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Speed training

Giovanna Lagravinese, Ambra Bisio, Piero Ruggeri, Marco Bove, Laura Avanzino
The present study was designed to explore the changes in motor performance and motor resonance after multiple sessions of action observation (AO) training. Subjects were exposed to the observation of a video showing finger tapping movements executed at 3Hz, a frequency higher than the spontaneous one (2Hz) for four consecutive days. Motor performance and motor resonance were tested before the AO training on the first day, and on the last day. Results showed that multiple sessions of AO training induced a shift of the speed of execution of finger tapping movements toward the observed one and a change in motor resonance...
October 18, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Sijie Tan, Cheng Chen, Mingyang Sui, Lunan Xue, Jianxiong Wang
OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects of exercise training on body composition, cardiovascular function, and physical fitness in 5-year-old obese and lean children. METHODS: 42 obese and 62 lean children were randomly allocated into exercise and control groups separately. Body composition, cardiovascular function, and physical fitness were measured at baseline and the end of the intervention. The exercise groups participated in 10 weeks of supervised moderate intensity exercise training (at 50% of heart rate reserve), 50 training sessions in total...
October 21, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Suhitha Veeravelli, Bijan Najafi, Ivan Marin, Fernando Blumenkron, Shannon Smith, Stephen A Klotz
Approximately 1.2 million people in the United States live with HIV infection. Medical advancements have increased the life expectancy and this cohort is aging. HIV-positive individuals have a high incidence of frailty (~20%) characterized by depression and sedentary behavior. Exercise would be healthy, but due to the frail status of many HIV-positive individuals, conventional exercise is too taxing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of a novel game-based training program (exergame) in ameliorating some aspects of frailty in HIV-infected individuals...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Sarah V Stevenage, Christy Pitfield
The data described here provide standard performance measures following administration of a fingerprint matching task to expert analysts, trained students and novice control participants. Measures include accuracy on 'same' and 'different' trials, and the associated measures of sensitivity of discrimination (d') and response bias (C). In addition, speed of correct response is provided. The provision of these data will enable the interested reader to conduct meta-analyses relating to questions of fingerprint expertise and fingerprint training (see "Fact or friction: examination of the transparency, reliability and sufficiency of the ACE-V method of fingerprint analysis" (Stevenage and Pitfield, in press) [1])...
December 2016: Data in Brief
Nina Lefeber, Eva Swinnen, Eric Kerckhofs
PURPOSE: The integration of sufficient cardiovascular stress into robot-assisted gait (RAG) training could combine the benefits of both RAG and aerobic training. The aim was to summarize literature data on the immediate effects of RAG compared to walking without robot-assistance on metabolic-, cardiorespiratory- and fatigue-related parameters. METHODS: PubMed and Web of Science were searched for eligible articles till February 2016. Means, SDs and significance values were extracted...
October 20, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Elena Dukhovny, YanYan Zhou
Increasing speed and accuracy of communication via a speech-generating device (SGD) is an important clinical goal in augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). The current study, conducted with adults without disabilities using a within-subject experimental design, compared the effects of two different SGD trainings on speed and accuracy of locating words via an SGD interface. During size-centered training, participants were introduced to six large icons that completely filled an SGD screen. During location-centered training, participants were introduced to six small icons on a 40-location screen where other icons were hidden...
October 20, 2016: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
Stephen B Soumerai, Rachel Ceccarelli, Ross Koppel
Some medical scientists argue that only data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are trustworthy. They claim data from natural experiments and administrative data sets are always spurious and cannot be used to evaluate health policies and other population-wide phenomena in the real world. While many acknowledge biases caused by poor study designs, in this article we argue that several valid designs using administrative data can produce strong findings, particularly the interrupted time series (ITS) design...
