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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214591/hyperglycemia-is-associated-with-reduced-testicular-function-and-activin-dysregulation-in-the-ins2-akita-mouse-model-of-type-1-diabetes
#1
Constanze C Maresch, Dina C Stute, Helen Ludlow, Hans-Peter Hammes, David M de Kretser, Mark P Hedger, Thomas Linn
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with subfertility in men. We hypothesised that this results from inhibitory effects of chronic hyperglycemia on testicular function and used the Ins2(Akita ±) mouse model to investigate this. Diabetic mice exhibited progressive testicular dysfunction, with a 30% reduction in testis weight at 24 weeks of age. Diabetic mice showed significantly reduced seminiferous tubule diameters and increased spermatogenic disruption, although testes morphology appeared grossly normal. Unexpectedly, serum LH and intra-testicular testosterone were similar in all groups...
February 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214373/improved-detection-of-zika-virus-rna-in-human-and-animal-specimens-by-a-novel-highly-sensitive-and-specific-real-time-rt-pcr-assay-targeting-the-5-untranslated-region-of-zika-virus
#2
Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Cyril Chik-Yan Yip, Kah-Meng Tee, Zheng Zhu, Jessica Oi-Ling Tsang, Kenn Ka-Heng Chik, Terance Gi-Wai Tsang, Chris Chung-Sing Chan, Vincent Kwok-Man Poon, Siddharth Sridhar, Feifei Yin, Ivan Fan-Ngai Hung, Sandy Ka-Yee Chau, Anna Jinxia Zhang, Kwok-Hung Chan, Kwok-Yung Yuen
OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: We developed and evaluated five novel real-time RT-PCR assays targeting conserved regions in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), envelope (E'), non-structural protein 2A (NS2A), NS5, and 3'-UTR of the ZIKV genome. RESULTS: The ZIKV-5'-UTR assay exhibited the lowest in-vitro limit of detection (5-10 RNA copies/reaction and 3.0×10(-1) plaque-forming units/ml). Compared to the modified version of a widely adopted RT-PCR assay targeting the ZIKV-E gene, the ZIKV-5'-UTR assay showed better sensitivity in human clinical specimens, and representative mouse specimens, including many organs which are known to be involved in human ZIKV infection but difficult to obtain in clinical settings...
February 18, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213853/to-pex-or-not-to-pex-what-to-do-for-the-contralateral-testis-when-a-nubbin-is-discovered
#3
REVIEW
John E Kehoe, Matthew S Christman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Testicular remnants or nubbins are commonly found in the evaluation and treatment of cryptorchidism. While much debate focuses on the management of the nubbin itself, there is also great uncertainty and variation in the management of the contralateral descended testis. Herein, we review the relevant literature informing the decision to perform a contralateral orchiopexy. RECENT FINDINGS: Although there is very little recent literature directly addressing the question, some studies have better characterized differences in practice, the risk of intravaginal torsion in the contralateral testis and potential consequences in the selection of technique...
February 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213303/diethylstilbestrol-flutamide-and-their-combination-impaired-the-spermatogenesis-of-male-adult-zebrafish-through-disrupting-hpg-axis-meiosis-and-apoptosis
#4
Pan Yin, Ying-Wen Li, Qi-Liang Chen, Zhi-Haog Liu
Both diethylstilbestrol (DES, an environmental estrogen) and flutamide (FLU, an anti-androgen) are found to impair spermatogenesis by disrupting hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and altering androgen levels through different mechanisms/modes of action in fish with poorly understood underlying mechanisms. Furthermore, it is not known whether and how a combined exposure of DES and FLU has a stronger effect than the compounds alone. In this study, male zebrafish adults were exposed to DES, FLU and their combination (DES+FLU) for 30days, and their effects on histological structure and sperm count in testis, androgen level in plasma, as well as the mRNA levels of genes involved in HPG axis, meiotic regulation and apoptosis were analyzed...
