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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865011/vital-signs-as-predictors-of-aggression-in-hospital-patients-vapa
#1
Julie Considine, Debra Berry, Rebecca Johnson, Natisha Sands
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To examine and describe the relationship between physiological status and violent and aggressive behaviours in hospital patients. BACKGROUND: The majority of adverse events are preceded by physiological abnormalities; whether physiological deterioration is a predictor of violent or aggressive behaviours remains unknown. DESIGN: prospective case control study. METHODS: prospective audit of 999 patients from two major health services in Melbourne, Australia...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762083/the-rhodococcus-equi-virulence-protein-vapa-disrupts-endolysosome-function-and-stimulates-lysosome-biogenesis
#2
Adam P Rofe, Luther J Davis, Jean L Whittingham, Elizabeth C Latimer-Bowman, Anthony J Wilkinson, Paul R Pryor
Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) is an important pulmonary pathogen in foals that often leads to the death of the horse. The bacterium harbors a virulence plasmid that encodes numerous virulence-associated proteins (Vaps) including VapA that is essential for intracellular survival inside macrophages. However, little is known about the precise function of VapA. Here, we demonstrate that VapA causes perturbation to late endocytic organelles with swollen endolysosome organelles having reduced Cathepsin B activity and an accumulation of LBPA, LC3 and Rab7...
October 19, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747295/influence-of-plasmid-type-on-the-replication-of-rhodococcus-equi-in-host-macrophages
#3
Jennifer M Willingham-Lane, Londa J Berghaus, Steeve Giguère, Mary K Hondalus
The soil-dwelling, saprophytic actinomycete Rhodococcus equi is a multihost, facultative intracellular pathogen of macrophages. When inhaled by susceptible foals, it causes severe bronchopneumonia. It is also a pathogen of pigs, which may develop submaxillary lymphadenitis upon exposure. R. equi isolates obtained from foals and pigs possess conjugative plasmids housing a pathogenicity island (PAI) containing a novel family of genes of unknown function called the virulence-associated protein or vap family. The PAI regions of the equine and swine plasmids differ in vap gene composition, with equine isolates possessing six vap genes, including the major virulence determinant vapA, while the PAIs of swine isolates house vapB and five other unique vap genes...
September 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493140/development-of-a-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-method-for-detecting-virulent-rhodococcus-equi
#4
Yuta Kinoshita, Hidekazu Niwa, Tohru Higuchi, Yoshinari Katayama
Rhodococcus equi is the most important causative bacterium of severe pneumonia in foals. We report herein the development of a specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, which targets a gene encoding vapA for detecting virulent R. equi The detection limit of the LAMP assay was 10(4) colony forming units (CFU)/mL, which was equal to 10 CFU/reaction. The clinical efficacy of the LAMP assay was compared with those of 2 published PCR-based methods: nested PCR and quantitative real-time (q)PCR...
September 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493011/aeromonas-salmonicida-subsp-salmonicida-strains-isolated-from-chinese-freshwater-fish-contain-a-novel-genomic-island-and-possible-regional-specific-mobile-genetic-elements-profiles
#5
Meng Long, Tue K Nielsen, Jørgen J Leisner, Lars H Hansen, Zhi X Shen, Qian Q Zhang, Aihua Li
Two strains of Aeromonas salmonicida, YK and BG, were isolated from largemouth bronze gudgeon and northern whitefish in China, and identified as A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida based on phylogenetic analysis of vapA and 16S rRNA gene sequences. YK and BG originated from freshwater fish, one of which belonged to the cyprinid family, and the strains showed a difference in virulence. Subsequently, we performed whole genome sequencing of the strains, and comparison of their genomic sequences to the genome of the A449 reference strain revealed various genomic rearrangements, including a new variant of the genomic island AsaGEI in BG, designated as AsaGEI2c This is the first report on a GEI of A...
September 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27419871/endosome-er-contacts-control-actin-nucleation-and-retromer-function-through-vap-dependent-regulation-of-pi4p
#6
Rui Dong, Yasunori Saheki, Sharan Swarup, Louise Lucast, J Wade Harper, Pietro De Camilli
VAP (VAPA and VAPB) is an evolutionarily conserved endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchored protein that helps generate tethers between the ER and other membranes through which lipids are exchanged across adjacent bilayers. Here, we report that by regulating PI4P levels on endosomes, VAP affects WASH-dependent actin nucleation on these organelles and the function of the retromer, a protein coat responsible for endosome-to-Golgi traffic. VAP is recruited to retromer budding sites on endosomes via an interaction with the retromer SNX2 subunit...
July 14, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312368/rhodococcus-equi-infections-in-dogs
#7
L K Bryan, S D Clark, J Díaz-Delgado, S D Lawhon, J F Edwards
Five cases of Rhodococcus equi infection in dogs were identified from 2003 to 2014. Three of the dogs had severe, internal lesions attributable to R. equi that have not been previously described: endophthalmitis, endocarditis, and suppurative pleuropneumonia. Isolates from 4 of the dogs were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for Rhodococcus virulence-associated plasmid (vap) genes. One isolate was vapA-positive, 2 lacked a virulence plasmid, and 1 carried the novel vapN-associated plasmid (pVAPN) recently characterized in bovine isolates...
