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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428157/texting-and-mobile-phone-app-interventions-for-improving-adherence-to-preventive-behavior-in-adolescents-a-systematic-review
#1
Sherif M Badawy, Lisa M Kuhns
BACKGROUND: Many preventable behaviors contribute to adolescent mortality and morbidity. Non-adherence to preventive measures represents a challenge and has been associated with worse health outcomes in this population. The widespread use of electronic communication technologies by adolescents, particularly the use of text messaging (short message service, SMS) and mobile phones, presents new opportunities to intervene on risk and preventive risk behavior, but little is known about their efficacy...
April 19, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426619/committee-opinion-no-698-hormone-therapy-in-primary-ovarian-insufficiency
#2
(no author information available yet)
Primary ovarian insufficiency describes a spectrum of declining ovarian function and reduced fecundity due to a premature decrease in initial follicle number, an increase in follicle destruction, or poor follicular response to gonadotropins. The sequelae of primary ovarian insufficiency include vasomotor symptoms, urogenital atrophy, osteoporosis and fracture, cardiovascular disease, and increased all-cause mortality. In women with primary ovarian insufficiency, systemic hormone therapy (HT) is an effective approach to treat the symptoms of hypoestrogenism and mitigate long-term health risks if there are no contraindications to treatment...
May 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426614/committee-opinion-no-698-summary-hormone-therapy-in-primary-ovarian-insufficiency
#3
(no author information available yet)
Primary ovarian insufficiency describes a spectrum of declining ovarian function and reduced fecundity due to a premature decrease in initial follicle number, an increase in follicle destruction, or poor follicular response to gonadotropins. The sequelae of primary ovarian insufficiency include vasomotor symptoms, urogenital atrophy, osteoporosis and fracture, cardiovascular disease, and increased all-cause mortality. In women with primary ovarian insufficiency, systemic hormone therapy (HT) is an effective approach to treat the symptoms of hypoestrogenism and mitigate long-term health risks if there are no contraindications to treatment...
May 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422593/fundamentals-in-biostatistics-for-investigation-in-pediatric-dentistry-part-ii-biostatistical-methods
#4
Amaury Pozos-Guillén, Socorro Ruiz-Rodríguez, Arturo Garrocho-Rangel
The main purpose of the second part of this series was to provide the reader with some basic aspects of the most common biostatistical methods employed in health sciences, in order to better understand the validity, significance and reliability of the results from any article on Pediatric Dentistry. Currently, as mentioned in the first paper, Pediatric Dentists need basic biostatistical knowledge to be able to apply it when critically appraise a dental article during the Evidence-based Dentistry (EBD) process, or when participating in the development of a clinical study with dental pediatric patients...
2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407219/multiple-micronutrient-supplementation-for-women-during-pregnancy
#5
REVIEW
Batool A Haider, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Multiple-micronutrient (MMN) deficiencies often coexist among women of reproductive age in low- to middle-income countries. They are exacerbated in pregnancy due to the increased demands, leading to potentially adverse effects on the mother and developing fetus. Though supplementation with MMNs has been recommended earlier because of the evidence of impact on pregnancy outcomes, a consensus is yet to be reached regarding the replacement of iron and folic acid supplementation with MMNs...
April 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403946/vitamin-k-and-osteoporosis-myth-or-reality
#6
REVIEW
Andrea Palermo, Dario Tuccinardi, Luca D'Onofrio, Mikiko Watanabe, Daria Maggi, Anna Rita Maurizi, Valentina Greto, Raffaella Buzzetti, Nicola Napoli, Paolo Pozzilli, Silvia Manfrini
Vitamin K is a liposoluble vitamin. The predominant dietary form, phylloquinone or vitamin K1, is found in plants and green vegetables; whereas menaquinone, or vitamin K2, is endogenously synthesized by intestinal bacteria and includes several subtypes that differ in side chain length. Aside from its established role in blood clotting, several studies now support a critical function of vitamin K in improving bone health. Vitamin K is in fact required for osteocalcin carboxylation that in turn regulates bone mineral accretion; it seems to promote the transition of osteoblasts to osteocytes and also limits the process of osteoclastogenesis...
May 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400289/mathematical-modelling-of-liquid-transport-in-swelling-pharmaceutical-immediate-release-tablets
#7
Daniel Markl, Samy Yassin, D Ian Wilson, Daniel J Goodwin, Andrew Anderson, J Axel Zeitler
Oral dosage forms are an integral part of modern health care and account for the majority of drug delivery systems. Traditionally the analysis of the dissolution behaviour of a dosage form is used as the key parameter to assess the performance of a drug product. However, understanding the mechanisms of disintegration is of critical importance to improve the quality of drug delivery systems. The disintegration performance is primarily impacted by the hydration and subsequent swelling of the powder compact. Here we compare liquid ingress and swelling data obtained using terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) to a set of mathematical models...