February 10, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213128/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-human-testis-reveals-system-wide-molecular-and-cellular-pathways-associated-with-non-obstructive-azoospermia
#5
Mehdi Alikhani, Mehdi Mirzaei, Marjan Sabbaghian, Pouria Parsamatin, Razieh Karamzadeh, Samane Adib, Niloofar Sodeifi, Mohammad Ali Sadighi Gilani, Masoud Zabet-Moghaddam, Lindsay Parker, Yunqi Wo, Vivek Gupta, Paul A Haynes, Hamid Gourabi, Hossein Baharvand, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh
: Male infertility accounts for half of the infertility problems experienced by couples. Azoospermia, having no measurable level of sperm in seminal fluid, is one of the known conditions resulting in male infertility. In order to elucidate the complex molecular mechanisms causing male azoospermia, label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics was carried out on testicular tissue specimens from patients with obstructive azoospermia and non-obstructive azoospermia, including maturation arrest (MA) and Sertoli cell only syndrome (SCOS)...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212420/transcriptome-using-illumina-sequencing-reveals-the-traits-of-spermatogenesis-and-developing-testes-in-eriocheir-sinensis
#6
Gen-Liang Li, Hui Qian
Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has the spermatozoa with typical aflagellate, decondensed chromatin, cup-shaped nuclei, and radial arms. However, the mechanism of spermatogenesis during which the specific spermatozoa are generated in this species is yet unclear. Here, the transcriptome of developing testis in E. sinensis was analyzed using the ways of RNA-seq and bioinformatics analysis to identify candidate genes potentially involved in development of testis and spermatogenesis. The Illumina HiSeq2500 sequencing of three replicons of samples produced a total of 145...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211501/high-resolution-3d-imaging-of-whole-organ-after-clearing-taking-a-new-look-at-the-zebrafish-testis
#7
Maxence Frétaud, Laurie Rivière, Élodie De Job, Stéphanie Gay, Jean-Jacques Lareyre, Jean-Stéphane Joly, Pierre Affaticati, Violette Thermes
Zebrafish testis has become a powerful model for reproductive biology of teleostean fishes and other vertebrates and encompasses multiple applications in applied and basic research. Many studies have focused on 2D images, which is time consuming and implies extrapolation of results. Three-dimensional imaging of whole organs recently became an important challenge to better understand their architecture and allow cell enumeration. Several protocols have thus been developed to enhance sample transparency, a limiting step for imaging large biological samples...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209515/cell-type-specific-role-of-the-rna-binding-protein-nono-in-the-dna-double-strand-break-response-in-the-mouse-testes
#8
Shuyi Li, Feng-Jue Shu, Zhentian Li, Lahcen Jaafar, Shourong Zhao, William S Dynan
The tandem RNA recognition motif protein, NONO, was previously identified as a candidate DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair factor in a biochemical screen for proteins with end-joining stimulatory activity. Subsequent work showed that NONO and its binding partner, SFPQ, have many of the properties expected for bona fide repair factors in cell-based assays. Their contribution to the DNA damage response in intact tissue in vivo has not, however, been demonstrated. Here we compare DNA damage sensitivity in the testes of wild-type mice versus mice bearing a null allele of the NONO homologue (Nono (gt))...
February 10, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208702/the-glutamate-dehydrogenase-pathway-and-its-roles-in-cell-and-tissue-biology-in-health-and-disease
#9
REVIEW
Andreas Plaitakis, Ester Kalef-Ezra, Dimitra Kotzamani, Ioannis Zaganas, Cleanthe Spanaki
Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a hexameric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia while reducing NAD(P)⁺ to NAD(P)H. It is found in all living organisms serving both catabolic and anabolic reactions. In mammalian tissues, oxidative deamination of glutamate via GDH generates α-ketoglutarate, which is metabolized by the Krebs cycle, leading to the synthesis of ATP. In addition, the GDH pathway is linked to diverse cellular processes, including ammonia metabolism, acid-base equilibrium, redox homeostasis (via formation of fumarate), lipid biosynthesis (via oxidative generation of citrate), and lactate production...
