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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911827/tau-prions-from-alzheimer-s-disease-and-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-patients-propagate-in-cultured-cells
#1
Amanda L Woerman, Atsushi Aoyagi, Smita Patel, Sabeen A Kazmi, Iryna Lobach, Lea T Grinberg, Ann C McKee, William W Seeley, Steven H Olson, Stanley B Prusiner
Tau prions are thought to aggregate in the central nervous system, resulting in neurodegeneration. Among the tauopathies, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common, whereas argyrophilic grain disease (AGD), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), Pick's disease (PiD), and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) are less prevalent. Brain extracts from deceased individuals with PiD, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by three-repeat (3R) tau prions, were used to infect HEK293T cells expressing 3R tau fused to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909102/the-attraction-effect-modulates-reward-prediction-errors-and-intertemporal-choices
#2
Sebastian Gluth, Jared M Hotaling, Jörg Rieskamp
: Classical economic theory contends that the utility of a choice option should be independent of other options. This view is challenged by the attraction effect, in which the relative preference between two options is altered by the addition of a third, asymmetrically dominated option. Here, we leveraged the attraction effect in the context of intertemporal choices to test whether both decisions and reward prediction errors (RPE)-in the absence of choice-violate the independence of irrelevant alternatives principle...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908664/preference-for-western-diet-coadapts-in-high-runner-mice-and-affects-voluntary-exercise-and-spontaneous-physical-activity-in-a-genotype-dependent-manner
#3
Wendy Acosta, Thomas H Meek, Heidi Schutz, Elizabeth M Dlugosz, Theodore Garland
Do animals evolve (coadapt) to choose diets that positively affect their performance abilities? We addressed this question from a microevolutionary perspective by examining preference for Western diet (WD: high in fat and sugar, but lower in protein) versus standard rodent chow in adults of both sexes from 4 lines of mice selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel running (High Runner or HR lines) and 4 non-selected control (C) lines. We also assessed whether food preference or substitution affects physical activity (wheel running and/or spontaneous physical activity [SPA] in the attached home cages)...
November 28, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908224/serum-substance-p-concentrations-to-predict-oocyte-maturation-index-and-clinical-pregnancy
#4
Yavuz Sahin, Enis Özkaya, Semra Kayatas Eser, Tayfun Kutlu, Ilhan Sanverdi, Gulden Tunali, Ates Karateke
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of serum substance P (SP) concentrations on oocyte maturation and clinical pregnancy. METHODS: Ninety-three women with unexplained infertility underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Antagonist protocol was started for each participant and at the day of oocyte pick up, serum samples were obtained from each participant to assess SP concentrations, and these concentrations were utilized to predict mature/total oocyte ratio and clinical pregnancy...
December 2, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908152/design-of-a-model-observer-to-evaluate-calcification-detectability-in-breast-tomosynthesis-and-application-to-smoothing-prior-optimization
#5
Koen Michielsen, Johan Nuyts, Lesley Cockmartin, Nicholas Marshall, Hilde Bosmans
PURPOSE: In this work, the authors design and validate a model observer that can detect groups of microcalcifications in a four-alternative forced choice experiment and use it to optimize a smoothing prior for detectability of microcalcifications. METHODS: A channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) with eight Laguerre-Gauss channels was designed to detect groups of five microcalcifications in a background of acrylic spheres by adding the CHO log-likelihood ratios calculated at the expected locations of the five calcifications...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906995/assessment-of-the-world-health-organization-s-hiv-drug-resistance-early-warning-indicators-in-main-and-decentralized-outreach-antiretroviral-therapy-sites-in-namibia
