESI, and its application to whole-cell mass spectrometry is limited...
April 28, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Poushali Bhadury
This essay provides a brief overview of some recent Indian and Bangladeshi comics and graphic novels, whether print-based or online, which feature queer female characters. The essay contextualizes these texts with respect to the anti-LGBTQ+ legal climate in South Asian countries, but also places them within a larger trajectory of literary representations of queer (female) love in the Indian subcontinent. The texts under examination range from print graphic novels and indie comics anthologies in India to comic strips brought out by queer activists working for LGBTQ+education and advocacy in Bangladesh...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Lesbian Studies
Letizia Rasica, Simone Porcelli, Mauro Marzorati, Desy Salvadego, Alessandra Vezzoli, Fiorenza Agosti, Alessandra De Col, Gabriella Tringali, Andrew M Jones, Alessandro Sartorio, Bruno Grassi
Previous studies showed a higher O2 cost of exercise, and therefore a reduced exercise tolerance, in obese patients during constant work rate (CWR) exercise compared to healthy subjects. Among the ergogenic effects of dietary nitrate (NO3 -) supplementation in sedentary healthy subjects, a reduced O2 cost and enhanced exercise tolerance have often been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of beetroot juice supplementation, rich in NO3 -, on physiological variables associated with exercise tolerance in obese adolescents...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Kyle D Duncan, Ru Fang, Jia Yuan, Rosalie K Chu, Sudhansu K Dey, Kristin E Burnum-Johnson, Ingela Lanekoff
Prostaglandins (PG) are an important class of lipid biomolecules that are essential in many biological processes, including inflammation and successful pregnancy. Despite a high bioactivity, physiological concentrations are typically low, which makes direct mass spectrometric analysis of endogenous PG species challenging. Consequently, there have not been any studies investigating PG localization to specific morphological regions in tissue sections using mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) techniques. Herein, we show that silver ions, added to the solvent used for nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) MSI, enhances the ionization of PGs and enables nano-DESI MSI of several species in uterine tissue from day 4 pregnant mice...
April 25, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
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