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Bibiana Noal Ribas, Daniele Missio, Isac Junior Roman, Normélio Alves Neto, Izaias Claro, Daniela Dos Santos Brum, Fabio Gallas Leivas
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) stimulation prior to ovum pick-up (OPU) on follicular development, number and quality of recovered oocytes, fertilization rate, and early embryo development in vitro. There were four OPU sessions (cross over) conducted on 16 Braford cows to evaluate the effect of various eCG doses. The timing of the wave of ovarian follicular development was synchronized, and three days after, the respective eCG dose was administrated (0, 200, 400, or 800 IU)...
June 9, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Thaís Abritta Zacarias, Taynan Stonoga Kawamoto, João Ricardo Scaliante Júnior, Ana Luiza Silva Guimarães, Maurício Machaim Franco, Ricardo Alamino Figueiredo
The inclusion of pre-pubertal bovine females in reproductive management could allow in vitro embryo production and reduce generation interval, thereby causing faster genetic gain of the herd. However, oocytes of pre-pubertal females have lower competence, blastocyst production, and pregnancy rates than those collected from pubertal animals. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an induced hormonal stimulation on the serum concentrations of Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and FSH, ovarian responses, ovum pick up (OPU), and in vitro produced embryos (IVP) from oocytes obtained from four-to seven-months old Nelore female cattle...
May 31, 2018: Theriogenology
Travis J Morrell, Sailesh Konda, Jane M Grant-Kels
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Linden Lalley-Chareczko, Devon Clark, S Caitlin Conyngham, Athena Zuppa, Ganesh Moorthy, Karam Mounzer, Helen Koenig
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis(PrEP) for HIV prevention with daily TDF/FTC is effective when taken consistently. Currently, there is no objective way to monitor PrEP adherence. Urine has been shown to be highly correlated with plasma tenofovir levels, with urine tenofovir levels >1000ng/mL demonstrating recent(1-2 days) adherence to PrEP. SETTING: The present study was conducted at an urban community health center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. METHODS: PrEP was administered to 50 young men who have sex with men and transgender women of color using weekly, biweekly, and/or monthly dispensation schedules...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Othman Soufan, Wail Ba-Alawi, Arturo Magana-Mora, Magbubah Essack, Vladimir B Bajic
High-throughput screening (HTS) performs the experimental testing of a large number of chemical compounds aiming to identify those active in the considered assay. Alternatively, faster and cheaper methods of large-scale virtual screening are performed computationally through quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models. However, the vast amount of available HTS heterogeneous data and the imbalanced ratio of active to inactive compounds in an assay make this a challenging problem. Although different QSAR models have been proposed, they have certain limitations, e...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Steffen Moritz, Paul H Lysaker
In the last two decades years, several interventions have been designed for people with major psychological disorders that all have "metacognitive" in their name: Metacognitive Therapy (MCT), Metacognitive Training (e.g., for people with psychosis) and Metacognitive Reflection and Insight Therapy (MERIT). Two of these interventions are primarily targeted at patients with schizophrenia. Prompted by a recent discussion about what constitutes "true" metacognitive treatment, we will first explore the original concept of metacognition as defined by James H...
June 12, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Arnulf H Koeppen
This chapter summarizes the neuropathologic features of nonneoplastic disorders of the adult cerebellum. Gait ataxia and extremity dysmetria are clinical manifestations of diseases that interrupt the complex cerebellar circuitry between the neurons of the cerebellar cortex, the cerebellar nuclei (especially the dentate nuclei), and the inferior olivary nuclei. The cerebellum is a prominent target of several sporadic and hereditary neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple system atrophy, spinocerebellar ataxia, and Friedreich ataxia...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Sriram Somanchi, Daniel B Neill, Anil V Parwani
Advances in medical imaging technology have created opportunities for computer-aided diagnostic tools to assist human practitioners in identifying relevant patterns in massive, multiscale digital pathology slides. This work presents Hierarchical Linear Time Subset Scanning, a novel statistical method for pattern detection. Hierarchical Linear Time Subset Scanning exploits the hierarchical structure inherent in data produced through virtual microscopy in order to accurately and quickly identify regions of interest for pathologists to review...
June 13, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
Soo Min Cho, Ayelet Vardi, Nicolas Platt, Anthony H Futerman
Approximately 70 lysosomal storage diseases are currently known, resulting from mutations in genes encoding lysosomal enzymes and membrane proteins. Defects in lysosomal enzymes that hydrolyze sphingolipids have been relatively well studied. Gaucher disease is caused by the loss of activity of glucocerebrosidase, leading to accumulation of glucosylceramide. Gaucher disease exhibits a number of subtypes, with types 2 and 3 showing significant neuropathology. Sandhoff disease results from the defective activity of β-hexosaminidase, leading to accumulation of ganglioside GM2...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Sumihiko Hagita, Maximillian A Rogers, Tan Pham, Jennifer R Wen, Andrew K Mlynarchik, Masanori Aikawa, Elena Aikawa
The sorting receptor Sortilin functions in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Dysfunctional lipid uptake, storage, and metabolism contribute to several major human diseases including atherosclerosis and obesity. Sortilin associates with cardiovascular disease; however, the role of Sortilin in adipose tissue and lipid metabolism remains unclear. Here we show that in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr-/- ) atherosclerosis model, Sortilin deficiency (Sort1-/- ) in female mice suppresses Niemann-Pick type C1-Like 1 (Npc1l1) mRNA levels, reduces body and white adipose tissue weight, and improves brown adipose tissue function partially via transcriptional downregulation of Krüppel-like factor 4 and Liver X receptor...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Hypertension
Yusheng Lin, Xiaolian Caia, Guiping Wang, Gang Ouyang, Hong Cao
Niemann-Pick Type C disease (NPC) is a rare human disease, with limited effective treatment options. Most cases of NPC disease are associated with inactivating mutations of the NPC1 gene. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the NPC1 pathogenesis remain poorly defined. This is partly due to the lack of a suitable animal model to monitor the disease progression. In this study, we used CRISPR to construct an NPC1-/- zebrafish model, which faithfully reproduced the cardinal pathological features of this disease...