April 8, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393340/-development-of-the-oral-assessment-scale-for-post-operational-patients-with-oral-cancer
#8
Yi-Chen Lee, Ya-Chuan Hsu, Hui-Ying Chiang
BACKGROUND: Current oral assessment scales are designed to assess the severity of oral health in cancer patients who have undergone radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Currently, no scale is available that assesses the overall oral health situation of patients. However, this type of scale is critical for guiding nursing staff to understand the oral status of postoperative patients and for facilitating the development of patient-centered oral nursing treatments. PURPOSE: To develop the oral assessment scale for post-operational patients with oral cancer (OASPOCa) and establish its psychometric properties...
April 2017: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377091/derivation-of-an-oral-maximum-allowable-dose-level-for-bisphenol-a
#9
Julie E Goodman, Michael K Peterson, Mary L Hixon, Sara Pacheco Shubin
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical that is used in plastics and epoxy coatings. In 2015, California's Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) added BPA to the Proposition 65 list of chemicals "known to cause reproductive toxicity" based on its Developmental and Reproductive Toxicant Identification Committee's (DART-IC) conclusion that BPA has been shown to cause female reproductive toxicity. A critical factor in determining compliance with Proposition 65 is a Maximum Allowable Dose Level (MADL), which is the exposure level at which a chemical would have no observable reproductive effect even if a person were exposed to 1000 times that level...
April 1, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370209/clinical-instruments-and-methods-for-assessing-physical-oral-health-a-systematic-review
#10
L-K Pauli, G Aarabi, L Kriston, A Jansen, G Heydecke, D R Reissmann
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at exploring available clinical instruments and methods for assessing physical oral health, and at identifying those with sufficient diagnostic performance. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in Embase and MEDLINE. Identified instruments and methods were critically appraised, and quality of diagnostic performance was rated by two independent reviewers as A (sufficient diagnostic performance), B (either sufficient reliability or validity) or C (insufficient quality, or empirical results unsatisfactory and/or inconsistent)...
March 31, 2017: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361503/offering-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-to-pregnant-and-postpartum-women-a-clinical-approach
#11
REVIEW
Dominika L Seidman, Shannon Weber, Deborah Cohan
INTRODUCTION: HIV prevention during pregnancy and lactation is critical for both maternal and child health. Pregnancy provides a critical opportunity for clinicians to elicit women's vulnerabilities to HIV and offer HIV testing, treatment and referral and/or comprehensive HIV prevention options for the current pregnancy, the postpartum period and safer conception options for future pregnancies. In this commentary, we review the safety of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis with tenofovir/emtricitabine in pregnant and lactating women and suggest opportunities to identify pregnant and postpartum women at substantial risk of HIV...
March 8, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351489/dying-for-love-perimenopausal-degeneration-of-vaginal-microbiome-drives-the-chronic-inflammation-malignant-transformation-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-to-prostatic-adenocarcinoma
#12
Albert Stuart Reece
Prostatic carcinoma is the second commonest cancer in males and is so common as to become almost holoendemic with advancing age. The recent demonstration that far from being benign, "benign" prostatic hypertrophy is a likely a reaction of the prostate to chronic untreated lower genital tract infection, and that this chronic inflammation is likely the usual precursor to the frequent occurrence of prostatic carcinoma has far reaching implications. The obvious source for the chronic inflammatory stimulus in the prostate is the documented dramatically altered lower female genital microbiota associated with the menopause...
April 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339559/using-a-stakeholder-engaged-approach-to-develop-and-validate-electronic-clinical-quality-measures
#13
Jill Boylston Herndon, Krishna Aravamudhan, Ronald L Stephenson, Ryan Brandon, Jesley Ruff, Frank Catalanotto, Huong Le
Objective: To describe the stakeholder-engaged processes used to develop, specify, and validate 2 oral health care electronic clinical quality measures. Materials and Methods: A broad range of stakeholders were engaged from conception through testing to develop measures and test feasibility, reliability, and validity following National Quality Forum guidance. We assessed data element feasibility through semistructured interviews with key stakeholders using a National Quality Forum-recommended scorecard...
