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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437751/effects-of-picrotoxin-on-zebrafish-larvae-behaviors-a-comparison-study-with-ptz
#1
Xue Yang, Jia Lin, Xiaolan Peng, Qin Zhang, Yinglan Zhang, Ning Guo, Shuizhen Zhou, Qiang Li
Larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) have been suggested as a high-throughput experimental animal model for epilepsy-related genetic and developmental studies. The behavioral manifestations in response to the seizure-inducing drugs picrotoxin (PTX) (1, 5, 25, 125, or 625μM) or pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) (1, 2, 4, 8, or 16mM) under light-dark conditions were studied using zebrafish larvae at 5days post-fertilization (dpf). Two behavioral parameters, locomotor activity and thigmotaxis behavior, were analyzed. We conclude that high concentrations of PTX treatment increased locomotion and thigmotaxis in 5 dpf zebrafish larvae under continuous illumination and the locomotion of PTX-treated zebrafish was decreased under the dark condition...
April 21, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437725/evaluation-of-ecotoxicological-effects-of-benzophenone-uv-filters-luminescent-bacteria-toxicity-genotoxicity-and-hormonal-activity
#2
Qiuya Zhang, Xiaoyan Ma, Mawuli Dzakpasu, Xiaochang C Wang
The widespread use of organic ultraviolet (UV) filters in personal care products raises concerns about their potentially hazardous effects on human and ecosystem health. In this study, the toxicities of four commonly used benzophenones (BPs) UV filters including benzophenone (BP), 2-Hydroxybenzophenone (2HB), 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP3), and 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulfonicacid (BP4) in water were assayed in vitro using Vibrio fischeri, SOS/umu assay, and yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay, as well as in vivo using zebrafish larvae...
April 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437249/the-differential-spatiotemporal-expression-pattern-of-shelterin-genes-throughout-lifespan
#3
Kay-Dietrich Wagner, Yilin Ying, Waiian Leong, Jie Jiang, Xuefei Hu, Yi Chen, Jean-François Michiels, Yiming Lu, Eric Gilson, Nicole Wagner, Jing Ye
Shelterin forms the core complex of telomere proteins and plays critical roles in protecting telomeres against unwanted activation of the DNA damage response and in Emaintaining telomere length homeostasis. Although shelterin expression is believed to be ubiquitous for stabilization of chromosomal ends. Evidences suggest that some shelterin subunits have tissue-specific functions. However, very little is known regarding how shelterin subunit gene expression is regulated during development and aging. Using two different animal models, the mouse and zebrafish, we reveal herein that shelterin subunits exhibit distinct spatial and temporal expression patterns that do not correlate with the proliferative status of the organ systems examined...
April 17, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437172/analyzing-locomotor-activity-in-zebrafish-larvae-using-wrmtrck
#4
Velanganni Selvaraj, Kirankumar Santhakumar
The zebrafish has emerged as a new model system in behavioral neurobiology research. There are numerous assays available to analyze locomotor behavior, but most of these assays require sophisticated equipment and proprietary software. A freely available plugin, wrMTrck, originally developed to analyze locomotor response in Caenorhabditis elegans, has been used in this study to measure locomotion in zebrafish.
February 16, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436959/peptide-mhc-based-nanomedicines-for-autoimmunity-function-as-t-cell-receptor-microclustering-devices
#5
Santiswarup Singha, Kun Shao, Yang Yang, Xavier Clemente-Casares, Patricia Solé, Antonio Clemente, Jesús Blanco, Qin Dai, Fayi Song, Shang Wan Liu, Jun Yamanouchi, Channakeshava Sokke Umeshappa, Roopa Hebbandi Nanjundappa, Pascal Detampel, Matthias Amrein, César Fandos, Robert Tanguay, Susan Newbigging, Pau Serra, Anmar Khadra, Warren C W Chan, Pere Santamaria
We have shown that nanoparticles (NPs) can be used as ligand-multimerization platforms to activate specific cellular receptors in vivo. Nanoparticles coated with autoimmune disease-relevant peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (pMHC) blunted autoimmune responses by triggering the differentiation and expansion of antigen-specific regulatory T cells in vivo. Here, we define the engineering principles impacting biological activity, detail a synthesis process yielding safe and stable compounds, and visualize how these nanomedicines interact with cognate T cells...
