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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933672/single-neuron-activity-and-theta-modulation-in-the-posterior-parietal-cortex-in-a-visuospatial-attention-task
#1
Fang-Chi Yang, T K Jacobson, R D Burwell
The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is implicated in directing and maintaining visual attention to locations in space. We hypothesized that the PPC also engages other cognitive processes in the transformation of behaviorally relevant visual inputs into appropriate actions, for example, monitoring of multiple locations, selection of responses to locations in space, and monitoring the outcome of response selections. We recorded single cells and local field potentials in the rat PPC during performance on a novel visuospatial attention (VSA) task that requires visually monitoring locations in space in order to make appropriate stimulus-guided locomotor responses...
December 9, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927961/nasal-respiration-entrains-human-limbic-oscillations-and-modulates-cognitive-function
#2
Christina Zelano, Heidi Jiang, Guangyu Zhou, Nikita Arora, Stephan Schuele, Joshua Rosenow, Jay A Gottfried
: The need to breathe links the mammalian olfactory system inextricably to the respiratory rhythms that draw air through the nose. In rodents and other small animals, slow oscillations of local field potential activity are driven at the rate of breathing (∼2-12 Hz) in olfactory bulb and cortex, and faster oscillatory bursts are coupled to specific phases of the respiratory cycle. These dynamic rhythms are thought to regulate cortical excitability and coordinate network interactions, helping to shape olfactory coding, memory, and behavior...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925286/bone-resorption-is-regulated-by-circadian-clock-in-osteoblasts
#3
Takeshi Takarada, Cheng Xu, Hiroki Ochi, Ryota Nakazato, Daisuke Yamada, Saki Nakamura, Ayumi Kodama, Shigeki Shimba, Michihiro Mieda, Kazuya Fukasawa, Kakeru Ozaki, Takashi Iezaki, Koichi Fujikawa, Yukio Yoneda, Rika Numano, Akiko Hida, Hajime Tei, Shu Takeda, Eiichi Hinoi
We have previously shown that endochondral ossification is finely regulated by the Clock system expressed in chondrocytes during postnatal skeletogenesis. Here we show a sophisticated modulation of bone resorption and bone mass by the Clock system through its expression in bone-forming osteoblasts. Brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1 (Bmal1) and Period1 (Per1) were expressed with oscillatory rhythmicity in the bone in vivo, and circadian rhythm was also observed in cultured osteoblasts of Per1::luciferase transgenic mice...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923638/dance-and-music-share-gray-matter-structural-correlates
#4
Falisha J Karpati, Chiara Giacosa, Nicholas E V Foster, Virginia B Penhune, Krista L Hyde
Intensive practise of sensorimotor skills, such as music and dance, is associated with brain structural plasticity. While the neural correlates of music have been well-investigated, less is known about the neural correlates of dance. Additionally, the gray matter structural correlates of dance versus music training have not yet been directly compared. The objectives of the present study were to compare gray matter structure as measured by surface- and voxel-based morphometry between expert dancers, expert musicians and untrained controls, as well as to correlate gray matter structure with performance on dance- and music-related tasks...
December 3, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923457/micrornas-in-the-hypothalamus
#5
REVIEW
Mohammed Taouis
The brain is considered a major site for microRNA (miRNA) expression; as evidenced by several studies reporting microarray data of different brain substructures. The hypothalamus is among the brain regions that plays a crucial role in integrating signals from other brain nuclei as well as environmental, hormonal, metabolic and neuronal signals from the periphery in order to deliver an adequate response. The hypothalamus controls vital functions such as reproduction, energy homeostasis, water balance, circadian rhythm and stress...
October 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920039/systems-chronobiology-global-analysis-of-gene-regulation-in-a-24-hour-periodic-world
#6
Jérôme Mermet, Jake Yeung, Felix Naef
Mammals have evolved an internal timing system, the circadian clock, which synchronizes physiology and behavior to the daily light and dark cycles of the Earth. The master clock, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain, takes fluctuating light input from the retina and synchronizes other tissues to the same internal rhythm. The molecular clocks that drive these circadian rhythms are ticking in nearly all cells in the body. Efforts in systems chronobiology are now being directed at understanding, on a comprehensive scale, how the circadian clock controls different layers of gene regulation to provide robust timing cues at the cellular and tissue level...
