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Richard G Fried, George Kroumpouzos
Management of patients who pick at their skin is often difficult. Etiologies and maintaining factors are often unclear. Significant psychiatric overlay is often present, and the clinician is left with an overwhelming differential diagnosis and poorly focused treatment plans which can result in suboptimal clinical outcomes. The purpose of this article is to provide a conceptual framework for the evaluation and treatment of a patient presenting with excoriations. Ten diagnostic categories of "pickers" are examined, and specific suggestions for treatment are offered...
April 18, 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Andrew Octavian Sasmita, Joshua Kuruvilla, Anna Pick Kiong Ling
Neurological diseases and injuries to the nervous system may cause inadvertent damage to neuronal and synaptic structures. Such phenomenon would catastrophically accumulate, leading to the development of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders which might affect memory, cognition, and motoric functions. The body has various negative feedback systems which are able to induce beneficial neuroplastic changes in mediating some neuronal damage, however, such efforts are often not enough to ameliorate the derogatory changes...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
James Lee, Graham Webb, Adam P Shortland, Rebecca Edwards, Charlotte Wilce, Gareth D Jones
BACKGROUND: Impairments in dynamic balance have a detrimental effect in older adults at risk of falls (OARF). Gait initiation (GI) is a challenging transitional movement. Centre of pressure (COP) excursions using force plates have been used to measure GI performance. The Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB) offers an alternative to a standard force plate for the measurement of CoP excursion. AIMS: To determine the reliability of COP excursions using the WBB, and its feasibility within a 4-week strength and balance intervention (SBI) treating OARF...
April 17, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Min Lin, Gonglin Hou, Ying Zhao, Ti-Fei Yuan
Chronic stress results in neurochemical, physiological, immune, molecular, cellular, and structural changes in the brain and often dampens the cognition. The hippocampus has been one major focus in studying the stress responsivity and neural mechanisms underlying depression. Both acute and chronic stress stimuli lead to dynamic changes in excitatory transmission in the hippocampus. The present study examined the potential effects of spontaneous recovery after chronic stress on spatial memory function and glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampus...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Leslie Z Benet
Individualization of patient drug dosing to maximize efficacy and minimize toxicity is the goal of clinical pharmacology. Here we review the history of drug dosing individualization from early predictions for renally eliminated drugs based on kidney function through the introduction of clearance concepts for metabolic processes, the differentiation of volume of distribution between pharmacokinetics and chemistry, the role of transporters, the unique pharmacokinetic aspects of oral dosing, and the relevance of protein binding to the emergence of pharmacogenomics...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Martin Wolkewitz, Micha Mandel, Mercedes Palomar-Martinez, Francisco Alvarez-Lerma, Pedro Olaechea-Astigarraga, Martin Schumacher
PURPOSE: To explore the impact of length-biased sampling on the evaluation of risk factors of nosocomial infections (NIs) in point-prevalence studies. METHODS: We used cohort data with full information including the exact date of the NI and mimicked an artificial 1-day prevalence study by picking a sample from this cohort study. Based on the cohort data, we studied the underlying multistate model which accounts for NI as an intermediate and discharge/death as competing events...
April 3, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Nao Imai, Mika Kitayama, Akiko Shibahara, Yuri Bessho, Mai Shibusawa, Aya Noro, Keiko Inakami, Noriko Hanamura, Hiroshi Imai, Tomoko Ogawa
BACKGROUND: After the ACOSOG Z0011 trial, it became important to evaluate the number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes (LNs) preoperatively. The purpose of this paper is to confirm whether the number of metastases can be accurately diagnosed by preoperative computed tomography (CT), ultrasound sonography (US), and US-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the axillary LNs finding of preoperative CT/US of 470 breast cancer patients...
April 13, 2018: Asian Journal of Surgery
Austin John Maddy, Antonella Tosti
BACKGROUND: Onychotillomania is a nail-picking disorder characterized by nail dystrophy and abnormal morphology of the nail plate, nail bed, and periungual skin. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the dermoscopic features of onychotillomania. METHODS: A retrospective study of the dermoscopy images of 36 patients affected by onychotillomania. The images were reviewed independently by both authors and a list of dermatoscopic findings was established...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Emily K Pugach, McKenna Feltes, Randal J Kaufman, Daniel S Ory, Anne G Bang
Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) is a rare lysosomal storage disease caused primarily by mutations in NPC1. NPC1 encodes the lysosomal cholesterol transport protein NPC1. The most common NPC1 mutation is a missense mutation (NPC1I1061T) that causes misfolding and rapid degradation of mutant protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. Cholesterol accumulates in enlarged lysosomes as a result of decreased levels of lysosomal NPC1I1061T protein in patient cells. There is currently no cure or FDA-approved treatment for patients...
April 12, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Sharon Guffy, Frank Teets, Minnie Langlois, Brian Kuhlman
We have developed a set of protocols in the molecular modeling program Rosetta for performing requirement-driven protein design. First, the user specifies a set of structural features that they wish to be present in the designed protein. These requirements can be general, e.g. create a protein with five helices, or they can be very specific and require the correct placement of a set of amino acids to bind a ligand. Next, a large set of protein models are generated that satisfy the design requirements. The models are built using a method we recently introduced into Rosetta, called SEWING, that rapidly assembles novel protein backbones by combining pieces of naturally occurring proteins...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Yanan Li, Zhaoqing Zhou, Xiaomin Zhao, Hua Zhao, Xin Qu
Hydrophilic polymers are widely used in the cosmetics industry as thickening agents/rheology modifiers. These thickening agents have different chemical structures which affect the rheological properties, as well as the sensory attributes of the formula. Systematic study is important to determine the relationship among them. Six commonly used hydrophilic polymers, including cellulose derivatives and synthetic polymers, were used as thickening agents in a series of oil-in-water emulsions. The rheological properties were evaluated in relation to the thickening mechanism and polymer structures...