April 24, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436453/functional-thermodynamics-structural-and-biological-studies-of-in-silico-identified-inhibitors-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-enoyl-acp-coa-reductase-enzyme
#6
Leonardo K B Martinelli, Mariane Rotta, Anne D Villela, Valnês S Rodrigues-Junior, Bruno L Abbadi, Rogério V Trindade, Guilherme O Petersen, Giuliano M Danesi, Laura R Nery, Ivani Pauli, Maria M Campos, Carla D Bonan, Osmar Norberto de Souza, Luiz A Basso, Diogenes S Santos
Novel chemotherapeutics agents are needed to kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the main causative agent of tuberculosis (TB). The M. tuberculosis 2-trans-enoyl-ACP(CoA) reductase enzyme (MtInhA) is the druggable bona fide target of isoniazid. New chemotypes were previously identified by two in silico approaches as potential ligands to MtInhA. The inhibition mode was determined by steady-state kinetics for seven compounds that inhibited MtInhA activity. Dissociation constant values at different temperatures were determined by protein fluorescence spectroscopy...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435770/thermally-activated-delayed-fluorescence-organic-dots-tadf-odots-for-time-resolved-and-confocal-fluorescence-imaging-in-living-cells-and-in-vivo
#7
Tingting Li, Dongliang Yang, Liuqing Zhai, Suiliang Wang, Baomin Zhao, Nina Fu, Lianhui Wang, Youtian Tao, Wei Huang
The fluorophores with long-lived fluorescent emission are highly desirable for time-resolved fluorescence imaging (TRFI) in monitoring target fluorescence. By embedding the aggregates of a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) dye, 2,3,5,6-tetracarbazole-4-cyano-pyridine (CPy), in distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-poly(ethylene glycol) (DSPE-PEG2000) matrix, CPy-based organic dots (CPy-Odots) with a long fluorescence lifetime of 9.3 μs (in water at ambient condition) and high brightness (with an absolute fluorescence quantum efficiency of 38...
April 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434864/sensorimotor-representations-in-cerebellar-granule-cells-in-larval-zebrafish-are-dense-spatially-organized-and-non-temporally-patterned
#8
Laura D Knogler, Daniil A Markov, Elena I Dragomir, Vilim Štih, Ruben Portugues
A fundamental question in neurobiology is how animals integrate external sensory information from their environment with self-generated motor and sensory signals in order to guide motor behavior and adaptation. The cerebellum is a vertebrate hindbrain region where all of these signals converge and that has been implicated in the acquisition, coordination, and calibration of motor activity. Theories of cerebellar function postulate that granule cells encode a variety of sensorimotor signals in the cerebellar input layer...
April 14, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434166/antibody-uptake-assay-in-the-embryonic-zebrafish-forebrain-to-study-notch-signaling-dynamics-in-neural-progenitor-cells-in-vivo
#9
Kai Tong, Mahendra Wagle, Su Guo
Stem cells can generate cell fate heterogeneity through asymmetric cell division (ACD). ACD derives from the asymmetric segregation of fate-determining molecules and/or organelles in the dividing cell. Radial glia in the embryonic zebrafish forebrain are an excellent model for studying the molecular mechanisms regulating ACD of stem cells in vertebrates, especially for live imaging concerning in vivo molecular and cellular dynamics. Due to the current difficulty in expressing fluorescent reporter-tagged proteins at physiological levels in zebrafish for live imaging, we have developed an antibody uptake assay to label proteins in live embryonic zebrafish forebrain with high specificity...
April 23, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433940/a-novel-dual-ratiometric-response-fluorescent-probe-for-so2-clo-detection-in-cells-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-and-its-application-in-exploring-the-dichotomous-role-of-so2-under-the-clo-induced-oxidative-stress
#10
Kun Dou, Qiang Fu, Guang Chen, Fabiao Yu, Yuxia Liu, Ziping Cao, Guoliang Li, Xianen Zhao, Lian Xia, Lingxin Chen, Hua Wang, Jinmao You
Intracellular reactive sulfur species and reactive oxygen species play vital roles in immunologic mechanism. As an emerging signal transmitter, SO2 can be generated as the anti-oxidant, while SO2 is also a potential oxidative stress-inducer in organism. Aiming to elucidate in-depth the dichotomous role of SO2 under oxidative stress, we designed a dual-response fluorescent probe that enabled the respective or successive detection of SO2 and ClO(-). The probe itself emits the red fluorescence (625 nm) which can largely switch to blue (410 nm) and green fluorescence (500 nm) respectively in response to SO2 and ClO(-), allowing the highly selective and accurate ratiometric quantification for both SO2 and ClO(-) in cells...
