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Valeria Filippou, Charalampos Tsoumpas
PURPOSE: Printing technology, capable of producing three-dimensional (3D) objects, has evolved in recent years and provides potential for developing reproducible and sophisticated physical phantoms. 3D printing technology can help rapidly develop relatively low cost phantoms with appropriate complexities, which are useful in imaging or dosimetry measurements. The need for more realistic phantoms is emerging since imaging systems are now capable of acquiring multimodal and multiparametric data...
June 22, 2018: Medical Physics
Yannick Hurni, Andrea Poretti, Jacques Schneider, Raphael Guzman, Gian Paolo Ramelli
INTRODUCTION:  Hydrocephalus can be progressive or spontaneously arrested. In arrested hydrocephalus, the balance between production and absorption of the cerebrospinal fluid is restored. Patients are mostly asymptomatic, and no surgical treatment is necessary for them. METHODS:  We performed a two-center consecutive case series study, aimed at investigating the safety of nonsurgical management of hydrocephalus in selected pediatric patients. We retrospectively selected all consecutive patients, suspected to suffer from arrested hydrocephalus and referred to our two institutions between January 2011 and December 2013...
June 22, 2018: Neuropediatrics
Hakmin Lee, Sung Il Hwang, Hak Jong Lee, Seok-Soo Byun, Sang Eun Lee, Sung Kyu Hong
OBJECTIVES: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been shown to be an important component of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI). We compared performance of DWI for detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in peripheral zone (PZ) and transition zone (TZ) of prostate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed data of 460 subjects who underwent preoperative 3.0-Tesla mpMRI and subsequently radical prostatectomy. Level of suspicion for PCa was graded using 5-grade Likert-scale from DWI...
2018: PloS One
Eric C Leuthardt, Gloria Guzman, S Kathleen Bandt, Carl Hacker, Ananth K Vellimana, David Limbrick, Mikhail Milchenko, Pamela Lamontagne, Benjamin Speidel, Jarod Roland, Michelle Miller-Thomas, Abraham Z Snyder, Daniel Marcus, Joshua Shimony, Tammie L S Benzinger
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an important tool for pre-surgical evaluation of eloquent cortex. Classic task-based paradigms require patient participation and individual imaging sequence acquisitions for each functional domain that is being assessed. Resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI), however, enables functional localization without patient participation and can evaluate numerous functional domains with a single imaging session. To date, post-processing of this resting state data has been resource intensive, which limits its widespread application for routine clinical use...
2018: PloS One
Robert A Egan
BACKGROUND: Susac syndrome (SS) classically presents with the clinical triad of retinal artery occlusion, sensorineural hearing loss, and encephalopathy and the neuroimaging triad of white matter lesions, deep gray matter lesions, and leptomeningeal disease. However, patients can present with an incomplete clinical or neuroimaging triads making diagnosis difficult in certain situations. A standard treatment paradigm also is lacking in this illness. It is important for neuro-ophthalmologists to recognize clinical and radiographic findings that are pathognomonic for this syndrome and have a basic understanding of the available treatment options...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Susan Hartl, Andi N Rice, Dhanesh K Gupta, Victoria Goode
Thorough documentation is essential for hospital reimbursement from payors such as the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Inconsistencies and incomplete documentation can occur if workflow is not standardized especially in cases with interdisciplinary involvement. Documentation for patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with anesthesia services was examined and revealed an opportunity for improvement to avoid financial losses. A preprocedure checklist to improve documentation and standardize workflow was implemented...
June 22, 2018: Health Care Manager
Sumera Afsheen, Musarat Munir, Muhammad Isa Khan, Tahir Iqbal, M Abrar, Muhammad Bilal Tahir, Jalil Ur Rehman, Khalid Nadeem, Mohsin Ijaz, Ghulam Nabi
The current work explores the excitation of surface plasmon polarities on one dimensional (1D) silver nano grating device simulated on glass substrate, which can sense a very small change in refractive index of an analyte adjacent to it. The most recent modeling technique finite element analysis (FEA) is applied in this work by using COMSOL RF module. The models of 1D grating device of different slit widths with fixed periodicity and film thickness are simulated. The data is collected and then used to study higher refractive index unit per nanometer (RIU/nm) as well as effect of slits width on RIU...
