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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778665/a-novel-system-to-quantify-intestinal-lipid-digestion-and-transport
#1
Øystein Sæle, Kari Elin L Rød, Vanessa H Quinlivan, Shengrong Li, Steven A Farber
The zebrafish larva is a powerful tool for the study of dietary triglyceride (TG) digestion and how fatty acids (FA) derived from dietary lipids are absorbed, metabolized and distributed to the body. While fluorescent FA analogues have enabled visualization of FA metabolism, methods for specifically assaying TG digestion are badly needed. Here we present a novel High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method that quantitatively differentiates TG and phospholipid (PL) molecules with one or two fluorescent FA analogues...
May 17, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778225/identification-growth-and-toxicity-assessment-of-coolia-meunier-dinophyceae-from-nova-scotia-canada
#2
Nancy I Lewis, Jennifer L Wolny, John Claude Achenbach, Lee Ellis, Joseph S Pitula, Cheryl Rafuse, Detbra S Rosales, Pearse McCarron
Benthic dinoflagellates of the toxigenic genus Coolia Meunier (Dinophyceae) are known to have a global distribution in both tropical and temperate waters. The type species, C. monotis, has been reported from the Mediterranean Sea, the NE Atlantic and from Rhode Island, USA in the NW Atlantic, whereas other species in the genus have been reported from tropical locations. Coolia cells were observed in algal drift samples collected at seven sites in Nova Scotia, Canada. Clonal isolates were established from four of these locations and identified with light and scanning electron microscopy, then confirmed with genetic sequencing to be C...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778081/molecular-aspect-of-silver-nanoparticles-regulated-embryonic-development-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-by-oct-4-expression
#3
Biplab Sarkar, Suresh K Verma, Javed Akhtar, Surya Prakash Netam, Sanjay Kr Gupta, Pritam Kumar Panda, Koel Mukherjee
With the enhancement of commercial manifestation of silver nanoparticles, concerned has risen on their accumulation in aquatic system and consequent effects on fish development and metabolism. In this study, experiments were conducted to assess the impacts of silver nanoparticles on early life cycles of fish considering Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as experimental model. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized through chemical reduction method and characterized through UV-visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and HR-TEM...
May 4, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778079/advances-in-understanding-the-response-of-fish-to-linear-alcohols-in-the-environment
#4
Scott E Belanger, Jane M Rawlings, Ricky Stackhouse
Short to long chain alcohols have a range of ecotoxicity to aquatic life driven by hydrophobic interactions with biological membranes. Carbon chain length and octanol:water partitioning coefficients are surrogates for hydrophobicity and strongly relate to aquatic toxicity. In these investigations, the toxicity of ethanol to 1-n-dodecanol to juvenile fish in standard acute toxicity tests is reviewed. Toxicity tests employing fish embryos (zebrafish Danio rerio and fathead minnow Pimephales promelas) in the Fish Embryo Test (OECD 236) format were conducted from C2 to C10 to compare against standard juvenile fish toxicity...
April 25, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777961/non-viral-delivery-of-an-optogenetic-tool-into-cells-with-self-healing-hydrogel
#5
Fu-Yu Hsieh, Hao-Wei Han, Xiao-Ru Chen, Chii-Shen Yang, Yen Wei, Shan-Hui Hsu
Optogenetics offers unique, temporally precise control of neural activity in genetically targeted specific neurons that express light-sensitive opsin molecules. Three-dimensional (3D) delivery of optogenetics can be realized by co-injection of bacteriorhodopsin (HEBR) plasmid with a chitosan-based self-healing hydrogel with strong shear-thinning properties. The HEBR protein shows photoelectrical properties and can be used as an optical switch for cell activation. We optimize the shear force generated during the process of injection (∼100 Pa), which is transient because of the self-healing nature of the hydrogel...
May 9, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777853/investigation-of-the-potential-endocrine-effect-of-nitrate-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-and-brown-trout-salmo-trutta
#6
Poul Bjerregaard, Karin Lund Kinnberg, Maria Pedersen Mose, Henrik Holbech
Nitrate has the potential to affect steroid production. Nitrate concentrations in streams in agricultural areas may exceed concentrations showing effects in laboratory studies. The effects of nitrate and/or nitrite on endocrine relevant endpoints were tested in zebrafish and brown trout. Zebrafish were exposed in two experiments to nitrate (8.8 to 89 mg NO3 - /L) and nitrite (3.6 to 19 mg NO2 - /L) during the period of sexual differentiation and sex ratios were determined. Vitellogenin concentrations were determined in the second experiment...
May 16, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777776/distinct-roles-for-the-cell-adhesion-molecule-contactin2-in-the-development-and-function-of-neural-circuits-in-zebrafish
#7
Suman Gurung, Emilia Asante, Devynn Hummel, Ashley Williams, Oren Feldman-Schultz, Mary C Halloran, Vinoth Sittaramane, Anand Chandrasekhar
Contactin2 (Cntn2)/Transient Axonal Glycoprotein 1 (Tag1), a neural cell adhesion molecule, has established roles in neuronal migration and axon fasciculation in chick and mouse. In zebrafish, antisense morpholino-based studies have indicated roles for cntn2 in the migration of facial branchiomotor (FBM) neurons, the guidance of the axons of the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle (nucMLF), and the outgrowth of Rohon-Beard (RB) central axons. To study functions of Cntn2 in later stages of neuronal development, we generated cntn2 mutant zebrafish using CRISPR-Cas9...
