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Language learning disability

Lindsey Edwards, Lynne Aitkenhead, Dawn Langdon
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to establish the relationship between short-term memory capacity and reading skills in adolescents with cochlear implants. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A between-groups design compared a group of young people with cochlear implants with a group of hearing peers on measures of reading, and auditory and visual short-term memory capacity. The groups were matched for non-verbal IQ and age. The adolescents with cochlear implants were recruited from the Cochlear Implant Programme at a specialist children's hospital...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Tanya M Evans, Michael T Ullman
Mathematical disability (MD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting math abilities. Here, we propose a new explanatory account of MD, the procedural deficit hypothesis (PDH), which may further our understanding of the disorder. According to the PDH of MD, abnormalities of brain structures subserving the procedural memory system can lead to difficulties with math skills learned in this system, as well as problems with other functions that depend on these brain structures. This brain-based account is motivated in part by the high comorbidity between MD and language disorders such as dyslexia that may be explained by the PDH, and in part by the likelihood that learning automatized math skills should depend on procedural memory...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Claudio Di Lorito, Linda Birt, Fiona Poland, Emese Csipke, Dianne Gove, Ana Diaz-Ponce, Martin Orrell
BACKGROUND: There is limited literature around peer research in dementia. This study aims to identify the benefits, the risks and the practical challenges and to develop a model of good practice in peer research with people with dementia. METHODS: We searched on PsycInfo, PubMed and Google Scholar for empirical investigations or discussion papers on peer research. Given the limited literature in the field of dementia, we included studies with groups who share similar demographics (older people), experience of stigma (mental health service users) and exclusion from research (people with learning disabilities)...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Elizabeth D Peña
There is a growing awareness of bilingualism and the needs of children with developmental disabilities who are exposed to more than one language. This growing awareness is paralleled by a growing research base in the area of bilingualism and emerging research in bilingual children with developmental disabilities. In this set of articles we see that there is general agreement that bilingualism does not increase risk for language impairment nor does intervention in the home language interfere with second language learning...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Communication Disorders
V E Hudson, A Elniel, I Ughratdar, B Zebian, R Selway, J P Lin
: Cochlear implants for sensorineural deafness in children is one of the most successful neuromodulation techniques known to relieve early chronic neurodisability, improving activity and participation. In 2012 there were 324,000 recipients of cochlear implants globally. AIM: To compare cochlear implant (CI) neuromodulation with deep brain stimulation (DBS) for dystonia in childhood and explore relations between age and duration of symptoms at implantation and outcome...
August 3, 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Sara J Powers, Yingying Wang, Sara D Beach, Georgios D Sideridis, Nadine Gaab
Developmental dyslexia is a language-based learning disability characterized by persistent difficulty in learning to read. While an understanding of genetic contributions is emerging, the ways the environment affects brain functioning in children with developmental dyslexia are poorly understood. A relationship between the home literacy environment (HLE) and neural correlates of reading has been identified in typically developing children, yet it remains unclear whether similar effects are observable in children with a genetic predisposition for dyslexia...
October 2016: Annals of Dyslexia
Ji Young Na, Krista Wilkinson, Meredith Karny, Sarah Blackstone, Cynthia Stifter
PURPOSE: Emotional competence refers to the ability to identify, respond to, and manage one's own and others' emotions. Emotional competence is critical to many functional outcomes, including making and maintaining friends, academic success, and community integration. There appears to be a link between the development of language and the development of emotional competence in children who use speech. Little information is available about these issues in children who rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC)...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Wendy Haight, Misa Kayama, Priscilla Ann Gibson
Racial disproportionality in out-of-school suspensions is a persistent social justice issue in public schools. This article examines out-of-school suspensions of four black youths from the perspectives of the youths, their caregivers, and educators. The case involving David, a 14-year-old African American with a learning disability, illustrates the challenges of students experiencing the intersection of disability and race. The case involving George, a 14-year-old Liberian immigrant, illustrates how parents and teachers may form alliances around shared goals and values despite profound cultural differences in understanding of youths' misbehavior...
July 2016: Social Work
Karen A Erickson, Lori A Geist
Understanding the characteristics of students with complex communication needs and significant cognitive disabilities is an important first step toward creating the kinds of supports and services required to help them successfully access the general education curriculum, achieve grade-level standards, and improve overall communication competence. The First Contact Survey was designed to collect important information about students with significant cognitive disabilities who were eligible to take the Dynamic Learning Maps™ (DLM(®)) alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards...
September 2016: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
Bettina Serrallach, Christine Groß, Valdis Bernhofs, Dorte Engelmann, Jan Benner, Nadine Gündert, Maria Blatow, Martina Wengenroth, Angelika Seitz, Monika Brunner, Stefan Seither, Richard Parncutt, Peter Schneider, Annemarie Seither-Preisler
Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and attention deficit disorder (ADD) show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N = 147) using neuroimaging, magnetencephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10-40 ms) of the primary auditory evoked P1-response...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Elizabeth Kay-Raining Bird, Fred Genesee, Ludo Verhoeven
Children with developmental disabilities (DD) often need and sometimes opt to become bilingual. The context for bilingual acquisition varies considerably and can impact outcomes. In this first article of the special issue, we review research on the timing and amount of bilingual exposure and outcomes of either direct language intervention or educational placements in three groups of children with DD: Specific Language Impairment (SLI), Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), and Down syndrome (DS). Children with SLI have been studied more than the other two groups...