April 14, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433937/perturbation-effect-of-reduced-graphene-oxide-quantum-dots-rgoqds-on-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-ahr-pathway-in-zebrafish
#11
Jing-Hui Zhang, Tai Sun, Aping Niu, Yu-Mei Tang, Shun Deng, Wei Luo, Qun Xu, Dapeng Wei, De-Sheng Pei
Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) has been widely used in enormous fields, however, the inherent molecular mechanism of GQDs for potential risks in biological system is still elusive to date. In this study, the outstanding reduced graphene quantum dots (rGOQDs) with the QY as high as 24.62% were successfully synthesized by the improved Hummers method and DMF hydrothermal treatment approach. The rGOQDs were N-doped photoluminescent nanomaterials with functional groups on the surface. The fluorescent bio-imaging was performed by exposing zebrafish in different concentrations of the as-prepared rGOQDs, and the distribution of rGOQDs was successfully observed...
April 15, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431386/tebuconazole-alters-morphological-behavioral-and-neurochemical-parameters-in-larvae-and-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#12
Stefani Altenhofen, Débora Dreher Nabinger, Melissa Talita Wiprich, Talita Carneiro Brandão Pereira, Maurício Reis Bogo, Carla Denise Bonan
In this study, we evaluated the effects of tebuconazole on morphology and exploratory larvae behavior and adult locomotion. Furthermore, we analyzed the effects of this fungicide on AChE activity and gene expression in zebrafish larvae and in the adult zebrafish brain. Tebuconazole (4 mg/L) increased the ocular distance in larvae and reduced the distance travelled, absolute turn angle, line crossing and time outside area in exposed larvae. Moreover, adult zebrafish that were exposed to this fungicide (4 and 6 mg/L) showed a decrease in distance travelled and mean speed when compared to the control group...
April 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431384/sediment-and-salinity-effects-on-the-bioaccumulation-of-sulfamethoxazole-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#13
Y Chen, J L Zhou, L Cheng, Y Y Zheng, J Xu
The dynamic distribution of a widely used antibiotic sulfamethoxazole between water, sediment and aquatic organisms (zebrafish) was studied in microcosms. Sulfamethoxazole concentrations in water were gradually reduced, while in sediment and zebrafish gradually increased, suggesting active adsorption and bioaccumulation processes occurring. The presence of sediment particles and their interactions with water reduced the bioaccumulation of sulfamethoxazole in zebrafish by 13-28%. The sediment of smaller particle size with more organic carbon content and higher surface area, adsorbed sulfamethoxazole more extensively and decreased its bioaccumulation most significantly...
April 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431223/pink1-based-screen-shines-light-on-autophagy-enhancers-for-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Dominik Haddad, Ken Nakamura
In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Zhang et al. (2017) report a zebrafish model of Parkinson's disease (PD), incorporating the PD-protein PINK1 and rotenone, a toxin linked to PD. Using it as a drug-screening platform, they identify trifluoperazine and other piperazine phenothiazines as protective compounds that enhance autophagy independent of PINK1.