February 8, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208527/re-is-it-safe-to-insert-a-testicular-prosthesis-at-the-time-of-radical-orchidectomy-for-testis-cancer-an-audit-of-904-men-undergoing-radical-orchidectomy
#10
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207785/dna-methylation-of-the-fthl17-5-upstream-region-regulates-differential-fthl17-expression-in-lung-cancer-cells-and-germline-stem-cells
#11
Nana Aoki, Kentaro Mochizuki, Yasuhisa Matsui
The Ferritin heavy polypeptide-like 17 (Fthl17) gene is a member of the cancer/testis antigen gene family, and is preferentially expressed in cancer cells and in testis. Although DNA methylation has been linked to the regulation of human FTHL17 gene expression, detailed epigenetic regulation of its expression has not been investigated. To address this, we assessed the epigenetic regulation of murine Fthl17 gene expression in cancer cells and germ cells. Fthl17 was more highly expressed in testis, a murine lung cancer cell line, KLN205, and in germline stem cells (GSCs) than in normal lung tissues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207192/temporal-spatial-establishment-of-initial-niche-for-the-primary-spermatogonial-stem-cell-formation-is-determined-by-an-arid4b-regulatory-network
#12
Ray-Chang Wu, Yang Zeng, Yu-Fang Chen, Rainer B Lanz, Mei-Yi Wu
During neonatal testis development, centrally located gonocytes migrate to basement membrane of the seminiferous cords, where physical contact with a niche established by Sertoli cells is essential for transition of gonocytes into spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). To provide structural support and signaling stimuli for the gonocyte-to-SSC transition that occurs at a specific location during a finite phase, temporal-spatial establishment of the niche is critical. To date, the factors that guide Sertoli cells to establish the initial stem cell niche remain largely unknown...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205594/genome-editing-reveals-dmrt1-as-an-essential-male-sex-determining-gene-in-chinese-tongue-sole-cynoglossus-semilaevis
#13
Zhongkai Cui, Yun Liu, Wenwen Wang, Qian Wang, Ning Zhang, Fan Lin, Na Wang, Changwei Shao, Zhongdian Dong, Yangzhen Li, Yingming Yang, Mengzhu Hu, Hailong Li, Fengtao Gao, Zhanfei Wei, Liang Meng, Yang Liu, Min Wei, Ying Zhu, Hua Guo, Christopher H K Cheng, Manfred Schartl, Songlin Chen
Chinese tongue sole is a marine fish with ZW sex determination. Genome sequencing suggested that the Z-linked dmrt1 is a putative male determination gene, but direct genetic evidence is still lacking. Here we show that TALEN of dmrt1 efficiently induced mutations of this gene. The ZZ dmrt1 mutant fish developed ovary-like testis, and the spermatogenesis was disrupted. The female-related genes foxl2 and cyp19a1a were significantly increased in the gonad of the ZZ dmrt1 mutant. Conversely, the male-related genes Sox9a and Amh were significantly decreased...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205525/testicular-activin-and-follistatin-levels-are-elevated-during-the-course-of-experimental-autoimmune-epididymo-orchitis-in-mice
#14
Nour Nicolas, Vera Michel, Sudhanshu Bhushan, Eva Wahle, Susan Hayward, Helen Ludlow, David M de Kretser, Kate L Loveland, Hans-Christian Schuppe, Andreas Meinhardt, Mark P Hedger, Monika Fijak
Experimental autoimmune epididymo-orchitis (EAEO) is a model of chronic inflammation, induced by immunisation with testicular antigens, which reproduces the pathology of some types of human infertility. Activins A and B regulate spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis, but are also pro-inflammatory, pro-fibrotic cytokines. Expression of the activins and their endogenous antagonists, inhibin and follistatin, was examined in murine EAEO. Adult untreated and adjuvant-treated control mice showed no pathology. All mice immunised with testis antigens developed EAEO by 50 days, characterised by loss of germ cells, immune cell infiltration and fibrosis in the testis, similar to biopsies from human inflamed testis...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205391/influence-of-iodine-in-excess-on-seminiferous-tubular-structure-and-epididymal-sperm-character-in-male-rats
#15
Amar K Chandra, Arijit Chakraborty
Excess iodine induced public health problems are now emerging in many iodine sufficient regions for indiscriminate intake of iodine through various iodized products. It has been reported that excess iodine can disrupt overall male reproductive physiology by generating oxidative stress in the testis. However, information on the possible effect of iodine in excess on spermatozoa found less. In the present investigation flow cytometric techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to study the spermatozoal functional as well as structural status under the influence of excess iodine; generation of ROS in the spermatozoa as evident by DCFDA, altered acrosomal integrity as observed by fluorescence lectin staining method and depolarized mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ) noticed by JC-1 staining...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204974/lipid-peroxidation-dependent-cell-death-regulated-by-gpx4-and-ferroptosis
#16
Hirotaka Imai, Masaki Matsuoka, Takeshi Kumagai, Taro Sakamoto, Tomoko Koumura
Glutathione peroxidase 4 (Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase, PHGPx) can directly reduce phospholipid hydroperoxide. Depletion of GPx4 induces lipid peroxidation-dependent cell death in embryo, testis, brain, liver, heart, and photoreceptor cells of mice. Administration of vitamin E in tissue specific GPx4 KO mice restored tissue damage in testis, liver, and heart. These results indicate that suppression of phospholipid peroxidation is essential for cell survival in normal tissues in mice. Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent non-apoptotic cell death that can elicited by pharmacological inhibiting the cystine/glutamate antiporter, system Xc(-) (type I) or directly binding and loss of activity of GPx4 (Type II) in cancer cells with high level RAS-RAF-MEK pathway activity or p53 expression, but not in normal cells...