June 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Bernhard Gruber, Martijn Froeling, Tim Leiner, Dennis W J Klomp
Radiofrequency (RF) coils are an essential MRI hardware component. They directly impact the spatial and temporal resolution, sensitivity, and uniformity in MRI. Advances in RF hardware have resulted in a variety of designs optimized for specific clinical applications. RF coils are the "antennas" of the MRI system and have two functions: first, to excite the magnetization by broadcasting the RF power (Tx-Coil) and second to receive the signal from the excited spins (Rx-Coil). Transmit RF Coils emit magnetic field pulses ( B1+) to rotate the net magnetization away from its alignment with the main magnetic field (B0 ), resulting in a transverse precessing magnetization...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Ellen Cesewski, Alexander P Haring, Yuxin Tong, Manjot Singh, Rajan Thakur, Sahil Laheri, Kaitlin A Read, Michael D Powell, Kenneth J Oestreich, Blake N Johnson
Three-dimensional (3D) printing now enables the fabrication of 3D structural electronics and microfluidics. Further, conventional subtractive manufacturing processes for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) relatively limit device structure to two dimensions and require post-processing steps for interface with microfluidics. Thus, the objective of this work is to create an additive manufacturing approach for fabrication of 3D microfluidic-based MEMS devices that enables 3D configurations of electromechanical systems and simultaneous integration of microfluidics...
June 13, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Sarah Thome, Daniela Begandt, Robert Pick, Melanie Salvermoser, Barbara Walzog
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil recruitment during acute inflammation critically depends on the spatial and temporal regulation of β2 integrins (CD11/CD18). This regulation occurs by inside-out and outside-in signaling via interaction of cytoplasmic proteins with the intracellular domains of the integrin α- and β-subunits. The underlying molecular mechanisms regulating β2 integrins in neutrophils are still incompletely understood. AIM: This review provides a comprehensive overview of our current knowledge on proteins interacting with the cytoplasmic tail of CD18, the conserved β-subunit of β2 integrins, their regulation and their functional importance for neutrophil trafficking during acute inflammation...
June 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Theodore L Steck, Yvonne Lange
The transverse asymmetry (sidedness) of phospholipids in plasma membrane bilayers is well characterized, distinctive, actively maintained and functionally important. In contrast, numerous studies using a variety of techniques have concluded that plasma membrane bilayer cholesterol is either mostly in the outer leaflet or the inner leaflet or is fairly evenly distributed. Sterols might simply partition according to their differing affinities for the asymmetrically-disposed phospholipids, but some studies have proposed that it is actively transported to the outer leaflet...
June 13, 2018: Traffic
Anowarul Habib, Sanat Wagle, Adit Decharat, Frank Melandsø
High-frequency unfocused polymer array transducers are developed using an adhesive-free layer-by-layer assembly method. The current paper focuses on experimental and numerical methods for measuring the acoustic performance of these types of array transducers. Two different types of numerical approaches were used to simulate the transducer performance, including a finite element method (FEM) study of the transducer response done in COMSOL 5.2a Multiphysics, and modeling of the excited ultrasonic pressure fields using the open source software k-Wave 1...
June 12, 2018: Sensors
P M D'Aoust, F R Pick, R Wang, A Poulain, C Rennie, L Chen, C Kinsley, R Delatolla
Stormwater retention ponds can play a critical role in mitigating the detrimental effects of urbanization on receiving waters that result from increases in polluted runoff. However, the benthic oxygen demand of stormwater facilities may cause significant hypoxia and trigger the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S). This process is not well-documented and further research is needed to characterize benthic processes in stormwater retention ponds in order to improve their design and operation. In this study, sediment oxygen demand (SOD), sediment ammonia release (SAR) and sediment sulfide production (SSP) kinetics were characterized in situ and in the laboratory...
June 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Vivek Tiwari, Dickey R Marak, Maximilian Muellner, Christoph Resinger, Thomas Muellner
Medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries are the most common knee ligament injuries. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the investigation of choice for detecting such injuries. We report two cases of acute grade 3 MCL tears in young adults in which the injury was suspected clinically and was later confirmed by surgical exploration. However, the MRI failed to pick up the exact nature of injury. This report signifies the importance of an appropriate clinical examination for MCL injuries and stresses that decision-making for treatment should be based on the clinical examination rather than the MRI...
March 1, 2018: Curēus
Jeff Hanna, Friedemann Pulvermüller
Separable affix verbs consist of a stem and a derivational affix, which, in some languages can appear together or in discontinuous, distributed form, e.g., German "aufgreifen" and "greifen … auf" ["up-pick(ing)" and "pick … up"]. Certain stems can combine with only certain affixes. However, many such combinations are evaluated not as clearly correct or incorrect, but frequently take an intermediate status with participants rating them ambiguously. Here, we mapped brain responses to combinations of verb stems and affixes realized in short sentences, including more and less common particle verbs, borderline acceptable combinations and clear violations...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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