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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142322/bilateral-5%C3%A2-hz-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-on-fronto-temporal-areas-modulates-resting-state-eeg
#1
Aurora D'Atri, Claudia Romano, Maurizio Gorgoni, Serena Scarpelli, Valentina Alfonsi, Michele Ferrara, Fabio Ferlazzo, Paolo Maria Rossini, Luigi De Gennaro
Rhythmic non-invasive brain stimulations are promising tools to modulate brain activity by entraining neural oscillations in specific cortical networks. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility to influence the neural circuits of the wake-sleep transition in awake subjects via a bilateral transcranial alternating current stimulation at 5 Hz (θ-tACS) on fronto-temporal areas. 25 healthy volunteers participated in two within-subject sessions (θ-tACS and sham), one week apart and in counterbalanced order...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141247/connections-of-anterior-thalamic-visual-centers-in-the-leopard-frog-rana-pipiens
#2
Eric W Recktenwald, Elizabeth A Dudkin, Laura K Skorina, William M Saidel, Edward R Gruberg
The amphibian retina projects to two discrete regions of neuropil in the anterior thalamus: the neuropil of Bellonci and the corpus geniculatum. These retinorecipient areas are encompassed within a larger zone of surrounding neuropil we call the NCZ (for neuropil of Bellonci/corpus geniculatum zone). The NCZ is characterized electrophysiologically by a distinctive tonic oscillatory response to blue light; it appears to be a visual module involved in processing the stationary visual environment. Using horseradish peroxidase (HRP), we mapped the connections of the NCZ...
November 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141043/lateral-migration-of-electrospun-hydrogel-nanofilaments-in-an-oscillatory-flow
#3
Sylwia Pawłowska, Paweł Nakielski, Filippo Pierini, Izabela K Piechocka, Krzysztof Zembrzycki, Tomasz A Kowalewski
The recent progress in bioengineering has created great interest in the dynamics and manipulation of long, deformable macromolecules interacting with fluid flow. We report experimental data on the cross-flow migration, bending, and buckling of extremely deformable hydrogel nanofilaments conveyed by an oscillatory flow into a microchannel. The changes in migration velocity and filament orientation are related to the flow velocity and the filament's initial position, deformation, and length. The observed migration dynamics of hydrogel filaments qualitatively confirms the validity of the previously developed worm-like bead-chain hydrodynamic model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140973/a-coupled-oscillator-model-of-olfactory-bulb-gamma-oscillations
#4
Guoshi Li, Thomas A Cleland
The olfactory bulb transforms not only the information content of the primary sensory representation, but also its underlying coding metric. High-variance, slow-timescale primary odor representations are transformed by bulbar circuitry into secondary representations based on principal neuron spike patterns that are tightly regulated in time. This emergent fast timescale for signaling is reflected in gamma-band local field potentials, presumably serving to efficiently integrate olfactory sensory information into the temporally regulated information networks of the central nervous system...
November 15, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139226/cortical-nociceptive-processes-are-reduced-by-visual-alpha-band-entrainment-in-the-human-brain
#5
K Ecsy, C A Brown, A K P Jones
BACKGROUND: Acute noxious stimuli induce a suppression of cortical alpha activity, yet little is known about whether increasing alpha activity affects the processing of noxious stimuli. We have previously shown that visual alpha stimulation reduces experimental pain. Here, we demonstrate that increasing alpha power causes a reciprocal suppression of acute nociceptive processing. METHODS: We attempted to increase cortical alpha activity through visual entrainment at 8 Hz, 10 Hz and 12 Hz to investigate the influence on the electrophysiological pain response...