June 16, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27234339/molecular-epidemiology-of-rhodococcus-equi-in-slaughtered-swine-cattle-and-horses-in-poland
#8
Lucjan Witkowski, Magdalena Rzewuska, Shinji Takai, Magdalena Kizerwetter-Świda, Jerzy Kita
BACKGROUND: Rhodococcus equi is an emerging zoonotic presumably foodborne pathogen. Since the data on the worldwide prevalence of R. equi in meat animals are scarce, the present study aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology of R. equi in swine, cattle and horse carcasses intended for human consumption in Poland. RESULTS: Totally 1028 lymph node samples were examined. R. equi was isolated from 26.6 % (105/395) swine and 1.3 % (3/234) bovine healthy submaxillary lymph nodes...
2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27139025/chloroquine-inhibits-rhodococcus-equi-replication-in-murine-and-foal-alveolar-macrophages-by-iron-starvation
#9
Leticia T Gressler, Angela I Bordin, Cole M McQueen, Noah D Cohen, Agueda Castagna de Vargas
Rhodococcus equi preferentially infects macrophages causing pyogranulomatous pneumonia in young foals. Both the vapA and rhbC genes are up-regulated in an iron (Fe)-deprived environment, such as that found within macrophages. Chloroquine (CQ) is a drug widely used against malaria that suppresses the intracellular availability of Fe in eukaryotic cells. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of CQ to inhibit replication of virulent R. equi within murine (J774A.1) and foal alveolar macrophages (AMs) and to verify whether the mechanism of inhibition could be Fe-deprivation-dependent...
May 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27074033/plasmid-profiles-of-virulent-rhodococcus-equi-strains-isolated-from-infected-foals-in-poland
#10
Marcin Kalinowski, Zbigniew Grądzki, Łukasz Jarosz, Kiyoko Kato, Yu Hieda, Tsutomu Kakuda, Shinji Takai
Rhodococcus equi is an important bacterial pathogen in foals up to 6 months old, widespread in horse farms all over the world. It was found that only virulent R. equi strains expressing 15-17 kDa virulence-associated protein (VapA) and having large virulence plasmid of 85-90 kb containing vapA gene are pathogenic for horses. To date, 12 plasmid types have been reported in VapA positive strains from horses. There are no data concerning plasmid types of Polish field R. equi strains isolated from horses and horse farm environment...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26912524/rupture-risk-and-etiology-of-visceral-artery-aneurysms-and-pseudoaneurysms-a-single-center-experience
#11
Susanne Regus, Werner Lang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze differences in rupture risk and etiology of visceral artery aneurysms (VAAs) and visceral artery pseudoaneurysms (VAPAs) in a single-center experience. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients with a VAA or VAPA after treatment by open surgical or endovascular repair (ER) in our institution. Patient history, treatment details, and outcome were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: From January 1996 to April 2014, 29 (12 women) patients with 33 aneurysms (26 VAAs and 7 VAPAs) were treated in elective and urgent settings by open repair or ER...
January 2016: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26806422/use-of-serial-quantitative-pcr-of-the-vapa-gene-of-rhodococcus-equi-in-feces-for-early-detection-of-r-equi-pneumonia-in-foals
#12
R G Madrigal, S D Shaw, L A Witkowski, B E Sisson, G P Blodgett, M K Chaffin, N D Cohen
BACKGROUND: Current screening tests for Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals lack adequate accuracy for clinical use. Real-time, quantitative PCR (qPCR) for virulent R. equi in feces has not been systematically evaluated as a screening test. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of qPCR for vapA in serially collected fecal samples as a screening test for R. equi pneumonia in foals. ANIMALS: One hundred and twenty-five foals born in 2011 at a ranch in Texas...
March 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26700657/an-experimental-and-theoretical-study-of-core-valence-double-ionisation-of-acetaldehyde-ethanal
#13
S Zagorodskikh, M Vapa, O Vahtras, V Zhaunerchyk, M Mucke, J H D Eland, R J Squibb, P Linusson, K Jänkälä, H Ågren, R Feifel
Core-valence double ionisation spectra of acetaldehyde (ethanal) are presented at photon energies above the carbon and oxygen 1s ionisation edges, measured by a versatile multi-electron coincidence spectroscopy technique. We use this molecule as a testbed for analyzing core-valence spectra by means of quantum chemical calculations of transition energies. These theoretical approaches range from two simple models, one based on orbital energies corrected by core valence interaction and one based on the equivalent core approximation, to a systematic series of quantum chemical electronic structure methods of increasing sophistication...
