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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225843/-poverty-and-mental-disability-in-the-criminal-law-the-invisibles
#1
Ezequiel N Mercurio
In recent decades neuroscience research show the negative consequences of poverty in cognitive development. Environmental factors, such as material deprivation, exposure to stressful situations, violence, nutritional deprivation, environmental toxins may shape the developing brain. The changes of the structure and function of the brain since prenatal stages and their consequences can remain stable throughout the life cycle except early interventions are made. Research investigating have found significant link between child poverty and function and structural brain focusing on prefrontal cortex (i...
May 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199175/sequential-prediction-of-literacy-achievement-for-specific-learning-disabilities-contrasting-in-impaired-levels-of-language-in-grades-4-to-9
#2
Elizabeth A Sanders, Virginia W Berninger, Robert D Abbott
Sequential regression was used to evaluate whether language-related working memory components uniquely predict reading and writing achievement beyond cognitive-linguistic translation for students in Grades 4 through 9 ( N = 103) with specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in subword handwriting (dysgraphia, n = 25), word reading and spelling (dyslexia, n = 60), or oral and written language (oral and written language learning disabilities, n = 18). That is, SLDs are defined on the basis of cascading level of language impairment (subword, word, and syntax/text)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190914/neuroanatomy-of-handwriting-and-related-reading-and-writing-skills-in-adults-and-children-with-and-without-learning-disabilities-french-american-connections
#3
Marieke Longcamp, Todd L Richards, Jean-Luc Velay, Virginia W Berninger
In this article, we present recent neuroimaging studies performed to identify the neural network involved in handwriting. These studies, carried out in adults and in children, suggest that the mastery of handwriting is based on the involvement of a network of brain structures whose involvement and inter-connection are specific to writing alphabet characters. This network is built upon the joint learning of writing and reading and depends on the level of expertise of the writer. In addition, a part of this graphomotor network is also brought into play during the identification letters during visual reading...
December 2016: Pratiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181885/a-closer-look-examining-teachers-language-around-udl-inclusive-classrooms-and-intellectual-disability
#4
K Alisa Lowrey, Aleksandra Hollingshead, Kathy Howery
The purpose of this study was to examine the language teachers used to discuss inclusion, Universal Design for Learning (UDL), and learners with intellectual disability (ID) in an effort to better understand how teachers describe the relationship between those three. Utilizing a secondary analysis procedure, interview transcripts from seven general education teachers were reanalyzed to identify language used by teachers to refer to inclusive educational settings, the implementation of UDL, and learners with intellectual disability...
February 2017: Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167642/what-can-large-population-based-birth-cohort-study-ask-about-past-present-and-future-of-children-with-disorders-of-development-learning-and-behaviour
#5
Slavica K Katusic, Robert C Colligan, Scott M Myers, Robert G Voigt, Kouichi Yoshimasu, Ruth E Stoeckel, Amy L Weaver
A large cohort consisting of all children born to mothers from community provides 'natural' selection into different exposures and is a powerful resource for epidemiological research. A large population-based birth cohort with detailed systematic information already recorded, as part of longitudinal medical care, historical and current school data, detailed birth certificate data and all three resources available for every member of the birth cohort, are extremely rare. Our population-based birth cohort consists of all children born between 1976 and 2000 to mothers residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, at the time of child's birth (N=39 890)...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166652/language-learning-recasts-and-interaction-involving-aac-background-and-potential-for-intervention
#6
Michael T Clarke, Gloria Soto, Keith Nelson
For children with typical development, language is learned through everyday discursive interaction. Adults mediate child participation in such interactions through the deployment of a range of co-constructive strategies, including repeating, questioning, prompting, expanding, and reformulating the child's utterances. Adult reformulations of child utterances, also known as recasts, have also been shown to relate to the acquisition of linguistic structures in children with language and learning disabilities and children and adults learning a foreign language...
March 2017: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161297/signaling-of-noncomprehension-in-communication-breakdowns-in-fragile-x-syndrome-down-syndrome-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Gary E Martin, Jamie Barstein, Jane Hornickel, Sara Matherly, Genna Durante, Molly Losh
: The ability to indicate a failure to understand a message is a critical pragmatic (social) language skill for managing communication breakdowns and supporting successful communicative exchanges. The current study examined the ability to signal noncomprehension across different types of confusing message conditions in children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome (FXS), Down syndrome (DS), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and typical development (TD). Controlling for nonverbal mental age and receptive vocabulary skills, youth with comorbid FXS and ASD and those with DS were less likely than TD controls to signal noncomprehension of confusing messages...