#6
Nicholus Mutenda, Alexandra Bukowski, Anne-Marie Nitschke, Tuli Nakanyala, Ndapewa Hamunime, Tadesse Mekonen, Francina Tjituka, Greatjoy Mazibuko, Samson Mwinga, David Mabirizi, Evans Sagwa, Rosalia Indongo, Natalie Dean, Michael R Jordan, Steven Y Hong
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) early warning indicators (EWIs) of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) assess factors at individual ART sites that are known to create situations favourable to the emergence of HIVDR. METHODS: In 2014, the Namibia HIV care and treatment program abstracted the following adult and pediatric EWIs from all public ART sites (50 main sites and 143 outreach sites): On-time pill pick-up, Retention in care, Pharmacy stock-outs, Dispensing practices, and Viral load suppression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904758/penetrating-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury-with-ice-pick-extending-into-the-aorta-a-technical-note-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Rani Nasser, Jonathan Nakhla, Saadat Sharif, Merritt Kinon, Reza Yassari
BACKGROUND: Penetrating spinal cord injuries pose a great challenge to both patients and the treating physicians. Although the overall incidence of penetrating spinal cord injury is the highest in the military, the ubiquity of guns in our society continues to make penetrating spinal cord injury prevalent in the civilian population. These types of injuries are particularly complicated because, beyond the trauma to the neural elements and supporting structures, other organs can be affected and a team approach is required for successful treatment...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903090/pediococcus-acidilactici-lab4-and-lactobacillus-plantarum-lab12-assimilate-cholesterol-and-modulate-abca1-cd36-npc1l1-and-scarb1-in-vitro
#8
F T Lim, S M Lim, K Ramasamy
There is growing interest in the use of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for prevention of hypercholesterolaemia. This study assessed the cholesterol lowering ability of Pediococcus acidilactici LAB4 and Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 in growth media. Both LAB yielded >98% (39.2 μg/ml) cholesterol lowering in growth media. Nile Red staining indicated direct assimilation of cholesterol by the LAB. The LAB were then explored for their prophylactic (pre-treatment of HT29 cells with LAB prior to cholesterol exposure) and biotherapeutic (treatment of HT29 cells with LAB after exposure to cholesterol) use against short and prolonged exposure of HT29 cells to cholesterol, respectively...
December 1, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902765/loss-of-cathepsin-b-and-l-leads-to-lysosomal-dysfunction-npc-like-cholesterol-sequestration-and-accumulation-of-the-key-alzheimer-s-proteins
#9
Stjepko Cermak, Marko Kosicek, Aleksandra Mladenovic-Djordjevic, Kosara Smiljanic, Selma Kanazir, Silva Hecimovic
Proper function of lysosomes is particularly important in neurons, as they cannot dilute accumulated toxic molecules and aggregates by cell division. Thus, impairment of lysosomal function plays an important role in neuronal degeneration and in the pathogenesis of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. In this work we analyzed how inhibition and/or loss of the major lysosomal proteases, the cysteine cathepsins B and L (CtsB/L), affects lysosomal function, cholesterol metabolism and degradation of the key Alzheimer's disease (AD) proteins...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901519/predictors-of-comorbid-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-skin-picking-disorder-in-trichotillomania
#10
Nancy J Keuthen, Erin E Curley, Jeremiah M Scharf, Douglas W Woods, Christine Lochner, Dan J Stein, Esther S Tung, Erica Greenberg, S Evelyn Stewart, Sarah A Redden, Jon E Grant
BACKGROUND: Trichotillomania (TTM), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and skin-picking disorder (SPD) frequently occur together and share overlapping phenomenology, pathophysiology, and possible genetic underpinnings. This study sought to identify factors that predict OCD and SPD in hair pullers. METHODS: Five hundred fifty-five adult female hair pullers were recruited from specialty clinics and assessed using standardized, semi-structured interviews and self-reports...