January 28, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26474455/genetic-polymorphisms-associated-with-increased-risk-of-developing-chronic-myelogenous-leukemia
#14
Heriberto Bruzzoni-Giovanelli, Juan R González, François Sigaux, Bruno O Villoutreix, Jean Michel Cayuela, Joëlle Guilhot, Claude Preudhomme, François Guilhot, Jean-Luc Poyet, Philippe Rousselot
Little is known about inherited factors associated with the risk of developing chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). We used a dedicated DNA chip containing 16 561 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering 1 916 candidate genes to analyze 437 CML patients and 1 144 healthy control individuals. Single SNP association analysis identified 139 SNPs that passed multiple comparisons (1% false discovery rate). The HDAC9, AVEN, SEMA3C, IKBKB, GSTA3, RIPK1 and FGF2 genes were each represented by three SNPs, the PSM family by four SNPs and the SLC15A1 gene by six...
November 3, 2015: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26217453/endovascular-management-of-visceral-artery-aneurysms-when-to-watch-when-to-intervene
#15
Romaric Loffroy, Sylvain Favelier, Pierre Pottecher, Pierre-Yves Genson, Louis Estivalet, Sophie Gehin, Jean-Pierre Cercueil, Denis Krausé
Visceral artery aneurysms (VAA) include splanchnic and renal artery aneurysms. They represent a rare clinical entity, although their detection is rising due to an increased use of cross-sectional imaging. Rupture is the most devastating complication, and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In addition, increased percutaneous endovascular interventions have raised the incidence of iatrogenic visceral artery pseudoaneurysms (VAPAs). For this reason, elective repair is preferable in the appropriately chosen patient...
July 28, 2015: World Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26103784/vapb-type-8-plasmids-in-rhodococcus-equi-isolated-from-the-small-intestine-of-pigs-and-comparison-of-selective-culture-media
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
G H B Lara, S Takai, Y Sasaki, T Kakuda, F J P Listoni, R M Risseti, A B C de Morais, M G Ribeiro
UNLABELLED: The virulence-plasmid profile of Rhodococcus equi strains isolated from Suidae and humans is similar. Recent evidence suggests that the consumption of pork products contaminated with faeces might be a potential source of R. equi infections in humans, mainly to patients with rhodococcosis without history of contact with pigs or pig farms. This study investigated the virulence-associated genes (vapA and vapB) and plasmid profiles of R. equi among the 150 samples of small intestinal content obtained from slaughtered pigs...
September 2015: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26094962/transcriptional-regulation-by-virr-and-virs-of-members-of-the-rhodococcus-equi-virulence-associated-protein-multigene-family
#17
Tsutomu Kakuda, Shiko Miyazaki, Hirofumi Hagiuda, Shinji Takai
A virulence plasmid of Rhodococcus equi harbors the vap mutigene family. Here it is shown that transcription of vap gene family members other than vapA (vapD, vapE and vapG) is regulated by temperature and pH and abolished when either virS or virR is deleted. Expression of VirS in the absence of functional VirR was found to increase the transcription of vap genes to the amount expressed in the presence of VirR. These findings suggest that transcription of vap genes is regulated by VirS and that VirR is involved in the mechanism of transcriptional responses to temperature and pH...
August 2015: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26015480/transcriptome-reprogramming-by-plasmid-encoded-transcriptional-regulators-is-required-for-host-niche-adaption-of-a-macrophage-pathogen
#18
Garry B Coulson, Aleksandra A Miranda-CasoLuengo, Raúl Miranda-CasoLuengo, Xiaoguang Wang, Jenna Oliver, Jennifer M Willingham-Lane, Wim G Meijer, Mary K Hondalus
Rhodococcus equi is a facultative intracellular pathogen of macrophages, relying on the presence of a conjugative virulence plasmid harboring a 21-kb pathogenicity island (PAI) for growth in host macrophages. The PAI encodes a family of 6 virulence-associated proteins (Vaps) in addition to 20 other proteins. The contribution of these to virulence has remained unclear. We show that the presence of only 3 virulence plasmid genes (of 73 in total) is required and sufficient for intracellular growth. These include a single vap family member, vapA, and two PAI-located transcriptional regulators, virR and virS...
August 2015: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25930206/chlamydiae-interaction-with-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-contact-function-and-consequences
#19
REVIEW
Isabelle Derré
Chlamydiae and chlamydiae-related organisms are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens. They reside in a membrane-bound compartment termed the inclusion and have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to interact with cellular organelles. This review focuses on the nature, the function(s) and the consequences of chlamydiae-inclusion interaction with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The inclusion membrane establishes very close contact with the ER at specific sites termed ER-inclusion membrane contact sites (MCSs)...
July 2015: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25915399/stim1-is-a-novel-component-of-er-chlamydia-trachomatis-inclusion-membrane-contact-sites
#20
Hervé Agaisse, Isabelle Derré
Productive developmental cycle of the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis depends on the interaction of the replicative vacuole, named the inclusion, with cellular organelles. We have recently reported the formation of ER-Inclusion membrane contact sites (MCSs), where the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is in apposition to the inclusion membrane. These platforms contain the C. trachomatis inclusion membrane protein IncD, the mammalian ceramide transfer protein CERT and the ER resident proteins VAPA/B and were proposed to play a role in the non-vesicular trafficking of lipids to the inclusion...
2015: PloS One
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