July 18, 2016: Journal of Communication Disorders
Chiara Squarza, Odoardo Picciolini, Laura Gardon, Maria L Giannì, Alessandra Murru, Silvana Gangi, Ivan Cortinovis, Silvano Milani, Fabio Mosca
At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW < 1000 g and/or GA < 28 weeks...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Mirko Uljarević, Napoleon Katsos, Kristelle Hudry, Jenny L Gibson
BACKGROUND: Language and communication skills are essential aspects of child development, which are often disrupted in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Cutting edge research in psycholinguistics suggests that multilingualism has potential to influence social, linguistic and cognitive development. Thus, multilingualism has implications for clinical assessment, diagnostic formulation, intervention and support offered to families. We present a systematic review and synthesis of the effects of multilingualism for children with neurodevelopmental disorders and discuss clinical implications...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Robert Thompson, Steven Tanimoto, Robert Abbott, Kathleen Nielsen, Ruby Dawn Lyman, Kira Geselowitz, Katrien Habermann, Terry Mickail, Marshall Raskind, Stephen Peverly, William Nagy, Virginia Berninger
This study in programmatic research on technology-supported instruction first identified, through pretesting using evidence-based criteria, students with persisting specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in written language during middle childhood (grades 4-6) and early adolescence (grades 7-9). Participants then completed computerized writing instruction and posttesting. The 12 computer lessons varied output modes (letter production by stylus alternating with hunt and peck keyboarding versus by pencil with grooves alternating with touch typing on keyboard), input (read or heard source material), and task (notes or summaries)...
July 19, 2016: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
Maria Rasmussen, Else Marie Vestergaard, Jesper Graakjaer, Yanko Petkov, Iben Bache, Christina Fagerberg, Maria Kibaek, Dea Svaneby, Olav Bjørn Petersen, Charlotte Brasch-Andersen, Lone Sunde
17q12 deletions and duplications are two distinct, recurrent chromosomal aberrations usually diagnosed by chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA). The aberrations encompass the genes, HNF1B, LHX1, and ACACA, among others. We here describe a large national cohort of 12 phenotyped patients with 17q12 deletions and 26 phenotyped patients with 17q12 duplications. The total cohort includes 19 index patients and 19 family members. We also reviewed the literature in order to further improve the basis for the counseling...
July 13, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Adriana de S B Kida, Clara R B de Ávila, Simone A Capellini
PURPOSE: To study reading comprehension performance profiles of children with dyslexia as well as language-based learning disability (LBLD) by means of retelling tasks. METHOD: One hundred and five children from 2nd to 5th grades of elementary school were gathered into six groups: Dyslexia group (D; n = 19), language-based learning disability group (LBLD; n = 16); their respective control groups paired according to different variables - age, gender, grade and school system (public or private; D-control and LBLD-control); and other control groups paired according to different reading accuracy (D-accuracy; LBLD-accuracy)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Nina Kraus, Travis White-Schwoch
Sound is an invisible but powerful force that is central to everyday life. Studies in the neurobiology of everyday communication seek to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying sound processing, their stability, their plasticity, and their links to language abilities and disabilities. This sound processing lies at the nexus of cognitive, sensorimotor, and reward networks. Music provides a powerful experimental model to understand these biological foundations of communication, especially with regard to auditory learning...
June 9, 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Maria Rosa Pizzamiglio, Laura Piccardi, Filippo Bianchini, Loredana Canzano, Liana Palermo, Francesca Fusco, Giovanni D'Antuono, Chiara Gelmini, Livia Garavelli, Matilde Valeria Ursini
Incontinentia Pigmenti (IP, OMIM#308300) is a rare X-linked genomic disorder (about 1,400 cases) that affects the neuroectodermal tissue and Central Nervous System (CNS). The objective of this study was to describe the cognitive-behavioural profile in children in order to plan a clinical intervention to improve their quality of life. A total of 14 girls (age range: from 1 year and 2 months to 12 years and 10 months) with IP and the IKBKG/NEMO gene deletion were submitted to a cognitive assessment including intelligence scales, language and visuo-spatial competence tests, learning ability tests, and a behavioural assessment...
June 7, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Alice Masurel-Paulet, Amélie Piton, Sophie Chancenotte, Claire Redin, Christel Thauvin-Robinet, Yvan Henrenger, Delphine Minot, Audrey Creppy, Marie Ruffier-Bourdet, Julien Thevenon, Paul Kuentz, Daphné Lehalle, Aurore Curie, Gaelle Blanchard, Ezzat Ghosn, Marlene Bonnet, Mélanie Archimbaud-Devilliers, Frédéric Huet, Odile Perret, Nicole Philip, Jean-Louis Mandel, Laurence Faivre
Using targeted next generation sequencing, we have identified a splicing mutation (c.526-9_526-5del) in the SLC9A6 gene in a 9-year-old boy with mild intellectual disability (ID), microcephaly, and social interaction disabilities. This intronic microdeletion leads to the skipping of exon 3 and to an in-frame deletion of 26 amino acids in the TM4 domain. It segregates with cognitive impairment or learning difficulties in other members of the family. Mutations in SLC9A6 have been reported in X-linked Christianson syndrome associating severe to profound intellectual deficiency and an Angelman-like phenotype with microcephaly, absent speech, ataxia with progressive cerebellar atrophy, ophthalmoplegia, epilepsy, and neurological regression...
August 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Jeni Harden, Rebecca Black, Richard F M Chin
Living with epilepsy in childhood has implications for the child and their family beyond the physical effects associated with epileptic seizures. Qualitative research has emerged, aiming to deliver a greater depth of understanding of the experiences of living with epilepsy from the perspectives of children with epilepsy, their parents, and their siblings. This review of qualitative research had three aims: first, to synthesize the demographic and epilepsy profiles of research participants in eligible studies in order to provide a clear picture of who are included and excluded when studying families' experiences; second, to present and discuss the methodological concerns and implications of research involving children with epilepsy; and third, to synthesize the findings arising from qualitative research with families in order to identify common themes across all relevant studies to date...
July 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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