November 2016: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900365/genome-sequencing-in-a-case-of-niemann-pick-type-c
#11
Max Dougherty, John Lazar, Jason C Klein, Karina Diaz, Theodore Gobillot, Eli Grunblatt, Nicholas Hasle, Daniel Lawrence, Megan Maurano, Maria Nelson, Gregory Olson, Sanjay Srivatsan, Jay Shendure, C Dirk Keene, Thomas Bird, Marshall S Horwitz, Desiree A Marshall
Adult-onset Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is an infrequent presentation of a rare neurovisceral lysosomal lipid storage disorder caused by autosomal recessive mutations in NPC1 (∼95%) or NPC2 (∼5%). Our patient was diagnosed at age 33 when he presented with a 10-yr history of difficulties in judgment, concentration, speech, and coordination. A history of transient neonatal jaundice and splenomegaly with bone marrow biopsy suggesting a lipid storage disorder pointed to NPC; biochemical ("variant" level cholesterol esterification) and ultrastructural studies in adulthood confirmed the diagnosis...
November 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900236/identification-of-two-sulfated-cholesterol-metabolites-found-in-the-urine-of-a-patient-with-niemann-pick-disease-type-c-as-novel-candidate-diagnostic-markers
#12
Masamitsu Maekawa, Kaoru Omura, Shoutaro Sekiguchi, Takashi Iida, Daisuke Saigusa, Hiroaki Yamaguchi, Nariyasu Mano
In the urine of a Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patient, we have identified three characteristic intense peaks that have not been observed in the urine of a 3β-hydroxysteroid-Δ(5)-C27-steroid dehydrogenase deficiency patient or a healthy infant and adult. Based on accurate masses of the protonated molecules, we focused on two of them as candidate NPC diagnostic markers. Two synthesized authentic preparations agreed with the two compounds found in NPC patient urine in regard to both chromatographic behavior and accurate masses of the deprotonated molecules...
2016: Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896853/melanomas-versus-nevi-in-high-risk-patients-under-long-term-monitoring-with-digital-dermatoscopy-do-melanomas-and-nevi-already-differ-at-baseline
#13
P Tschandl, L Hofmann, C Fink, H Kittler, H A Haenssle
BACKGROUND: What lesions to select for a most efficient dermatoscopic monitoring of patients with multiple nevi remains an unresolved issue. OBJECTIVE: To compare the grade of atypia of melanomas and nevi of the same patient at baseline. METHODS: Prospective observational study using 236 dermatoscopic baseline images (59 quartets from 59 patients, each including 1 melanoma detected during follow-up and 3 nevi). Dermatologists (n=26) were asked to assess the "grade of dermatoscopic atypia" on a numerical scale and to identify the melanomas...
November 29, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895719/drabal-novel-method-to-mine-large-high-throughput-screening-assays-using-bayesian-active-learning
#14
Othman Soufan, Wail Ba-Alawi, Moataz Afeef, Magbubah Essack, Panos Kalnis, Vladimir B Bajic
BACKGROUND: Mining high-throughput screening (HTS) assays is key for enhancing decisions in the area of drug repositioning and drug discovery. However, many challenges are encountered in the process of developing suitable and accurate methods for extracting useful information from these assays. Virtual screening and a wide variety of databases, methods and solutions proposed to-date, did not completely overcome these challenges. This study is based on a multi-label classification (MLC) technique for modeling correlations between several HTS assays, meaning that a single prediction represents a subset of assigned correlated labels instead of one label...
2016: Journal of Cheminformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894106/prader-willi-syndrome-due-to-an-unbalanced-de-novo-translocation-t-15-19-q12-p13-3
#15
Vy Dang, Abhilasha Surampalli, Ann M Manzardo, Stephanie Youn, Merlin G Butler, June-Anne Gold, Virginia E Kimonis
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex, multisystem genetic disorder characterized by endocrine, neurologic, and behavioral abnormalities. We report the first case of an unbalanced de novo reciprocal translocation of chromosomes 15 and 19, 45,XY,-15,der(19)t(15;19)(q12;p13.3), resulting in monosomy for the PWS critical chromosome region. Our patient had several typical features of PWS including infantile hypotonia, a poor suck and feeding difficulties, tantrums, skin picking, compulsions, small hands and feet, and food seeking, but not hypopigmentation, a micropenis, cryptorchidism or obesity as common findings seen in PWS at the time of examination at 6 years of age...
