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Late talkers

Søren Asp Fuglsang, Torsten Dau, Jens Hjortkjær
Selectively attending to one speaker in a multi-speaker scenario is thought to synchronize low-frequency cortical activity to the attended speech signal. In recent studies, reconstruction of speech from single-trial electroencephalogram (EEG) data has been used to decode which talker a listener is attending to in a two-talker situation. It is currently unclear how this generalizes to more complex sound environments. Behaviorally, speech perception is robust to the acoustic distortions that listeners typically encounter in everyday life, but it is unknown whether this is mirrored by a noise-robust neural tracking of attended speech...
April 12, 2017: NeuroImage
Jessica R Sullivan, Peter F Assmann, Shaikat Hossain, Erin C Schafer
Two experiments explored the role of differences in voice gender in the recognition of speech masked by a competing talker in cochlear implant simulations. Experiment 1 confirmed that listeners with normal hearing receive little benefit from differences in voice gender between a target and masker sentence in four- and eight-channel simulations, consistent with previous findings that cochlear implants deliver an impoverished representation of the cues for voice gender. However, gender differences led to small but significant improvements in word recognition with 16 and 32 channels...
March 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Carol Scheffner Hammer, Paul Morgan, George Farkas, Marianne Hillemeier, Dana Bitetti, Steve Maczuga
Purpose: This study was designed to (a) identify sociodemographic, pregnancy and birth, family health, and parenting and child care risk factors for being a late talker at 24 months of age; (b) determine whether late talkers continue to have low vocabulary at 48 months; and (c) investigate whether being a late talker plays a unique role in children's school readiness at 60 months. Method: We analyzed data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, a population-based sample of 9,600 children...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Rebecca Armstrong, Andrew J O Whitehouse, James G Scott, David A Copland, Katie L McMahon, Sophie Fleming, Wendy Arnott
The current study examined the relationship between early language ability and autistic-like traits in adulthood, utilising data from 644 participants from a longitudinal study of the general population. Language performance at 2 years was measured with the Language Development Survey (LDS), and at 20 years the participants completed the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Vocabulary size at 2 years was negatively associated with Total AQ score, as well as scores on the Communication, and Social Skills subscales...
May 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Leslie Rescorla, Josephine Nyame, Pedro Dias
Purpose: Our objective was to replicate previous cross-linguistic findings by comparing Portuguese and U.S. children with respect to (a) effects of language, gender, and age on vocabulary size; (b) lexical composition; and (c) late talking. Method: We used the Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989) with children (18-35 months) learning European Portuguese (n = 181) and English (n = 206). Results: In both languages, girls had higher vocabulary scores than boys and vocabulary scores increased with age...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Eliana Colunga, Clare E Sims
In typical development, word learning goes from slow and laborious to fast and seemingly effortless. Typically developing 2-year-olds seem to intuit the whole range of things in a category from hearing a single instance named-they have word-learning biases. This is not the case for children with relatively small vocabularies (late talkers). We present a computational model that accounts for the emergence of word-learning biases in children at both ends of the vocabulary spectrum based solely on vocabulary structure...
November 21, 2016: Cognitive Science
Stephan Getzmann, Edmund Wascher
Speech understanding in the presence of concurring sound is a major challenge especially for older persons. In particular, conversational turn-takings usually result in switch costs, as indicated by declined speech perception after changes in the relevant target talker. Here, we investigated whether visual cues indicating the future position of a target talker may reduce the costs of switching in younger and older adults. We employed a speech perception task, in which sequences of short words were simultaneously presented by three talkers, and analysed behavioural measures and event-related potentials (ERPs)...
November 5, 2016: Hearing Research
Rosemary Hodges, Elise Baker, Natalie Munro, Karla K Mcgregor
PURPOSE: Assessing toddlers' speech is challenging. We explored responses made by late talkers and their typically developing peers in structured speech sampling contexts and determined if late talker subgroups could be identified. METHOD: Twenty-six late talkers and 26 age-matched typically developing toddlers participated in an expressive phonology assessment and an elicited non-word imitation test. We quantified the breadth of toddler responses used in a subset of monosyllabic stimuli from the toddler phonology assessment and in the non-word imitation test...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Natalya Kaganovich, Jennifer Schumaker, Courtney Rowland
BACKGROUND: Visual speech cues influence different aspects of language acquisition. However, whether developmental language disorders may be associated with atypical processing of visual speech is unknown. In this study, we used behavioral and ERP measures to determine whether children with a history of SLI (H-SLI) differ from their age-matched typically developing (TD) peers in the ability to match auditory words with corresponding silent visual articulations. METHODS: Nineteen 7-13-year-old H-SLI children and 19 age-matched TD children participated in the study...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Michelle Macroy-Higgins, Elizabeth A Montemarano
The purpose of this study was to examine attention allocation in toddlers who were late talkers and toddlers with typical language development while they were engaged in a word-learning task in order to determine if differences exist. Two-year-olds who were late talkers (11) and typically developing toddlers (11) were taught twelve novel pseudo-words for unfamiliar objects over ten training sessions. The toddlers' attention allocation during the word-learning sessions was measured as well as their comprehension of the newly learned words...