January 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Science
Yu Nakamura, Kaoru Suzuki
We evaluated a handling method using tunnels to tame laboratory mice (ICR) in the context of animal welfare and ease of handling. During 1-week acclimation to handling and subsequent 1-week oral administration (once per day), voluntary interaction with the experimenter was much greater in mice handled by a tunnel compared to those picked up by the tail. According to a rating of the ease of handling laboratory mice, a tunnel facilitated mouse handling during acclimation to handling and oral gavage of saline compared to tail handling...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
John Melrose, Borja Roman-Corrochano, Marcela Montoya-Guerra, Serafim Bakalis
This paper describes new results from a base model of brewing from a bed of packed coffee grains. The model solves for the diffusion of soluble species out of a distribution of particles into the flow through the bed pore space. It requires a limited set of input parameters. It gives a simple picture of the basics physics of coffee brewing and sets out a set of reduced variables for this process. The importance of bed extraction efficiency is elucidated. A coffee brewing control chart has been widely used to describe the region of ideal coffee brewing for some 50 years...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Sandra Markmann, Jasmine Reid, Jonathan B Rosenberg, Bishnu P De, Stephen M Kaminsky, Ronald G Crystal, Dolan Sondhi
Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2) disease is a rare, neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the NPC2 gene, leading to lysosomal accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and other lipids. It is characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, liver dysfunction and severe neurological manifestations, resulting in early death. There is no effective therapy for NPC2 disease. Here, we evaluated the effectiveness of an adeno-associated virus (AAV), serotype rh.10 gene transfer vector expressing the mouse Npc2 gene (AAVrh...
April 12, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Immacolata Iovinella, Alison McAfee, Guido Mastrobuoni, Stefan Kempa, Leonard J Foster, Paolo Pelosi, Francesca Romana Dani
We have performed a proteomic analysis on chemosensory organs of Varroa destructor, the honey bee mite, in order to identify putative soluble carriers for pheromones and other olfactory cues emitted by the host. In particular, we have analysed forelegs, mouthparts (palps, chelicera and hypostome) and the second pair of legs (as control tissue) in reproductive and phoretic stages of the Varroa life cycle. We identified 958 Varroa proteins, most of them common to the different organs and stages. Sequence analysis shows that four proteins can be assigned to the odorant-binding protein (OBP)-like class, which bear some similarity to insect OBPs, but so far have only been reported in some Chelicerata...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Jin-Cheng Zheng, Shao-Lei Sun, Xiao-Rong Yue, Tong-Xian Liu, Xiangfeng Jing
Sterols are essential nutrients for eukaryotes. Insects are obligate sterol auxotrophs and must acquire this key nutrient from their diets. The digestive tract is the organ for absorbing nutrients as well as sterols from food. In mice, the Niemann-Pick type C1 Like 1 (NPC1L1) gene is highly expressed in the intestine and is critical for cholesterol absorption. In contrast, the molecular mechanisms for the absorption of dietary sterols in insects have not been well studied. We annotated NPC1 genes in 39 insects from 10 orders using available genomic and transcriptomic information and inferred phylogenetic relationships...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Whoan Jeang Kim, Jae Won Lee, Seok Young Hwang, Kun Young Park, Shann Haw Chang, Dae Geon Song, Won Sik Choy
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective single center study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate 1) the activity of daily living (ADL) of three categorized patients group; over sixty-year old degenerative spine patients without adult spinal deformity (ASD), non-operative ASD patients, and operative ASD patients, 2) what kinds of activities would be impaired, and 3) how the ADL changes over time after long level fusion. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: There is still debate how surgeons could decide treatment methods for old aged adult spinal deformity, operatively or not...
April 11, 2018: Spine
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
S W Zhu, Z J Liu, M Li, H Q Zhu, L P Duan
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the same biological conclusion, diagnostic or curative effects regarding microbial composition of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients could be reached through different bioinformatics pipelines, we used two common bioinformatics pipelines (Uparse V2.0 and Mothur V1.39.5)to analyze the same fecal microbial 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing data. METHODS: The two pipelines were used to analyze the diversity and richness of fecal microbial 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing data of 27 samples, including 9 healthy controls (HC group), 9 diarrhea IBS patients before (IBS group) and after Rifaximin treatment (IBS-treatment, IBSt group)...
April 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Huiyang Ding, Chaoyang Shi, Li Ma, Zhan Yang, Mingyu Wang, Yaqiong Wang, Tao Chen, Lining Sun, Fukuda Toshio
The maneuvering and electrical characterization of nanotubes inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) has historically been time-consuming and laborious for operators. Before the development of automated nanomanipulation-enabled techniques for the performance of pick-and-place and characterization of nanoobjects, these functions were still incomplete and largely operated manually. In this paper, a dual-probe nanomanipulation system vision-based feedback was demonstrated to automatically perform 3D nanomanipulation tasks, to investigate the electrical characterization of nanotubes...
April 8, 2018: Sensors
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