June 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
Gonca Bektaş, Gözde Yeşil, Melis Ulak Özkan, Edibe Pembegül Yıldız, Tuğçe Aksu Uzunhan, Mine Çalışkan
BACKGROUND: Vanishing white matter disease is a heterogeneous disorder caused by mutation in one of the five genes encoding subunits of the eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2B. It is a heterogeneous disorder due to phenotypic variation and a clear genotype-phenotype correlation could not be established so far. We describe a novel mutation in the EIF2B5 gene by analyzing the clinical phenotype and the progression of brain lesions for 10 years. CASE: A novel mutation in the EIF2B5 gene was detected in the heterozygous state; c...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Muhammad Ali, Dario Rangel Shaw, Lei Zhang, Mohamed Fauzi Haroon, Yuko Narita, Abdul-Hamid Emwas, Pascal E Saikaly, Satoshi Okabe
Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are well known for their aggregation ability. However, very little is known about cell surface physicochemical properties of anammox bacteria and thus their aggregation abilities have not been quantitatively evaluated yet. Here, we investigated the aggregation abilities of three different anammox bacterial species: "Candidatus Brocadia sinica", "Ca. Jettenia caeni" and "Ca. Brocadia sapporoensis". Planktonic free-living enrichment cultures of these three anammox species were harvested from the membrane bioreactors (MBRs)...
June 12, 2018: Water Research
Fusun Citak-Er, Zeynep Firat, Ilhami Kovanlikaya, Ugur Ture, Esin Ozturk-Isik
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of multi-parametric (mp) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quantitative features in the machine learning-based grading of gliomas with a multi-region-of-interests approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three patients who were newly diagnosed as having a glioma were included in this study. The patients were scanned prior to any therapy using a standard brain tumor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol that included T1 and T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted, diffusion tensor, MR perfusion and MR spectroscopic imaging...
June 15, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Yang Hou, Jingchuan Sun, Jiangang Shi, Guodong Shi, Guohua Xu, Yongfei Guo, Dan Han
OBJECTIVE: To introduce an innovative surgical technique named as trans-vertebral bone graft and augmentation(TBGA) and evaluate its clinical efficacy with balloon Kyphoplasty (BKP) as control for osteoporotic VCFs. METHODS: A total of 81 patients with one-level osteoporotic VCFs received the TBGA(n=38) or BKP(n=43) from October 2012 to January 2015. The average follow-up period of the patients was 27.9 months. The patients were evaluated using plain radiographs, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging preoperatively...
June 19, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Nicole Del Gaudio, Geraldo Vaz, Thierry Duprez, Christian Raftopoulos
OBJECT: Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) is featured by the downwards herniation of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum which can impede cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation and may lead to syringomyelia. Usual symptoms in the condition are neck pain and posterior headaches at Valsalva maneuver. Different surgical procedures have been described for cranio-cervical decompression (CCD), without reaching a consensus about the best suited technique. The primary endpoint of this study was to compare efficacy and complications rate of CCD using adural peeling (DPe) versus duraplasty (DP)...
June 19, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Hong Zhang, Bing Qing, Jian Zheng
BACKGROUND: Gastroparesis following resection of a fourth ventricle tumor has never been reported in the literature. We report a unique case of gastroparesis following resection of a fourth ventricle ependymoma in a child. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 14-year-old boy presented with 12-day history of headache, nausea and vomiting. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a tumor in the fourth ventricle. He underwent a posterior median craniotomy and total removal was achieved...