December 5, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919294/heantos-4-a-natural-plant-extract-used-in-the-treatment-of-drug-addiction-modulates-t-type-calcium-channels-and-thalamocortical-burst-firing
#7
Stuart M Cain, Soyon Ahn, Esperanza Garcia, Yiming Zhang, Zeina Waheed, John R Tyson, Yi Yang, Tran Van Sung, Anthony G Phillips, Terrance P Snutch
Heantos-4 is a refined combination of plant extracts currently approved to treat opiate addiction in Vietnam. In addition to its beneficial effects on withdrawal and prevention of relapse, reports of sedation during clinical treatment suggest that arousal networks in the brain may be recruited during Heantos administration. T-type calcium channels are implicated in the generation of sleep rhythms and in this study we examined whether a Heantos-4 extraction modulates T-type calcium channel currents generated by the Cav3...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915477/treadmill-exercise-improves-memory-function-depending-on-circadian-rhythm-changes-in-mice
#8
Dong Sup Hwang, Hyo Bum Kwak, Il Gyu Ko, Sung Eun Kim, Jun Jang Jin, Eun Sang Ji, Hyun Hee Choi, Oh Young Kwon
PURPOSE: Exercise enhances memory function by increasing neurogenesis in the hippocampus, and circadian rhythms modulate synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. The circadian rhythm-dependent effects of treadmill exercise on memory function in relation with neurogenesis were investigated using mice. METHODS: The step-down avoidance test was used to evaluate short-term memory, the 8-arm maze test was used to test spatial learning ability, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine immunofluorescence was used to assess neurogenesis...
November 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913791/circadian-transcription-factor-bmal1-regulates-innate-immunity-against-select-rna-viruses
#9
Tanmay Majumdar, Jayeeta Dhar, Sonal Patel, Roman Kondratov, Sailen Barik
BMAL1 (brain and muscle ARNT-like protein 1, also known as MOP3 or ARNT3) belongs to the family of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS domain-containing transcription factors, and is a key component of the molecular oscillator that generates circadian rhythms. Here, we report that BMAL1-deficient cells are significantly more susceptible to infection by two major respiratory viruses of the Paramyxoviridae family, namely RSV and PIV3. Embryonic fibroblasts from Bmal1(-/-) mice produced nearly 10-fold more progeny virus than their wild type controls...
December 1, 2016: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911598/type-3-deiodinase-role-on-central-thyroid-hormone-action-affects-the-leptin-melanocortin-system-and-circadian-activity
#10
Zhaofei Wu, M Elena Martinez, Donald L St Germain, Arturo Hernandez
The role of thyroid hormones (TH) in the central regulation of energy balance is increasingly appreciated. Mice lacking the type 3 deiodinase (DIO3), which inactivates TH, have decreased circulating TH levels relative to control mice due to defects in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. However, we have shown that the TH status of the adult Dio3(-/-) brain is opposite that of the serum, exhibiting enhanced levels of TH action. Since the brain, specially the hypothalamus, harbors important circuitries that regulate metabolism, we aimed to examine the energy balance phenotype of Dio3(-/-) mice and determine whether it is associated with hypothalamic abnormalities...
December 2, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899890/causal-role-of-thalamic-interneurons-in-brain-state-transitions-a-study-using-a-neural-mass-model-implementing-synaptic-kinetics
#11
Basabdatta Sen Bhattacharya, Thomas P Bond, Louise O'Hare, Daniel Turner, Simon J Durrant
Experimental studies on the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) of mammals and rodents show that the inhibitory interneurons (IN) receive around 47.1% of their afferents from the retinal spiking neurons, and constitute around 20-25% of the LGN cell population. However, there is a definite gap in knowledge about the role and impact of IN on thalamocortical dynamics in both experimental and model-based research. We use a neural mass computational model of the LGN with three neural populations viz. IN, thalamocortical relay (TCR), thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), to study the causality of IN on LGN oscillations and state-transitions...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888766/circadian-time-dependent-antioxidant-and-inflammatory-responses-to-acute-cadmium-exposure-in-the-brain-of-zebrafish
#12
Jia-Lang Zheng, Shuang-Shuang Yuan, Chang-Wen Wu, Zhen-Ming Lv, Ai-Yi Zhu
Up to date, little information is available on effects of circadian rhythm on metal-induced toxicity in fish. In this study, zebrafish were acutely exposed to 0.97mgL(-1) cadmium for 12h either at ZT0 (the light intensity began to reached maximum) or at ZT12 (light intensity began to reached minimum) to evaluate the temporal sensitivity of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in the brain of zebrafish. Profiles of responses of some genes at mRNA, protein and activity levels were different between ZT0 and ZT12 in the normal water...
November 18, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885322/nedley-depression-hit-hypothesis-identifying-depression-and-its-causes
#13
REVIEW
Neil Nedley, Francisco E Ramirez
Depression is often diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria. We propose how certain lifestyle choices and non-modifiable factors can predict the development of depression. We identified 10 cause categories (hits or "blows" to the brain) and theorize that four or more active hits could trigger a depression episode. Methods. A sample of 4271 participants from our community-based program (70% female; ages 17-94 years) was assessed at baseline and at the eighth week of the program using a custom test...