November 14, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138510/high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-are-characterized-by-differential-beta-oscillatory-signaling-of-the-limbic-cortico-basal-ganglia-loop
#6
Lukas Maurer, Hui Tang, Jens K Haumesser, Jennifer Altschüler, Andrea A Kühn, Joachim Spranger, Christoph van Riesen
The concept of brain circuit disorders has been proposed for a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases, characterized by pathological disturbances of neuronal networks including changes in oscillatory signaling of re-entrant cortico-subcortical loops in the basal ganglia system. Parts of this circuitry play a pivotal role in energy homeostasis. We therefore investigated whether high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity is associated with changes in oscillatory signaling in the limbic cortico-basal ganglia loop. We performed multi-site in-vivo electrophysiological recordings of local field potentials within this network under urethane anesthesia in adult rats after 4 weeks of HFD feeding compared to age-matched controls...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138418/spiral-modes-and-the-observation-of-quantized-conductance-in-the-surface-bands-of-bismuth-nanowires
#7
Tito E Huber, Scott Johnson, Leonid Konopko, Albina Nikolaeva, Anna Kobylianskaya, Michael J Graf
When electrons are confined in two-dimensional materials, quantum-mechanical transport phenomena and high mobility can be observed. Few demonstrations of these behaviours in surface spin-orbit bands exist. Here, we report the observation of quantized conductance in the surface bands of 50-nm Bi nanowires. With increasing magnetic fields oriented along the wire axis, the wires exhibit a stepwise increase in conductance and oscillatory thermopower, possibly due to an increased number of high-mobility spiral surface modes based on spin-split bands...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136164/habitat-heterogeneity-host-population-structure-and-parasite-local-adaptation
#8
Curtis M Lively
Reciprocal-transplant experiments have proven to be a powerful tool for detecting local adaptation (LA). More recently, reciprocal cross-inoculation experiments have been used to evaluate adaptation by parasites to their local host populations. These experiments are conceptually similar to reciprocal-transplant experiments, except that the "environment" (the host population) may have evolved in response to changes in the parasite population. Here, I use analytical tools and computer simulations to determine when parasites would be expected to be more infective to their local host populations than to allopatric host populations...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133098/chemical-modification-of-citrus-pectin-structural-physical-and-rheologial-implications
#9
Aline Francielle Fracasso, Camila Augusto Perussello, Danielle Carpiné, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira Petkowicz, Charles Windson Isidoro Haminiuk
The present study aimed to investigate the physical, structural and rheological modifications caused by the chemical modification process of citrus pectin. Therefore, three commercial citrus pectins with different degree of esterification were chemically modified by sequential alkali and acidic hydrolytic process to produce modified citrus pectins (MCP) with special properties. The molar mass (Mw), degree of esterification (DE), monosaccharide composition, (13)C NMR spectra, homogeneity, morphology (SEM) and rheological behavior of both native and modified citrus pectins (MCP) were investigated...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133094/the-rheological-behavior-of-polysaccharides-sequential-extracted-from-polygonatum-cyrtonema-hua
#10
Ling Li, Bu-Yan Liao, Kiran Thakur, Jian-Guo Zhang, Zhao-Jun Wei
The present study investigated the rheological properties of polysaccharides (HBSS, CHSS, DASS, CASS) sequentially extracted from Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua. The monosaccharide, uronic acid, total carbohydrate, protein content of four polysaccharides were analyzed. The total carbohydrate content of PCHPs (HBSS, CHSS, DASS, and CASS) were 78.39, 71.86, 69.99 and 73.73% respectively, containing Rha, Ara, Man, Gal besides uronic acid and protein. The non-Newtonian fluidic nature of PCHPs was affected by the types of polysaccharides, concentration, temperature, pH, types and concentration of salt ions...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131936/nanomechanical-force-mapping-of-restricted-cell-to-cell-collisions-oscillating-between-contraction-and-relaxation
#11
Benhui Hu, Wan Ru Leow, Pingqiang Cai, Yong-Qiang Li, Yun-Long Wu, Xiaodong Chen
Contact-mediated cell migration strongly determines the invasiveness of the corresponding cells, collective migration, and morphogenesis. The quantitative study of cellular response upon contact relies on cell-to-cell collision, which rarely occurs in conventional cell culture. Herein, we developed a strategy to activate a robust cell-to-cell collision within smooth muscle cell pairs. Nanomechanical traction force mapping reveals that the collision process is promoted by the oscillatory modulations between contraction and relaxation and orientated by the filopodial bridge composed of nanosized contractile machinery...
November 16, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130551/a-localized-pallidal-physiomarker-in-cervical-dystonia
#12
Wolf-Julian Neumann, Andreas Horn, Siobhan Ewert, Julius Huebl, Christof Brücke, Colleen Slentz, Gerd-Helge Schneider, Andrea A Kühn
OBJECTIVE: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) allows for direct recordings of neuronal activity from the human basal ganglia. In Parkinson's disease, a disease-specific physiomarker was identified that is now used to investigate adaptive closed-loop stimulation in first studies. In dystonia such a physiomarker is missing. METHODS: Pallidal oscillations were recorded from 153 contact pairs in 27 patients. We investigated whether power amplitudes in theta and beta bands correlate with dystonic symptom severity across patients...
November 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130060/models-of-spatial-and-temporal-dimensions-of-memory
#13
Michael E Hasselmo, James R Hinman, Holger Dannenberg, Chantal E Stern
Episodic memory involves coding of the spatial location and time of individual events. Coding of space and time is also relevant to working memory, spatial navigation, and the disambiguation of overlapping memory representations. Neurophysiological data demonstrate that neuronal activity codes the current, past and future location of an animal as well as temporal intervals within a task. Models have addressed how neural coding of space and time for memory function could arise, with both dimensions coded by the same neurons...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128889/the-role-of-neuron-glia-interactions-in-the-emergence-of-ultra-slow-oscillations
#14
Siow-Cheng Chan, Siew-Ying Mok, Danny Wee-Kiat Ng, Sing-Yau Goh
Ultra-slow cortical oscillatory activity of 1-100 mHz has been recorded in human by electroencephalography and in dissociated cultures of cortical rat neurons, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study presents a computational model of ultra-slow oscillatory activity based on the interaction between neurons and astrocytes. We predict that the frequency of these oscillations closely depends on activation of astrocytes in the network, which is reflected by oscillations of their intracellular calcium concentrations with periods between tens of seconds and minutes...