June 19, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Ásthildur Árnadóttir, Mikkel Schoos, Jacob Lønborg, Kiril Ahtarovski, Henning Kelbæk, Steffen Helqvist, Dan Høfsten, Peter Clemmensen, Thomas Engstrøm, Lars Nepper-Christensen, Niels Vejlstrup, Lars Køber, Kasper Iversen
BACKGROUND: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) is recommended in patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) within <12 h of symptom onset. However, patients-reported symptom duration is not always reliable. Cardiac specific troponin T (cTnT) and the endogenous stress marker copeptin have different temporal release patterns for myocardial infarction MI. We hypothesized that copeptin/troponin-ratio is associated to the duration of coronary occlusion and therefore inversely proportional to myocardial salvage...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Melissa Alexander, Jessica Beyda, Anupma Nayak, Shabnam Jaffer
CONTEXT: - Mammographic screening has increased the incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), but this has not been accompanied by a decline in the incidence of invasive carcinoma (IC). Consequently, the surgical treatment of DCIS has recently been questioned, with some advocating only surveillance (with or without neoadjuvant endocrine therapy) after a core biopsy diagnosis of DCIS. OBJECTIVES: - To examine the predictive value of a core biopsy diagnosis of DCIS, particularly the upgrade rate to IC, and to identify associated factors...
June 22, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Hae Ja Shin, Woon Ki Lim
In efforts to speed up the assessment of microorganisms, researchers have sought to use bacteriophages as a biosensing tool, due to their host-specificity, wide abundance, and safety. However, the lytic cycle of the phage has limited its efficacy as a biosensor. Here, we cloned a fragment of tail protein J from phage lambda and characterized its binding with the host, E. coli K-12, and other microorganism. The N-terminus of J was fused with a His-tag (6HN-J), overexpressed, purified, and characterized using anti-His monoclonal antibodies...
June 22, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Alberto Bresciani, Ottavia Cecchetti, Antonino Missineo, Pier Giorgio Pacifici, Licia Tomei, Steven Rodems
Glycosylation is a key posttranslational modification that tags protein to membranes, organelles, secretory pathways, and degradation. Aberrant protein glycosylation is present both in acquired diseases, such as cancer and neurodegeneration, and in congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs). Consequently, the ability to interrogate the activity of enzymes that can modify protein glycan moieties is key for drug discovery projects aimed at finding modulators of these enzymes. To date, low-throughput technologies such as SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry have been used, which are not suitable for compound screening in drug discovery...
June 1, 2018: SLAS Discovery
Corey R Hart, Gwenael Layec, Joel D Trinity, Yann Le Fur, Jayson R Gifford, Heather L Clifton, Russell S Richardson
Evidence suggests that peak skeletal muscle mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate (Vmax ) in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) may be attenuated due to disease-related impairments in oxygen (O2 ) supply. However, in vitro assessments suggest intrinsic deficits in mitochondrial respiration despite ample O2 availability. To address this conundrum, Doppler ultrasound, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31 P-MRS), and high-resolution respirometry were combined to assess convective O2 delivery, tissue oxygenation, Vmax , and skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity (Complex I+II, State 3 respiration), respectively, in the gastrocnemius muscle of 10 patients with early-stage PAD and 11 physical activity-matched healthy controls (HC)...
June 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Ariel Lepoff, Vyacheslav Makarov, Marie Williams
A 68-year-old man with a slow-growing lesion in the distal medial band of the plantar fascia of the left foot is presented. Clinical photographs, ultrasound and magnetic resonance images, histologic results, and immunochemical staining are disclosed. This case study presentation aims to highlight the importance of including angioleiomyoma in the differential diagnosis of plantar foot soft-tissue masses.
May 2018: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Marcello Nicoletti, Claudio Frezza, Lamberto Tomassini, Mauro Serafini, Armandodoriano Bianco
Painting and body art are increasing their utilisation as well as their cultural impact, since piercing and tattoos are expanding social phenomena, involving many young people. However, the utilised materials often enter the market with insufficient control and several cases of skin damages are reported. Safety of the utilised products must be ensured by adequate quality controls which must be easily made, rapid, low cost, clear and persuasive. The method here reported, regards the analysis on the possible presence of picramic acid in the ethyl acetate extracts of commercial henné powders by NMR Spectroscopy...
June 22, 2018: Natural Product Research
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