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brain rhythms

Yiran Ao, Qin Zhao, Kai Yang, Gang Zheng, Xiaoqing Lv, Xiaoli Su
Clock genes are the core of the circadian rhythms in the human body and are important in regulating normal physiological functions. To date, research has indicated that the clock gene, period circadian clock 2 ( PER2 ), is downregulated in numerous types of cancer, and that it is associated with cancer occurrence and progression via the regulation of various downstream cell cycle genes. However, it remains unclear whether the decreased expression of PER2 influences the expression of other clock genes in cancer cells...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Jihwan Myung, Christoph Schmal, Sungho Hong, Yoshiaki Tsukizawa, Pia Rose, Yong Zhang, Michael J Holtzman, Erik De Schutter, Hanspeter Herzel, Grigory Bordyugov, Toru Takumi
Mammalian circadian clocks have a hierarchical organization, governed by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus. The brain itself contains multiple loci that maintain autonomous circadian rhythmicity, but the contribution of the non-SCN clocks to this hierarchy remains unclear. We examine circadian oscillations of clock gene expression in various brain loci and discovered that in mouse, robust, higher amplitude, relatively faster oscillations occur in the choroid plexus (CP) compared to the SCN...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Jan Cosgrave, Katharina Wulff, Philip Gehrman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is designed to give an overview of the latest developments in research exploring the relationship between sleep and psychosis, with particular attention paid to the evidence for a causal relationship between the two. RECENT FINDINGS: The most interesting avenues currently in pursuit are focused upon sleep spindle deficits which may hallmark an endophenotype; explorations of the continuum of psychotic experiences, and experimental manipulations to explore the evidence for bidirectional causality; inflammatory markers, psychosis and sleep disturbances and finally, treatment approaches for sleep in psychosis and the subsequent impact on positive experiences...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Kyle P Lillis, Kevin J Staley
For over a century, epileptic seizures have been characterized as a state of pathological, hypersynchronous brain activity. Anti-epileptic therapies have been developed largely based on the dogma that the altered brain rhythms result from an overabundance of glutamatergic activity or insufficient GABAergic inhibition. The most effective drugs in use today act to globally decrease excitation, increase inhibition, or decrease all activity. Unfortunately, such broad alterations to brain activity often lead to impactful side effects such as mood disordersdrowsiness, cognitive impairment, and sleep disruption...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Jaebong Jang, Sooyoung Chung, Youjeong Choi, Hye Young Lim, Yeongeon Son, Sung Kook Chun, Gi Hoon Son, Kyungjin Kim, Young-Ger Suh, Jong-Wha Jung
AIMS: We have previously identified a chemical scaffold possessing 2-ethoxypropanoic acid (designated as KS15) that directly binds to the C-terminal region of cryptochromes (CRYs: CRY1 and CRY2) and enhances E-box-mediated transcription. However, it is still unclear how KS15 impairs the feedback actions of the CRYs and which chemical moieties are functionally important for its actions. MAIN METHODS: The E-box-mediated transcriptional activities were mainly used to examine the effects of KS15 and its derivatives...
March 10, 2018: Life Sciences
Ning Zhuang, Ying Zeng, Kai Yang, Chi Zhang, Li Tong, Bin Yan
Most current approaches to emotion recognition are based on neural signals elicited by affective materials such as images, sounds and videos. However, the application of neural patterns in the recognition of self-induced emotions remains uninvestigated. In this study we inferred the patterns and neural signatures of self-induced emotions from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The EEG signals of 30 participants were recorded while they watched 18 Chinese movie clips which were intended to elicit six discrete emotions, including joy, neutrality, sadness, disgust, anger and fear...
March 12, 2018: Sensors
Andrew C Parrott
Many novel psychoactive substances (NPS) have entered the recreational drug scene in recent years, yet the problems they cause are similar to those found with established drugs. This article will debate the psychobiological effects of these newer and more traditional substances. It will show how they disrupt the same core psychobiological functions, so damaging well-being in similar ways. Every psychoactive drug causes mood states to fluctuate. Users feel better on-drug, then feel worse off-drug. The strength of these mood fluctuations is closely related to their addiction potential...
March 13, 2018: Brain Sciences
William D S Killgore, Haley C Kent, Sara A Knight, Anna Alkozei
Humans demonstrate a circadian rhythm of melatonin production that closely tracks the daily light/dark cycle, with profound increases in circulating levels during the night-time and nearly nonexistent levels during daylight hours. Although melatonin is known to play a role in preparing the brain and body for sleep, its effects on cognition and brain function are not well understood. We hypothesized that declines in morning melatonin would be associated with increased functional activation within cortical regions involved in alertness, attention, and executive function...
March 9, 2018: Neuroreport
Shirley L Zhang, Zhifeng Yue, Denice M Arnold, Gregory Artiushin, Amita Sehgal
Endogenous circadian rhythms are thought to modulate responses to external factors, but mechanisms that confer time-of-day differences in organismal responses to environmental insults/therapeutic treatments are poorly understood. Using a xenobiotic, we find that permeability of the Drosophila "blood"-brain barrier (BBB) is higher at night. The permeability rhythm is driven by circadian regulation of efflux and depends on a molecular clock in the perineurial glia of the BBB, although efflux transporters are restricted to subperineurial glia (SPG)...
February 27, 2018: Cell
Ji-Liang Zhang, Min Liu, Chun-Nuan Zhang, Er-Chao Li, Ming-Zhen Fan, Mao-Xian Huang
The brain of fish displays sexual dimorphisms and exhibits remarkable sexual plasticity throughout their life span. Although reproductive toxicity of tributyltin (TBT) in fish is well documented in fish, it remains unknown whether TBT interrupts sexual dimorphisms of fish brains. In this work, brain transcriptomic profiles of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was characterized and sex-biased genes were identified using RNA sequencing. Functional annotation and enrichment analysis were performed to reveal differences of gene products and pathways between the brains of male and female fish...