November 11, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128631/association-between-stimulus-evoked-somatosensory-inhibition-and-movement-related-sensorimotor-oscillation-a-magnetoencephalographic-study
#15
Fu-Jung Hsiao, Wei-Ta Chen, Yung-Yang Lin
The interaction between the somatosensory and motor cortices is understood; however, their functional relationship remains elusive. To elucidate the association between somatosensory and sensorimotor functions, this study investigated the correlation between somatosensory activities in response to paired-pulse stimulation and sensorimotor oscillations during self-paced finger movement in 18 healthy male subjects by using a magnetoencephalographic recording. The main finding was that stimulus-evoked somatosensory gating activities were significantly correlated with movement-related sensorimotor oscillatory responses...
November 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127656/altered-oscillatory-brain-dynamics-of-emotional-processing-in-young-binge-drinkers
#16
Siyuan Huang, Lee A Holcomb, Stephen M Cruz, Ksenija Marinkovic
Heavy episodic drinking, also termed binge drinking, is commonly practiced by young adults. It is accompanied by a range of cognitive, affective, and social problems, but the neural dynamics underlying changes in emotional functions is poorly understood. To investigate the behavioral and brain indices of affective processing as a function of binge drinking, young, healthy participants (23.3 ± 3.3 years) were assigned to two groups (n = 32 each) based on their drinking habits. Binge drinking (BD) participants reported drinking heavily with at least five binge episodes in the last 6 months, whereas light drinkers (LD) reported no more than one binge episode in the last 6 months...
November 10, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127301/femtosecond-time-resolved-observation-of-butterfly-vibration-in-electronically-excited-o-fluorophenol
#17
Fengzi Ling, Shuai Li, Xinli Song, Yanmei Wang, Jinyou Long, Bing Zhang
The butterfly vibration during the hydrogen tunneling process in electronically excited o-fluorophenol has been visualized in real time by femtosecond time-resolved ion yield spectroscopy coupled with time-resolved photoelectron imaging technique. A coherent superposition of out-of-plane C-F butterfly motions is prepared in the first excited electronic state (S1). As the C-F bond vibrates with respect to the aromatic ring, the nuclear geometry varies periodically, leading to the corresponding variation in the photoionization channel...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126223/atheroprone-flow-activates-inflammation-via-endothelial-atp-dependent-p2x7-p38-signalling
#18
Jack P Green, Celine Souilhol, Ioannis Xanthis, Laura Martinez-Campesino, Neil P Bowden, Paul C Evans, Heather L Wilson
Objective: Atherosclerosis is a focal disease occurring at arterial sites of disturbed blood flow that generates low oscillating shear stress. Endothelial inflammatory signalling is enhanced at sites of disturbed flow via mechanisms that are incompletely understood. The influence of disturbed flow on endothelial ATP receptors and downstream signalling was assessed. Methods and Results: Cultured human endothelial cells were exposed to atheroprotective (high uniform) or atheroprone (low oscillatory) shear stress for 72 hours prior to assessment of ATP responses...
November 6, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125966/stopping-and-slowing-manual-and-spoken-responses-similar-oscillatory-signatures-recorded-from-the-subthalamic-nucleus
#19
Ayda Ghahremani, Jan R Wessel, Kaviraja Udupa, Bogdan Neagu, Ping Zhuang, Utpal Saha, Suneil K Kalia, Mojgan Hodaie, Andres M Lozano, Adam R Aron, Robert Chen
Response control in the forms of stopping and slowing responses is thought to be implemented by a frontal-subcortical network, which includes the subthalamic nucleus (STN). For manual control, stopping is linked to STN beta (13-30 Hz) and slowing responses are linked to lower frequencies (<12 Hz). Whether similar STN oscillatory activities are associated with the control of spoken responses is not clear. We studied 16 patients with STN LFP recordings during manual and vocal stop signal tasks in two experiments...
November 7, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125767/simultaneous-analysis-of-equilibrium-fluctuations-at-the-surface-and-in-the-bulk-of-a-binary-liquid-mixture-by-dynamic-light-scattering
#20
Thomas M Koller, Tobias Klein, Jiaqi Chen, Ahmad Kalantar, Gerard P van der Laan, Michael Heinrich Rausch, Andreas Paul Fröba
For the first time, we demonstrate that it is possible to simultaneously analyze microscopic fluctuations at the surface and in the bulk of a binary liquid mixture by dynamic light scattering in macroscopic thermodynamic equilibrium. For a model system containing n-octacosane and ethanol, three individual signals distinguishable in the time-resolved analysis of the scattered light intensity appear on different time scales. One oscillatory signal from surface fluctuations at the vapor-liquid interface in the short-time range and two exponential Rayleigh signals from fluctuations in temperature and concentration in the bulk of fluid in the long-time range could be associated with hydrodynamic modes...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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