May 16, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777677/usherin-defects-lead-to-early-onset-retinal-dysfunction-in-zebrafish
#8
Margo Dona, Ralph Slijkerman, Kimberly Lerner, Sanne Broekman, Jeremy Wegner, Taylor Howat, Theo Peters, Lisette Hetterschijt, Nando Boon, Erik de Vrieze, Nasrin Sorusch, Uwe Wolfrum, Hannie Kremer, Stephan Neuhauss, Jingjing Zang, Maarten Kamermans, Monte Westerfield, Jennifer Phillips, Erwin van Wijk
Mutations in USH2A are the most frequent cause of Usher syndrome and autosomal recessive nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa. To unravel the pathogenic mechanisms underlying USH2A-associated retinal degeneration and to evaluate future therapeutic strategies that could potentially halt the progression of this devastating disorder, an animal model is needed. The available Ush2a knock-out mouse model does not mimic the human phenotype, because it presents with only a mild and late-onset retinal degeneration. Using CRISPR/Cas9-technology, we introduced protein-truncating germline lesions into the zebrafish ush2a gene (ush2armc1 : c...
May 16, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777415/preparation-of-biologically-active-monomeric-recombinant-zebrafish-danio-rerio-and-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-recombinant-growth-hormones
#9
Ewa Ocłoń, Gili Solomon, Zvi Hayouka, Arieh Gertler
Fish growth hormones (GHs) play an important role in regulating growth, metabolism, reproduction, osmoregulation, and immunity and have thus garnered attention for their application in aquaculture. Zebrafish GH (zGH) cDNA or rainbow trout GH (rtGH) cDNA was cloned into the pMon3401 vector, expressed in MON105-competent Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Their biological activity was evidenced by their ability to interact with ovine GH receptor extracellular domain and stimulate GH receptor-mediated proliferation in FDC-P1-3B9 cells stably transfected with rabbit GH receptor...
May 18, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777274/the-natural-agent-4-vinylphenol-targets-metastasis-and-stemness-features-in-breast-cancer-stem-like-cells
#10
Hoi-Wing Leung, Chun-Hay Ko, Grace Gar-Lee Yue, Ingrid Herr, Clara Bik-San Lau
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) are regarded as the source of tumour origins, metastasis and drug resistance, and limits current treatment regimens. Previously, we reported the first study of the anti-angiogenic and anti-tumour activities of 4-vinylphenol. To further examine the therapeutic role of 4-vinylphenol, the inhibitory effects of 4-vinylphenol on cancer stemness, drug resistance and metastasis in breast cancer were investigated in the present study. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We enriched parental MDA-MB-231 cells with CSCs in serum-free medium to give spheroids...
May 18, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777134/zebrafish-vcap1x2-regulates-cardiac-contractility-and-proliferation-of-cardiomyocytes-and-epicardial-cells
#11
Fang-Chi Hsieh, Yu-Fen Lu, Ian Liau, Chien-Chang Chen, Chao-Min Cheng, Chung-Der Hsiao, Sheng-Ping L Hwang
Sarcomeric signaling complexes are important to sustain proper sarcomere structure and function, however, the mechanisms underlying these processes are not fully elucidated. In a gene trap experiment, we found that vascular cell adhesion protein 1 isoform X2 (VCAP1X2) mutant embryos displayed a dilated cardiomyopathy phenotype, including reduced cardiac contractility, enlarged ventricular chamber and thinned ventricular compact layer. Cardiomyocyte and epicardial cell proliferation was decreased in the mutant heart ventricle, as was the expression of pAKT and pERK...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777011/fox-proteins-are-modular-competency-factors-for-facial-cartilage-and-tooth-specification
#12
Pengfei Xu, Bartosz Balczerski, Amanda Ciozda, Kristin Louie, Veronika Oralova, Ann Huysseune, J Gage Crump
Facial form depends on the precise positioning of cartilage, bone, and tooth fields in the embryonic pharyngeal arches. How complex signaling information is integrated to specify these cell types remains a mystery. We find that modular expression of Forkhead-domain transcription factors (Fox) in the zebrafish face arises through integration of Hh, Fgf, Bmp, Edn1, and Jagged-Notch pathways. Whereas loss of C-class Fox proteins results in reduced upper facial cartilages, loss of F-class Fox proteins results in distal jaw truncations and absent midline cartilages and teeth...
May 18, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775928/tributyltin-impaired-reproductive-success-in-female-zebrafish-through-disrupting-oogenesis-reproductive-behaviors-and-serotonin-synthesis
#13
Wei-Yang Xiao, Ying-Wen Li, Qi-Liang Chen, Zhi-Hao Liu
Tributyltin (TBT), an organotin acting as aromatase (Cyp19a1) inhibitor, has been found to disrupt gametogenesis and reproductive behaviors in several fish species. However, few studies addressing the mechanisms underlying the impaired gametogenesis and reproduction have been reported. In this study, female adults of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were continuously exposed to two nominal concentrations of TBT (100 and 500 ng/L, actual concentrations: 90.8 ± 1.3 ng/L and 470.3 ± 2.7 ng/L, respectively) for 28 days...