January 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149451/access-to-oral-health-care-services-among-adults-with-learning-disabilities-a-scoping-review
#8
REVIEW
Mustafa Naseem, Altaf H Shah, Muhammad Faheem Khiyani, Zohaib Khurshid, Muhammad Sohail Zafar, Shabnam Gulzar, AlBandary H AlJameel, Hesham S Khalil
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of oral diseases including dental caries and periodontal conditions is remarkably higher in people with disabilities. The provision of accessible oral health services for people with learning disabilities may be challenging. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the review were to identify barriers in accessing oral health care that persists within society, enabling or disabling people with learning disabilities. METHODS: Using the Arksey O'Malley framework, a scoping review was conducted on PubMed/Medline, OVIDSP, and EMBASE...
July 2016: Annali di Stomatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133634/idea-units-in-notes-and-summaries-for-read-texts-by-keyboard-and-pencil-in-middle-childhood-students-with-specific-learning-disabilities-cognitive-and-brain-findings
#9
Todd Richards, Stephen Peverly, Amie Wolf, Robert Abbott, Steven Tanimoto, Rob Thompson, William Nagy, Virginia Berninger
Seven children with dyslexia and/or dysgraphia (2 girls, 5 boys, M=11 years) completed fMRI connectivity scans before and after twelve weekly computerized lessons in strategies for reading source material, taking notes, and writing summaries by touch typing or groovy pencils. During brain scanning they completed two reading comprehension tasks-one involving single sentences and one involving multiple sentences. From before to after intervention, fMRI connectivity magnitude changed significantly during sentence level reading comprehension (from right angular gyrus→right Broca's) and during text level reading comprehension (from right angular gyrus→cingulate)...
September 2016: Trends in Neuroscience and Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035711/written-cohesion-in-children-with-and-without-language-learning-disabilities
#10
Anthony D Koutsoftas, Victoria Petersen
BACKGROUND: Cohesion refers to the linguistic elements of discourse that contribute to its continuity and is an important element to consider as part of written language intervention, especially in children with language learning disabilities (LLD). There is substantial evidence that children with LLD perform more poorly than typically developing (TD) peers on measures of cohesion in spoken language and on written transcription measures; however, there is far less research comparing groups on cohesion as a measure of written language across genres...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974878/learning-to-drive-in-young-adults-with-language-impairment
#11
Kevin Durkin, Umar Toseeb, Andrew Pickles, Nicola Botting, Gina Conti-Ramsden
Language impairment (LI) is a common developmental disorder which affects many aspects of young people's functional skills and engagement with society. Little is known of early driving behaviour in those with this disability. This longitudinal study examines early driving experience in a sample of young adults with LI, compared with a sample of typically developing age-matched peers (AMPs). At age 24 years, significantly fewer participants with LI had acquired a driving licence. A crucial hurdle for those with LI appeared to be the Theory part of the (UK) test...
October 2016: Transportation Research. Part F, Traffic Psychology and Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960005/writing-process-products-in-intermediate-grade-children-with-and-without-language-based-learning-disabilities
#12
Anthony D Koutsoftas
Purpose: Difficulties with written expression are an important consideration in the assessment and treatment of school-age children. This study evaluated how intermediate-grade children with and without written language difficulties fared on a writing task housed within the Hayes and Berninger (2014) writing process framework. Method: Sixty-four children completed a writing task whereby they planned, wrote, and revised a narrative story across 3 days. Children had extended time to produce an outline, first draft, and final copy of their story...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936148/screening-for-dyslexia-using-eye-tracking-during-reading
#13
Mattias Nilsson Benfatto, Gustaf Öqvist Seimyr, Jan Ygge, Tony Pansell, Agneta Rydberg, Christer Jacobson
Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental reading disability estimated to affect 5-10% of the population. While there is yet no full understanding of the cause of dyslexia, or agreement on its precise definition, it is certain that many individuals suffer persistent problems in learning to read for no apparent reason. Although it is generally agreed that early intervention is the best form of support for children with dyslexia, there is still a lack of efficient and objective means to help identify those at risk during the early years of school...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899087/paradoxical-physiological-responses-to-propranolol-in-a-rett-syndrome-patient-a-case-report
#14
P J Santosh, L Bell, K Lievesley, J Singh, F Fiori
BACKGROUND: Rett Syndrome (RTT), caused by a loss-of-function in the epigenetic modulator: X-linked methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), is a pervasive neurological disorder characterized by compromised brain functions, anxiety, severe mental retardation, language and learning disabilities, repetitive stereotyped hand movements and developmental regression. An imbalance in the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous system (dysautonomia) and the resulting autonomic storms is a frequent occurrence in patients with RTT...