November 2016: American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885006/mechanisms-linking-circadian-clocks-sleep-and-neurodegeneration
#14
REVIEW
Erik S Musiek, David M Holtzman
Disruptions of normal circadian rhythms and sleep cycles are consequences of aging and can profoundly affect health. Accumulating evidence indicates that circadian and sleep disturbances, which have long been considered symptoms of many neurodegenerative conditions, may actually drive pathogenesis early in the course of these diseases. In this Review, we explore potential cellular and molecular mechanisms linking circadian dysfunction and sleep loss to neurodegenerative diseases, with a focus on Alzheimer's disease...
November 25, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884951/glycaemic-control-by-monoamine-oxidase-inhibition-in-a-patient-with-type-1-diabetes
#15
Hamlin Emory, Neptune Mizrahi
We present clinical, electroencephalographic and low-resolution electromagnetic tomography data that support combined treatment with insulin and a monoamine oxidase inhibitor in a patient with type 1 diabetes. We suggest that brain imaging data can identify a subgroup of patients who are likely to benefit from an insulin regimen and monoamine oxidase inhibition to improve glycaemic control, cardiovascular function, normalize the circadian rhythm and restore perception of glycaemic awareness.
November 24, 2016: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883893/circadian-alterations-during-early-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease-are-associated-with-aberrant-cycles-of-dna-methylation-in-bmal1
#16
Peter Cronin, Michael J McCarthy, Andrew S P Lim, David P Salmon, Douglas Galasko, Eliezer Masliah, Philip L De Jager, David A Bennett, Paula Desplats
INTRODUCTION: Circadian alterations are prevalent in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may contribute to cognitive impairment, behavioral symptoms, and neurodegeneration. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate the circadian clock, and changes in DNA methylation have been reported in AD brains, but the pathways that mediate circadian deregulation in AD are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that aberrant DNA methylation may affect circadian rhythms in AD. METHODS: We investigated DNA methylation, transcription, and expression of BMAL1, a positive regulator of the circadian clock, in cultured fibroblasts and brain samples from two independent cohorts of aging and AD...
November 21, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883068/-cerebellar-contribution-to-visuo-attentional-alpha-rhythm-insights-from-weightlessness
#17
A M Cebolla, M Petieau, B Dan, L Balazs, J McIntyre, G Cheron
Human brain adaptation in weightlessness follows the necessity to reshape the dynamic integration of the neural information acquired in the new environment. This basic aspect was here studied by the electroencephalogram (EEG) dynamics where oscillatory modulations were measured during a visuo-attentional state preceding a visuo-motor docking task. Astronauts in microgravity conducted the experiment in free-floating aboard the International Space Station, before the space flight and afterwards. We observed stronger power decrease (~ERD: event related desynchronization) of the ~10 Hz oscillation from the occipital-parietal (alpha ERD) to the central areas (mu ERD)...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881788/brain-network-mechanisms-underlying-motor-enhancement-by-transcranial-entrainment-of-gamma-oscillations
#18
Marius Moisa, Rafael Polania, Marcus Grueschow, Christian C Ruff
: Gamma and beta oscillations are routinely observed in motor-related brain circuits during movement preparation and execution. Entrainment of gamma or beta oscillations via transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) over primary motor cortex (M1) has opposite effects on motor performance, suggesting a causal role of these brain rhythms for motor control. However, it is largely unknown which brain mechanisms characterize these changes in motor performance brought about by tACS...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876310/impact-of-atrial-natriuretic-peptide-value-for-predicting-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-in-ischemic-stroke-patients
#19
Hiroshi Shiroto, Hirofumi Tomita, Joji Hagii, Norifumi Metoki, Ayaka Fujita, Takaatsu Kamada, Koki Takahashi, Shin Saito, Satoko Sasaki, Hiroyasu Hitomi, Satoshi Seino, Yoshiko Baba, Takamitsu Uchizawa, Manabu Iwata, Shigeo Matsumoto, Minoru Yasujima, Ken Okumura
INTRODUCTION: The impact of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) value for predicting paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (pAF) in ischemic stroke patients remains uncertain. METHODS: The consecutive 222 ischemic stroke patients (median 77 [IQR 68-83] years old, 93 females) within 48 hours after onset were retrospectively studied. Plasma ANP and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were simultaneously measured at admission. Of all, 158 patients had no evidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) (sinus rhythm [SR] group), 25 patients had pAF (pAF group), and the other 39 patients had chronic AF (cAF group)...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875942/a-combined-study-of-meg-and-pico-tesla-tms-on-children-with-autism-disorder
#20
Photios Anninos, Athanasios Chatzimichael, Adam Adamopoulos, Athanasia Kotini, Nicolaos Tsagas
Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from the brain of 10 children with autism (6 boys and 4 girls, with ages range from 5-12 years, mean[Formula: see text][Formula: see text][Formula: see text]SD: 8.3[Formula: see text][Formula: see text][Formula: see text]2.1) were obtained using a whole-head 122-channel MEG system in a magnetically shielded room of low magnetic noise. A double-blind experimental design was used in order to look for possible effect of external pico-Tesla Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (pT-TMS)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
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