May 12, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775925/exposure-to-tris-1-3-dichloro-2-propyl-phosphate-for-two-generations-decreases-fecundity-of-zebrafish-at-environmentally-relevant-concentrations
#14
Yongkang Zhang, Meng Li, Shuying Li, Qiangwei Wang, Guonian Zhu, Guanyong Su, Robert J Letcher, Chunsheng Liu
Previous studies reported that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of TDCIPP significantly decreased the number of cumulative eggs in zebrafish, but effects on the quantity of eggs and sperms remained unknown. Therefore, in this study, effects of TDCIPP on yolk diameter, surface morphology of eggs, sperm density and total motility were evaluated. First generation (F0) zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio) were exposed to 0, 50, 500 or 5000 ng/L tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) from 14 days post fertilization (dpf) to 120 dpf...
May 14, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774767/the-role-of-hepatic-antioxidant-capacity-and-hepatobiliary-transporter-in-liver-injury-induced-by-isopsoralen-in-zebrafish-larvae
#15
Y Zhang, Y Zhang, J Li, Y Chen, L Han, Q He, J Chu, K Liu
Isopsoralen is the main component of the Chinese medicine psoralen, which has antitumour activity and can be used for the treatment of osteoporosis. However, the mechanism behind its hepatotoxicity has not yet been elucidated. In this study, the hepatotoxicity of isopsoralen was investigated using zebrafish. Isopsoralen treatment groups of 25, 50 and 100 μM were established. The mortality, liver morphology changes, levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), liver histopathology and mRNA levels of liver injury-related genes in zebrafish larvae were measured...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774185/protein-modified-ultra-small-gold-clusters-for-dual-modal-in-vivo-fluorescence-photoacoustic-imaging
#16
Duyang Gao, Yubin Liu, Yating Wang, Zhen Yuan
Background: Construction of nanoprobes for dual-modal fluorescence/photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is of great importance for the detection of disease pathology and the development of innovative therapeutics. Previously ultra-small gold clusters were designed and used as contrast agents for fluorescence imaging (FLI). However, it is not clear whether they can also serve as promising probes for PAI. In this study, protein-modified ultra-small gold clusters are produced and examined quantitatively as enhanced contrast agents for dual-modal in vivo fluorescence and PAI...
April 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773976/facing-the-challenges-of-neuropeptide-gene-knockouts-why-do-they-not-inhibit-reproduction-in-adult-teleost-fish
#17
REVIEW
Vance L Trudeau
Genetic manipulation of teleost endocrine systems started with transgenic overexpression of pituitary growth hormone. Such strategies enhance growth and reduce fertility, but the fish still breed. Genome editing using transcription activator-like effector nuclease in zebrafish and medaka has established the role of follicle stimulating hormone for gonadal development and luteinizing hormone for ovulation. Attempts to genetically manipulate the hypophysiotropic neuropeptidergic systems have been less successful...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773645/the-hippo-pathway-effector-wwtr1-regulates-cardiac-wall-maturation-in-zebrafish
#18
Jason K H Lai, Michelle M Collins, Veronica Uribe, Vanesa Jiménez-Amilburu, Stefan Günther, Hans-Martin Maischein, Didier Y R Stainier
Cardiac trabeculation is a highly regulated process that starts with the delamination of compact layer cardiomyocytes. The Hippo signaling pathway has been implicated in cardiac development but many questions remain. We have investigated the role of Wwtr1, a nuclear effector of the Hippo pathway, in zebrafish and find that its loss leads to reduced cardiac trabeculation. However, in mosaic animals, wwtr1-/- cardiomyocytes contribute more frequently than wwtr1+/- cardiomyocytes to the trabecular layer of wild-type hearts...
May 17, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773223/corrigendum-to-non-muscle-myosin-iia-and-iib-differentially-regulate-cell-shape-changes-during-zebrafish-brain-morphogenesis-dev-biol-397-2015-103-115
#19
Jennifer H Gutzman, Srishti U Sahu, Constance Kwas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772511/estrogenic-potency-of-mc-lr-is-induced-via-stimulating-steroidogenesis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evidence
#20
Jie Hou, Yujing Su, Wang Lin, Honghui Guo, Li Li, Donald M Anderson, Dapeng Li, Rong Tang, Wei Chi, Xi Zhang
Waterborne microcystin-LR (MC-LR) has been reported to disrupt sex hormones, while its estrogenic potency remains controversial. We hypothesized that MC-LR could induce estrogenic effects via disrupting sex hormone synthesis, and verified this hypothesis by in vitro and in vivo assays. Effects of MC-LR (1, 10, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 μg/L) on steroidogenesis were assessed in the H295R cells after 48 h. The contents of 17β-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) increased in a non-dose-dependent manner, which showed positive correlations with the expression of steroidogenic genes...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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