November 29, 2016: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891433/the-clinical-presentation-and-outcome-of-the-institutionalized-wandering-mentally-ill-in-india
#16
Gaurav Singh, Nilima Shah, Ritambhara Mehta
INTRODUCTION: There are estimated 400,000 wandering mentally ill persons in India, found in poor physical state wandering on streets and railway stations; mainly treated either by government run Hospitals for Mental Health (HMH) or Psychiatry units of a Government Medical College (GMC). They require psychosocial rehabilitation along with treatment. AIM: To study the presentation, clinical profile and rehabilitative outcome of wandering mentally ill admitted in government psychiatric care facilities...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891341/clinicopathological-study-of-surface-epithelial-tumours-of-the-ovary-an-institutional-study
#17
Nalini Modepalli, Suguna Belur Venugopal
INTRODUCTION: It is an established fact that tumours of ovary inherit a spectrum of histogenetic background, the variety being more than any other organ. Surface epithelial stromal tumours of ovary being the most common type of ovarian tumours form a complicating and baffling subject in the history of oncology and hence, are an interesting topic for study. AIM: The aim of this study was to categorize the surface epithelial tumours of ovary into benign, borderline and malignant, to study their clinical and histopathological pattern and to compare their incidences with other studies...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890675/synergistic-drug-combination-effectively-blocks-ebola-virus-infection
#18
Wei Sun, Shihua He, Carles Martínez-Romero, Jennifer Kouznetsova, Gregory Tawa, Miao Xu, Paul Shinn, Ethan Fisher, Yan Long, Omid Motabar, Shu Yang, Philip E Sanderson, Peter R Williamson, Adolfo García-Sastre, Xiangguo Qiu, Wei Zheng
Although a group of FDA-approved drugs were previously identified with activity against Ebola virus, most of them are not clinically useful because their human blood concentrations are not high enough to inhibit EBOV infection. We screened 795 unique three-drug combinations in an EBOV entry assay. Two sets of three-drug combinations, toremifene-mefloquine-posaconazole and toremifene-clarithromycin-posaconazole, were identified that effectively blocked EBOV entry and were further validated for inhibition of live EBOV infection...
November 24, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888697/whole-body-organization-during-a-symmetric-bimanual-pick-up-task-in-overweight-and-obese-children
#19
Ya-Ching Hung, Melissa Mangiafreno, Simone V Gill
Information on the effects of obesity on the biomechanics of whole body movement control in children is limited. The purpose of the current study is to test the hypothesis that during a simple pick up task, overweight and obese children will organize their whole body movements differently than those in normal weight children. Twelve children who were overweight or obese (5-13 years old) and twelve age matched normal weight children participated in the study. Children picked up an empty box to waist height at a self-selected pace while kinematic and kinetic data were recorded and analyzed using a VICON system and two AMTI force plates...
November 19, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888692/mitochondrial-gsh-replenishment-as-a-potential-therapeutic-approach-for-niemann-pick-type-c-disease
#20
Sandra Torres, Nuria Matías, Anna Baulies, Susana Nuñez, Cristina Alarcon-Vila, Laura Martinez, Natalia Nuño, Anna Fernandez, Joan Caballeria, Thierry Levade, Alba Gonzalez-Franquesa, Pablo Garcia-Rovés, Elisa Balboa, Silvana Zanlungo, Gemma Fabrías, Josefina Casas, Carlos Enrich, Carmen Garcia-Ruiz, José C Fernández-Checa
Niemann Pick type C (NPC) disease is a progressive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in genes encoding NPC1/NPC2 proteins, characterized by neurological defects, hepatosplenomegaly and premature death. While the primary biochemical feature of NPC disease is the intracellular accumulation of cholesterol and gangliosides, predominantly in endolysosomes, mitochondrial cholesterol accumulation has also been reported. As accumulation of cholesterol in mitochondria is known to impair the transport of GSH into mitochondria, resulting in mitochondrial GSH (mGSH) depletion, we investigated the impact of mGSH recovery in NPC disease...
November 20, 2016: Redox Biology
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