May 1, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322438/risk-factors-for-malnutrition-among-older-adults-in-the-emergency-department-a-multicenter-study
#14
Collin E Burks, Christopher W Jones, Valerie A Braz, Robert A Swor, Natalie L Richmond, Kay S Hwang, Allison G Hollowell, Mark A Weaver, Timothy F Platts-Mills
BACKGROUND: Among older adults, malnutrition is common, often missed by healthcare providers, and influences recovery from illness or injury. OBJECTIVE: To identify modifiable risk factors associated with malnutrition in older patients. DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional multicenter study. SETTING: 3 EDs in the South, Northeast, and Midwest. PARTICIPANTS: Non-critically ill, English-speaking adults aged ≥65 years...
March 21, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317562/normal-oral-flora-and-the-oral-ecosystem
#15
REVIEW
Lakshman Samaranayake, Victor H Matsubara
The oral ecosystem comprises the oral flora, so-called oral microbiome, the different anatomic microniches of the oral cavity, and its bathing fluid, saliva. The oral microbiome comprises a group of organisms and includes bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. The oral microbiome exists suspended in saliva as planktonic phase organisms or attached to oral surfaces as a plaque biofilm. Homeostasis of the plaque biofilm and its symbiotic relationship with the host is critical for oral health. Disequilibrium or dysbiosis within the plaque biofilms is the initiating event that leads to major oral diseases, such as caries and periodontal disease...
April 2017: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301480/management-and-modeling-approaches-for-controlling-raccoon-rabies-the-road-to-elimination
#16
REVIEW
Stacey A Elmore, Richard B Chipman, Dennis Slate, Kathryn P Huyvaert, Kurt C VerCauteren, Amy T Gilbert
Rabies is an ancient viral disease that significantly impacts human and animal health throughout the world. In the developing parts of the world, dog bites represent the highest risk of rabies infection to people, livestock, and other animals. However, in North America, where several rabies virus variants currently circulate in wildlife, human contact with the raccoon rabies variant leads to the highest per capita population administration of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) annually. Previous rabies variant elimination in raccoons (Canada), foxes (Europe), and dogs and coyotes (United States) demonstrates that elimination of the raccoon variant from the eastern US is feasible, given an understanding of rabies control costs and benefits and the availability of proper tools...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301216/bioidentical-menopausal-hormone-therapy-registered-hormones-non-oral-estradiol%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-progesterone-are-optimal
#17
M L'Hermite
The many advantages of registered bioidentical sex hormones over registered, conventional, non-bioidentical menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) are considered. The transdermal route of estrogen administration avoids excess venous thromboembolic and ischemic stroke events. There is some indication that conjugated equine estrogens are more thrombogenic and most likely induce some hypertensive responses; estradiol might also be superior to conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) in terms of global cardiovascular health...
March 16, 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294493/formative-evaluation-of-a-teledentistry-training-programme-for-oral-health-professionals
#18
K K McFarland, P Nayar, A Chandak, N Gupta
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to conduct a formative evaluation of a teledentistry (TD) programme that was developed for a predominantly rural state in the Midwestern United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Formative evaluation data were collected on programme activities from the TD programme records. In addition, the effectiveness of the TD training programme was evaluated using a self-administered paper-based survey administered to the participants, immediately following completion of the training activity...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290130/the-choosing-wisely-initiative-in-infectious-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Clara Lehmann, Reinhard Berner, Johannes R Bogner, Oliver A Cornely, Katja de With, Susanne Herold, Winfried V Kern, Sebastian Lemmen, Mathias W Pletz, Bernhard Ruf, Bernd Salzberger, Hans Jürgen Stellbrink, Norbert Suttorp, Andrew J Ullmann, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Norma Jung
OBJECTIVE: "Choosing Wisely" is a growing international campaign aiming at practice changes to improve patient health and safety by both, conduct of essential and avoidance of unnecessary diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic procedures. The goal is to create an easily recognizable and distributable list ("Choosing Wisely items") that addresses common over- and underuse in the management of infectious diseases. METHODS: The German Society of Infectious Diseases (DGI) participates in the campaign "Klug Entscheiden" by the German Society of Internal Medicine...
March 13, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290105/economic-evaluations-of-thrombophilia-screening-prior-to-prescribing-combined-oral-contraceptives-a-systematic-and-critical-review
#20
REVIEW
Erin Vernon, Bridget Hiedemann, Bonnie H Bowie
BACKGROUND: Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) increase the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), particularly among women with inherited clotting disorders. The World Health Organization classifies combined hormonal contraception as an "unacceptable health risk" for women with thrombogenic mutations but advises against universal thrombophilia screening before prescribing COCs given the low prevalence of thrombophilia and high screening costs. OBJECTIVE: Through the lens of lifetime costs and benefits, this paper systematically and critically reviews all published economic evaluations of thrombophilia screening prior to prescribing COCs...
March 13, 2017: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
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