April 20, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431120/solution-structure-of-a-reverse-transcriptase-recognition-site-of-a-line-rna-from-zebrafish
#15
Maina Otsu, Masaki Kajikawa, Norihiro Okada, Gota Kawai
Long interspersed nuclear element (LINE) is known to be transposed by reverse transcription using its RNA transcript. Recognition of the 3' stem-loop of LINE RNA by its reverse transcriptase (RT) is an important step of the retrotransposition. Our previous study revealed that the second G residue (G8) in the GGAUA loop of a 17mer LINE RNA from eel, UnaL2-17, is recognized by its RT and the U residue (U10) in the same loop is required to maintain the loop structure (Baba et al., 2004). ZfL2-2, a LINE from zebrafish, has the same 3' stem-loop with UnaL2 and ZfL2-1 has similar but distinct 3' stem-loop with an insertion which can form an additional stem-loop...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430864/the-gnih-lpxrfa-system-s-regulation-of-reproduction-in-the-brain-pituitary-axis-of-the-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#16
Olivia Smith Spicer, Nilli Zmora, Ten-Tsao Wong, Matan Golan, Berta Levavi-Sivan, Yoav Gothilf, Yonathan Zohar
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GNIH) was discovered in quail with the ability to reduce gonadotropin expression/secretion in the pituitary. There have been few studies on GNIH orthologs in teleosts (Lpxrfa peptides), which have provided inconsistent results. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the roles and modes of action by which Lpxrfa exerts its functions in the brain-pituitary axis of zebrafish (Danio rerio). We localized Lpxrfa soma to the ventral hypothalamus, with fibers extending throughout the brain and to the pituitary...
April 18, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430131/evaluation-of-tanshinone-iia-developmental-toxicity-in-zebrafish-embryos
#17
Tao Wang, Chengxi Wang, Qiong Wu, Kangdi Zheng, Jiaojiao Chen, Yutao Lan, Yao Qin, Wenjie Mei, Baoguo Wang
Tanshinone IIA (Tan-IIA) is derived from the dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, a traditional Chinese medicine. Although Salvia miltiorrhiza has been applied for many years, the toxicity of the mono-constituent of Salvia miltiorrhiza, tanshinone IIA, is still understudied. This study evaluated the cardiotoxicity and developmental malformations of Tan-IIA by using zebrafish normal embryos and dechorionated embryos. After treatment with Tan-IIA in different concentrations for four-day periods, obvious pericardial edema, spinal curvature, and even missing tails were observed in zebrafish embryos...
April 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429770/neurons-secrete-mir-132-containing-exosomes-to-regulate-brain-vascular-integrity
#18
Bing Xu, Yu Zhang, Xu-Fei Du, Jia Li, Hua-Xing Zi, Ji-Wen Bu, Yong Yan, Hua Han, Jiu-Lin Du
Vascular integrity helps maintain brain microenvironment homeostasis, which is critical for the normal development and function of the central nervous system. It is known that neural cells can regulate brain vascular integrity. However, due to the high complexity of neurovascular interactions involved, understanding of the neural regulation of brain vascular integrity is still rudimentary. Using intact zebrafish larvae and cultured rodent brain cells, we find that neurons transfer miR-132, a highly conserved and neuron-enriched microRNA, via secreting exosomes to endothelial cells (ECs) to maintain brain vascular integrity...
April 21, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428755/pharmacological-analysis-of-the-anti-epileptic-mechanisms-of-fenfluramine-in-scn1a-mutant-zebrafish
#19
Jo Sourbron, Ilse Smolders, Peter de Witte, Lieven Lagae
Dravet syndrome (DS) is a genetic encephalopathy that is characterized by severe seizures and prominent co-morbidities (e.g., physical, intellectual disabilities). More than 85% of the DS patients carry an SCN1A mutation (sodium channel, voltage gated, type I alpha subunit). Although numerous anti-epileptic drugs have entered the market since 1990, these drugs often fail to adequately control seizures in DS patients. Nonetheless, current clinical data shows significant seizure reduction in DS patients treated with the serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) drug fenfluramine (FA)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428220/cmtm3-cklf-like-marvel-transmembrane-domain-3-mediates-angiogenesis-by-regulating-cell-surface-availability-of-ve-cadherin-in-endothelial-adherens-junctions
#20
Ihsan Chrifi, Laura Louzao-Martinez, Maarten Brandt, Christian G M van Dijk, Petra Burgisser, Changbin Zhu, Johan M Kros, Dirk J Duncker, Caroline Cheng
OBJECTIVE: Decrease in VE-cadherin adherens junctions reduces vascular stability, whereas disruption of adherens junctions is a requirement for neovessel sprouting during angiogenesis. Endocytosis plays a key role in regulating junctional strength by altering bioavailability of cell surface proteins, including VE-cadherin. Identification of new mediators of endothelial endocytosis could enhance our understanding of angiogenesis. Here, we assessed the function of CMTM3 (CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain 3), which we have previously identified as highly expressed in Flk1(+) endothelial progenitor cells during embryonic development...
April 20, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
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