October 18, 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Steven J Keteyian, Dennis J Kerrigan, Jonathan K Ehrman, Clinton A Brawner
PURPOSE: To describe exercise training workloads, estimated as metabolic equivalents of task (METs) both upon exit from cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and as the change in MET level following CR, stratified by age, sex, initial MET level, number of sessions completed, and qualifying event at entry into CR. METHODS: A retrospective study involving 8319 (31% female) patients who completed ≥9 exercise training sessions in the early outpatient CR program at Henry Ford Hospital...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
Yoshihiro Fukumoto, Hiroshige Tateuchi, Rui Tsukagoshi, Yusuke Okita, Haruhiko Akiyama, Kazutaka So, Yutaka Kuroda, Noriaki Ichihashi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-velocity (HV) and low-velocity (LV) resistance training on gait kinematics and kinetics in patients with hip osteoarthritis. DESIGN: This was a single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Forty-six women with hip osteoarthritis were randomly allocated to the HV (n = 23) or LV (n = 23) training group. The participants underwent an 8-week home-based the HV or LV resistance-training program, involving the hip and knee muscles...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Timothy B Lannin, Fredrik I Thege, Brian J Kirby
Advances in rare cell capture technology have made possible the interrogation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) captured from whole patient blood. However, locating captured cells in the device by manual counting bottlenecks data processing by being tedious (hours per sample) and compromises the results by being inconsistent and prone to user bias. Some recent work has been done to automate the cell location and classification process to address these problems, employing image processing and machine learning (ML) algorithms to locate and classify cells in fluorescent microscope images...
October 2016: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Leo Djaoui, Karim Chamari, Adam Owen, Alexandre Dellal
The aim of the present study was to compare 1) the maximal sprinting speed (MSS) attained by soccer players during matches (MSSmatch) according to their level of play (professional 1st French division vs. elite amateur 4th French division) and the playing positions; and 2) the MSS attained by professional soccer players during 14 different types of small-sided games (SSG, MSSSSG) and match-play. All players monitored through the study performed a 40-m sprint test to assess individual MSS (MSStest) and compare it to the training and match activity, with the calculation of the percentage of MSStest (%MSStest) reached...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Debbie Van Biesen, Florentina Hettinga, Katina McCulloch, Yves C Vanlandewijck
PURPOSE: To understand how athletes invest their energy over a race, differences in pacing ability between athletes with and without intellectual impairment (II) were explored using a novel field test. METHODS: Well-trained runners (n=67) participated in this study, including 34 runners with II (age = 24.4 ± 4.5 years; IQ = 63.1 ± 7.7) and 33 runners without II (age = 31.4 ± 11.2 years). The ability to perform at a pre-planned submaximal pace was assessed. Two 400m running trials were performed on an athletics track, with an individually standardized velocity...
October 5, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Dae Young Yoo, Hyo Young Jung, Jong Whi Kim, Hee Sun Yim, Dae Won Kim, Hajin Nam, Jun Gyo Suh, Jung Hoon Choi, Moo-Ho Won, Yeo Sung Yoon, In Koo Hwang
Dynamin 1 is a known synaptic protein, which has is key in the presynaptic regulation of endocytosis. The present study investigated the association between age and the observed changes in Morris water maze performance, and immunoreactivity and protein levels of dynamin 1 in the mouse hippocampal formation. In addition, the effects of dynasore, an inhibitor of dynamin 1, on the hippocampal dependent memory were determined to elucidate the correlation between dynamin 1 and memory. In the training phase of the Morris water maze task, the mean escape latency of the aged group (24 months old) was significantly longer, compared with that of the adult group (4 months old), although the average swimming speed and the total distance traveled during the probe trial were similar in the two groups...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Katharina Zinke, Ines Wilhelm, Müge Bayramoglu, Susanne Klein, Jan Born