September 2016: Journal of Child Language
Dina Di Giacomo, Jessica Ranieri, Eliana Donatucci, Nicoletta Caputi, Domenico Passafiume
Aim of the study is to verify the semantic associative abilities in children with different language onset times: early, typical, and delayed talkers. The study was conducted on the sample of 74 preschool children who performed a Perceptual Associative Task, in order to evaluate the ability to link concepts by four associative strategies (function, part/whole, contiguity, and superordinate strategies). The results evidenced that the children with delayed language onset performed significantly better than the children with early language production...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Rosemary Hodges, Natalie Munro, Elise Baker, Karla McGregor, Rob Heard
BACKGROUND: Although verbal imitation can provide a valuable window into the developing language abilities of toddlers, some toddlers find verbal imitation challenging and will not comply with tests that involve elicited verbal imitation. The characteristics of stimuli that are offered to toddlers for imitation may influence how easy or hard it is for them to imitate. This study presents a new test of elicited imitation-the Monosyllable Imitation Test for Toddlers (MITT)-comprising stimuli of varying characteristics and test features designed to optimize compliance...
April 13, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Yuchun Chen, Feng-Ming Tsao, Huei-Mei Liu
This study used a longitudinal design to examine the development of mismatch responses (MMRs) to Mandarin lexical tones, an index of neural speech discriminative responses, in late talkers and typical controls at 3, 5, and 6 years of age. Lexical tones are phonetic suprasegments that distinguish the lexical meanings of syllables in tonal languages. The 2 year-old late talkers were later divided into persistent language delay and late bloomer groups according to their performance on standardized language tests at 4 years...
June 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Beverly Anne Collisson, Susan A Graham, Jonathan L Preston, M Sarah Rose, Sheila McDonald, Suzanne Tough
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk and protective factors for late talking in toddlers between 24 and 30 months of age in a large community-based cohort. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, longitudinal pregnancy cohort of 1023 mother-infant pairs in metropolitan Calgary, Canada, were followed across 5 time points: before 25 weeks gestation, between 34-36 weeks gestation, and at 4, 12, and 24 months postpartum. Toddlers who scored ≤10th percentile on The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories: Words and Sentences between 24 and 30 months of age were identified as late talkers...
May 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Margaret Kehoe, Elisa Chaplin, Pauline Mudry, Margaret Friend
This study examined the relationship between phonological and lexical development in a group of French-speaking children (n=30), aged 29 months. The participants were divided into three sub-groups based on the number of words in their expressive vocabulary : low vocabulary (below the 15th percentile) (< late-talkers >) ; average-sized vocabulary (40-60th percentile) (< middle group >) and advanced vocabulary (above the 90th percentile) (< precocious > or "early talkers"). The phonological abilities (e...
September 2015: Reeducation Orthophonique
Martin Takac, Alistair Knott, Stephanie Stokes
In this paper, we investigate the effect of neighbourhood density (ND) on vocabulary size in a computational model of vocabulary development. A word has a high ND if there are many words phonologically similar to it. High ND words are more easily learned by infants of all abilities (e.g. Storkel, 2009; Stokes, 2014). We present a neural network model that learns general phonotactic patterns in the exposure language, as well as specific word forms and, crucially, mappings between word meanings and word forms...
March 2017: Journal of Child Language
Michelle MacRoy-Higgins, Kevin Patrick Dalton
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of phonotactic probability on sublexical (phonological) and lexical representations in 3-year-olds who had a history of being late talkers in comparison with their peers with typical language development. METHOD: Ten 3-year-olds who were late talkers and 10 age-matched typically developing controls completed nonword repetition and fast mapping tasks; stimuli for both experimental procedures differed in phonotactic probability...
December 2015: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Gary R Kidd, Larry E Humes
A modified auditory n-back task was used to examine the ability of young and older listeners to remember the content of spoken messages presented from different locations. The messages were sentences from the Coordinative Response Measure (CRM) corpus, and the task was to judge whether a target word on the current trial was the same as in the most recent presentation from the same location (left, center, or right). The number of trials between comparison items (the number back) was varied while keeping the number of items to be held in memory (the number of locations) constant...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Fiona J Duff, Kate Nation, Kim Plunkett, Dvm Bishop
There is a lack of stability in language difficulties across early childhood: most late talkers (LTs) resolve their difficulties by pre-school; and a significant number of children who were not LTs subsequently manifest language difficulties. Greater reliability in predicting individual outcomes is needed, which might be achieved by waiting until later in development when language is more stable. At 18 months, productive vocabulary scores on the Oxford Communicative Developmental Inventory were used to classify children as LTs or average talkers (ATs)...
2015: PeerJ
Anne O'Hare, Lynne Bremner
The identification of developmental problems in a child's acquisition of speech, language and/or communication is a core activity in child surveillance. These are common difficulties with up to 15% of toddlers being 'late talkers' and 7% of children entering school with persisting impairments of their language development. These delays can confer disadvantages in the long term, adversely affecting language, cognition, academic attainment, behaviour and mental health. All children presenting with significant speech and language delay should be investigated with a comprehensive hearing assessment and be considered for speech and language therapy assessment...
March 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
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