November 29, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851795/health-related-quality-of-life-for-children-and-adolescents-with-specific-language-impairment-a-cohort-study-by-a-learning-disabilities-reference-center
#15
Gaëlle Hubert-Dibon, Marie Bru, Christèle Gras Le Guen, Elise Launay, Arnaud Roy
OBJECTIVES: To assess the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children with specific language impairment (SLI). STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective sample at a Learning Disabilities Reference Center, proxy-rated HRQOL (KIDSCREEN-27) was assessed for children with SLI and unaffected children from January 1, 2014 to March 31, 2015. Quality of life predictors for children with SLI were evaluated by recording the length and number of speech therapy and psychotherapy sessions and the specific school organization that the children had participated in...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819320/descriptive-epidemiology-of-prenatal-and-perinatal-risk-factors-in-a-chinese-population-with-reading-disorder
#16
Lingfei Liu, Jia Wang, Shanshan Shao, Xiu Luo, Rui Kong, Xiaohui Zhang, Ranran Song
Several prenatal and perinatal factors have been found to be associated with developmental dyslexia (reading disorder) in alphabetic language. Given the absence of relevant studies of Chinese children, the present study tries to investigate these risk factors. A total of 45,850 students were recruited from grades three to six, from seven cities of Hubei province. Dyslexia in Chinese was diagnosed based on children's clinical symptoms. The clinical symptoms of children's reading performance were assessed by Dyslexia Checklist for Chinese Children (DCCC) and Pupil Rating Scale Revised Screening for Learning Disabilities (PRS) which were completed by parent/guardian and header teacher respectively...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818011/human-grin2b-variants-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Chun Hu, Wenjuan Chen, Scott J Myers, Hongjie Yuan, Stephen F Traynelis
The development of whole exome/genome sequencing technologies has given rise to an unprecedented volume of data linking patient genomic variability to brain disorder phenotypes. A surprising number of variants have been found in the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) gene family, with the GRIN2B gene encoding the GluN2B subunit being implicated in many cases of neurodevelopmental disorders, which are psychiatric conditions originating in childhood and include language, motor, and learning disorders, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), developmental delay, epilepsy, and schizophrenia...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814797/professional-practices-and-opinions-about-services-available-to-bilingual-children-with-developmental-disabilities-an-international-study
#18
Stefka H Marinova-Todd, Paola Colozzo, Pat Mirenda, Hillary Stahl, Elizabeth Kay-Raining Bird, Karisa Parkington, Kate Cain, Julia Scherba de Valenzuela, Eliane Segers, Andrea A N MacLeod, Fred Genesee
This study aimed to gather information from school- and clinic-based professionals about their practices and opinions pertaining to the provision of bilingual supports to students with developmental disabilities. Using an online survey, data were collected in six socio-culturally and linguistically diverse locations across four countries: the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. In total, 361 surveys were included in the analysis from respondents who were primarily teachers and speech-language pathologists working in schools, daycares/preschools, or community-based clinics...
September 2016: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814795/a-multi-site-review-of-policies-affecting-opportunities-for-children-with-developmental-disabilities-to-become-bilingual
#19
Diane Pesco, Andrea A A N MacLeod, Elizabeth Kay-Raining Bird, Patricia Cleave, Natacha Trudeau, Julia Scherba de Valenzuela, Kate Cain, Stefka H Marinova-Todd, Paola Colozzo, Hillary Stahl, Eliane Segers, Ludo Verhoeven
This review of special education and language-in-education policies at six sites in four countries (Canada, United States, United Kingdom, and Netherlands) aimed to determine the opportunities for bilingualism provided at school for children with developmental disabilities (DD). While research has demonstrated that children with DD are capable of learning more than one language (see Kay Raining Bird, Genesee, & Verhoeven, this issue), it was not clear whether recent policies reflect these findings. The review, conducted using the same protocol across sites, showed that special education policies rarely addressed second language learning explicitly...
September 2016: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729149/the-contribution-of-short-term-memory-capacity-to-reading-ability-in-adolescents-with-cochlear-implants
#20
Lindsey Edwards, Lynne Aitkenhead, Dawn Langdon
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to establish the relationship between short-term memory capacity and reading skills in adolescents with cochlear implants. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A between-groups design compared a group of young people with cochlear implants with a group of hearing peers on measures of reading, and auditory and visual short-term memory capacity. The groups were matched for non-verbal IQ and age. The adolescents with cochlear implants were recruited from the Cochlear Implant Programme at a specialist children's hospital...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
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