Sleep is considered to support the formation of skill memory. In juvenile but not adult song birds learning a tutor's song, a stronger initial deterioration of song performance over night-sleep predicts better song performance in the long run. This and similar observations have stimulated the view of sleep supporting skill formation during development in an unsupervised off-line learning process that, in the absence of external feedback, can initially also enhance inaccuracies in skill performance. Here we explored whether in children learning a motor sequence task, as in song-learning juvenile birds, changes across sleep after initial practice predict performance levels achieved in the long run...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
Kyle R Barnes, Andrew E Kilding
Running economy (RE) is considered an important physiological measure for endurance athletes, especially distance runners. This review considers 1) how RE is defined and measured and 2) physiological and biomechanical factors that determine or influence RE. It is difficult to accurately ascertain what is good, average, and poor RE between athletes and studies due to variation in protocols, gas-analysis systems, and data averaging techniques. However, representative RE values for different caliber of male and female runners can be identified from existing literature with mostly clear delineations in oxygen uptake across a range of speeds in moderately and highly trained and elite runners...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Seid Muhie Yimam, Chris Biemann, Ljiljana Majnaric, Šefket Šabanović, Andreas Holzinger
In this article, we demonstrate the impact of interactive machine learning: we develop biomedical entity recognition dataset using a human-into-the-loop approach. In contrary to classical machine learning, human-in-the-loop approaches do not operate on predefined training or test sets, but assume that human input regarding system improvement is supplied iteratively. Here, during annotation, a machine learning model is built on previous annotations and used to propose labels for subsequent annotation. To demonstrate that such interactive and iterative annotation speeds up the development of quality dataset annotation, we conduct three experiments...
September 2016: Brain Informatics
Hsuan-Lun Lu, Tung-Wu Lu, Hsiu-Chen Lin, Hong-Jung Hsieh, Wing P Chan
Treadmills are often used in clinical settings to improve walking balance control in patients with gait impairments. However, knowledge of the effects of belt speed on balance control remains incomplete. The current study determined such effects in terms of inclination angles (IA) and the rate of change (RCIA) of the center of mass (COM) motion relative to the center of pressure (COP) in twelve healthy adults at five belt speeds, including the subjects' preferred walking speed (PWS), as measured using a motion capture system and an instrumented treadmill...
September 29, 2016: Gait & Posture
Austyn L Nealer, Dustin D Dunnick, Kylie K Malyszek, Megan A Wong, Pablo B Costa, Jared W Coburn, Lee E Brown
Speed is a crucial element an athlete must possess to be successful. In soccer, the ability to accelerate faster than your opponent can result in being first to reach a ball on a breakaway or stopping a counter attack. A unique way to train explosive movements is to evoke postactivation potentiation (PAP) in the working muscles. Traditionally, an overload stimulus with a long rest period is used, but a model utilizing an overspeed stimulus with shorter rest periods is less understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the acute effects of varied rest intervals following assisted sprinting on bodyweight sprint time...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Josué Gómez-Molina, Ana Ogueta-Alday, Christopher Stickley, Jesus Camara Tobalina, Jon Cabrejas-Ugartondo, Juan García-López
The aim of this study was to compare the spatio-temporal parameters of trained runners and untrained participants with the same foot strike pattern (rearfoot) during running at controlled speeds. Twenty-one participants were classified in two groups according to their training experience: Trained (n=10, amateur runners with long distance training experience) and Untrained (n=11, healthy non-trained participants). Anthropometric variables were recorded, and the participants performed both a submaximal (between 9 and 15 km·h) and a graded exercise running test (from 6 km·h until exhaustion) on a treadmill...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Ayaka Kato, Kenji Morita
It has been suggested that dopamine (DA) represents reward-prediction-error (RPE) defined in reinforcement learning and therefore DA responds to unpredicted but not predicted reward. However, recent studies have found DA response sustained towards predictable reward in tasks involving self-paced behavior, and suggested that this response represents a motivational signal. We have previously shown that RPE can sustain if there is decay/forgetting of learned-values, which can be implemented as decay of synaptic strengths storing learned-values...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
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