March 7, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Dissanayake Mudiyanselage Priyantha Udaya Kumara Ralapanawa, Kulatunga Wijekoon Mudiyanselage Pramitha Prabhashini Kumarihamy, Miriyalini Sundararajah, Widana Arachchilage Thilak Ananda Jayalath
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic myocarditis is one of the fatal complications of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndromes. Given the rarity of this form of myocarditis, it is often under-recognized. We describe a young girl who presented with features of heart failure. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of eosinophilic myocarditis in a young Sri Lankan female. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 21 year old Sri Lankan female admitted with shortness of breath for 1 week duration with associated low grade fever and profuse sweating...
March 9, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Christian I Penaloza, Maryam Alimardani, Shuichi Nishio
EEG-based brain computer interface (BCI) systems have demonstrated potential to assist patients with devastating motor paralysis conditions. However, there is great interest in shifting the BCI trend toward applications aimed at healthy users. Although BCI operation depends on technological factors (i.e., EEG pattern classification algorithm) and human factors (i.e., how well the person can generate good quality EEG patterns), it is the latter that is least investigated. In order to control a motor imagery-based BCI, users need to learn to modulate their sensorimotor brain rhythms by practicing motor imagery using a classical training protocol with an abstract visual feedback...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Yuki Ohba, Hajime Tei
Circadian rhythms are generated by the cyclic expression of several clock genes in mammals. The rhythmic expression of these genes is maintained by multiple transcriptional-translational feedback loops in addition to the posttranslational regulation of the clock proteins. Transcription of one of the key clock genes, Bmal1, which exhibits a nocturnal transcriptional rhythm in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the mouse brain, is induced and repressed by RORs and REV-ERBs, respectively. Thus, the dynamics of the RORs and REV-ERBs expression, modification, subcellular localization and degradation of these transcriptional factors are critical for the transcriptional regulation of Bmal1...
March 6, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Philip R Holland, Mads Barloese, Jan Fahrenkrug
The interaction between sleep and primary headaches has gained considerable interest due to their strong, bidirectional, clinical relationship. Several primary headaches demonstrate either a circadian/circannual rhythmicity in attack onset or are directly associated with sleep itself. Migraine and cluster headache both show distinct attack patterns and while the underlying mechanisms of this circadian variation in attack onset remain to be fully explored, recent evidence points to clear physiological, anatomical and genetic points of convergence...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
Hillel Adesnik
A pair of 2009 papers by Cardin et al. and Sohal et al. marked a watershed moment as optogenetics exploded onto the scene of systems neuroscience. This pair of back-to-back papers in the June issue of Nature leveraged a powerful combination of the Cre/lox system, adeno-associated viral gene vectors, and optogenetics to re-examine the circuit basis of neuronal synchronization.
March 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
Lauric A Ferrat, Marc Goodfellow, John R Terry
Neural mass models (NMMs) are increasingly used to uncover the large-scale mechanisms of brain rhythms in health and disease. The dynamics of these models is dependent upon the choice of parameters, and therefore it is crucial to be able to understand how dynamics change when parameters are varied. Despite being considered low dimensional in comparison to micro-scale, neuronal network models, with regards to understanding the relationship between parameters and dynamics, NMMs are still prohibitively high dimensional for classical approaches such as numerical continuation...
March 2, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Kathleen Sullivan, Harry Pantazopoulos, Elizabeth Liebson, T-U W Woo, Ross J Baldessarini, John Hedreen, Sabina Berretta
Postmortem studies on the human brain reside at the core of investigations on neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Ground-breaking advances continue to be made on the pathologic basis of many of these disorders, at molecular, cellular, and neural connectivity levels. In parallel, there is increasing emphasis on improving methods to extract relevant demographic and clinical information about brain donors and, importantly, translate it into measures that can reliably and effectively be incorporated in the design and data analysis of postmortem human investigations...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Shanzhi Xu, Hai Hu, Linhong Ji, Peng Wang
The recorded electroencephalography (EEG) signal is often contaminated with different kinds of artifacts and noise. Singular spectrum analysis (SSA) is a powerful tool for extracting the brain rhythm from a noisy EEG signal. By analyzing the frequency characteristics of the reconstructed component (RC) and the change rate in the trace of the Toeplitz matrix, it is demonstrated that the embedding dimension is related to the frequency bandwidth of each reconstructed component, in consistence with the component mixing in the singular value decomposition step...
February 26, 2018: Sensors
Charlotte Gary, Anne-Sophie Hérard, Zoé Hanss, Marc Dhenain
Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in the brain is a critical early event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder. There is increasing interest in measuring levels of plasma Aβ since this could help in diagnosis of brain pathology. However, the value of plasma Aβ in such a diagnosis is still controversial and factors modulating its levels are still poorly understood. The mouse lemur ( Microcebus murinus ) is a primate model of cerebral aging which can also present with amyloid plaques and whose Aβ is highly homologous to humans'...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Xiaozheng Liu, Wei Chen, Yunhai Tu, Hongtao Hou, Xiaoyan Huang, Xingli Chen, Zhongwei Guo, Guanghui Bai, Wei Chen
Hypothalamic communication with the rest of the brain is critical for accomplishing a wide variety of physiological and psychological functions, including the maintenance of neuroendocrine circadian rhythms and the management of affective processes. Evidence has shown that major depressive disorder (MDD) patients exhibit increased functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Neurofibrillary tangles are also found in the hypothalamus of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and AD patients exhibit abnormal changes in the HPA...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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