February 16, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204871/the-role-of-beta-catenin-mutation-and-sox9-expression-in-sex-cord-stromal-tumours-of-the-testis
#17
F Bremmer, C L Behnes, H U Schildhaus, N T Gaisa, H Reis, H Jarry, H J Radzun, P Stroebel, S Schweyer
The WHO classification of testis tumours includes the group of sex cord-stromal tumours. They are divided into several histological types, i.e. Leydig cell (LCT) and Sertoli cell tumours (SCT). Based on the physiological expression of β-catenin in normal testis/Sertoli cells, it was previously shown that SCT can carry a β-catenin mutation, causing a nuclear positivity for β-catenin and cyclin D1. Furthermore, it could be shown that the stabilization of β-catenin in Sertoli cells causes the loss of the Sertoli cell marker SOX9...
February 16, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199965/whole-exome-sequencing-identified-a-homozygous-brdt-mutation-in-a-patient-with-acephalic-spermatozoa
#18
Lin Li, Yanwei Sha, Xi Wang, Ping Li, Jing Wang, Kehkooi Kee, Binbin Wang
Acephalic spermatozoa is a very rare disorder of male infertility. Here, in a patient from from a consanguineous family, we have identified, by whole-exome sequencing, a homozygous mutation (c.G2783A, p.G928D) in the BRDT gene. The gene product, BRDT, is a testis-specific protein that is considered an important drug target for male contraception. The G928D mutation is in the P-TEFb binding domain, which mediates the interaction with transcription elongation factor and might affect the transcriptional activities of downstream genes...
February 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197414/pharmacokinetic-and-toxicological-evaluation-of-a-zinc-gluconate-based-chemical-sterilant-using-in-vitro-and-in-silico-approaches
#19
Carlos F Araujo-Lima, Rafael J M Nunes, Raphael M Carpes, Claudia A F Aiub, Israel Felzenszwalb
Sclerosing agents as zinc gluconate-based chemical sterilants (Infertile®) are used for chemical castration. This solution is injected into the animal testis, but there are not enough evidences of its safety profiles for the receivers. The present work aimed to establish the pharmacokinetics and toxicological activity of Infertile, using in vitro and in silico approaches. The evaluation at the endpoint showed effects in a dose-dependent manner. Since necrosis is potentially carcinogenic, the possible cell death mechanism could be apoptosis...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196872/muc16-regulates-tspyl5-for-lung-cancer-cell-growth-and-chemoresistance-by-suppressing-p53
#20
Imayavaramban Lakshmanan, Shireen Salfity, Parthasarathy Seshacharyulu, Satyanarayana Rachagani, Abigail Thomas, Srustidhar Das, Prabin D Majhi, Rama Krishna Nimmakayala, Raghupathy Vengoji, Subodh M Lele, Moorthy P Ponnusamy, Surinder K Batra, Apar Kishor Ganti
PURPOSE: MUC16, a tumor biomarker and cell surface associated mucin, is overexpressed in various cancers; however, its role in lung cancer pathogenesis is unknown. Here, we have explored the mechanistic role of MUC16 in lung cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To identify the functional role of MUC16, stable knockdown was carried in lung cancer cells with two different shRNAs. Clinical significance of MUC16 was evaluated in lung cancer patient's tissues using IHC. We have generated genetically engineered mouse model (KrasG12D; AdCre) to evaluate the preclinical significance of MUC16...
February 14, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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