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Alfredo D Bolaños, Brian A Coffman, Felicha T Candelaria-Cook, Piyadasa Kodituwakku, Julia M Stephen
BACKGROUND: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), who were exposed to alcohol in utero, display a broad range of sensory, cognitive, and behavioral deficits, which are broadly theorized to be rooted in altered brain function and structure. Based on the role of neural oscillations in multisensory integration from past studies, we hypothesized that adolescents with FASD would show a decrease in oscillatory power during event-related gamma oscillatory activity (30-100Hz), when compared to typically-developing healthy controls (HC), and that such decrease in oscillatory power would predict behavioral performance...
September 25, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Abu Reza Md Towfiqul Islam, Nasir Ahmed, Md Bodrud-Doza, Ronghao Chu
Drinking water is susceptible to the poor quality of contaminated water affecting the health of humans. Thus, it is an essential study to investigate factors affecting groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking uses. In this paper, the entropy theory, multivariate statistics, spatial autocorrelation index, and geostatistics are applied to characterize groundwater quality and its spatial variability in the Sylhet district of Bangladesh. A total of 91samples have been collected from wells (e.g., shallow, intermediate, and deep tube wells at 15-300-m depth) from the study area...
September 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yao Zhang, Hannes Jónsson, Peter M Weber
The survival of coherent wavepacket motion during internal conversions is observed in relatively large molecules, N-methyl morpholine and N-ethyl morpholine, where standard models imply fast decoherence in a statistical limit. Optical excitation in the region of 194 to 230 nm excites the molecule to 3s or 3p Rydberg states, launching a wavepacket motion in the umbrella mode of the tertiary amine chromophore. In the short wavelength range, <214 nm, the molecules are excited to the 3p Rydberg state, which decays by internal conversion on a time scale of about 100 fs to the lower-lying 3s Rydberg state...
September 25, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ángel F Adames, Daehyun Kim, Adam H Sobel, Anthony Del Genio, Jingbo Wu
Changes in the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) with increasing CO2 concentrations are examined using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies Global Climate Model (GCM). Four simulations performed with fixed CO2 concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 times preindustrial levels using the GCM coupled with a mixed layer ocean model are analyzed in terms of the basic state, rainfall, moisture and zonal wind variability, and the structure and propagation of the MJO. The GCM simulates basic state changes associated with increasing CO2 that are consistent with results from earlier studies: column water vapor increases at ∼7...
June 2017: Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems
Maria Nathália Moraes, Leonardo Vinicius Monteiro de Assis, Felipe Dos Santos Henriques, Miguel Luiz Batista Junior, Ali D Güler, Ana Maria de Lauro Castrucci
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are known to regulate energy metabolism, and TRPM8 has become an interesting player in this context. Here we demonstrate the role of the cold sensor TRPM8 in the regulation of clock gene and clock controlled genes in brown adipose tissue (BAT). We investigated TrpM8 temporal profile in the eyes, suprachiasmatic nucleus and BAT; only BAT showed temporal variation of TrpM8 transcripts. Eyes from mice lacking TRPM8 lost the temporal profile of Per1 in LD cycle. This alteration in the ocular circadian physiology may explain the delay in the onset of locomotor activity in response to light pulse, as compared to wild type animals (WT)...
September 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Alexis Hubaud, Ido Regev, L Mahadevan, Olivier Pourquié
The periodic segmentation of the vertebrate body axis into somites, and later vertebrae, relies on a genetic oscillator (the segmentation clock) driving the rhythmic activity of signaling pathways in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). To understand whether oscillations are an intrinsic property of individual cells or represent a population-level phenomenon, we established culture conditions for stable oscillations at the cellular level. This system was used to demonstrate that oscillations are a collective property of PSM cells that can be actively triggered in vitro by a dynamical quorum sensing signal involving Yap and Notch signaling...
September 20, 2017: Cell
A A Samigullina, A A Mukhametgalina, S N Sergeyev, A P Zhilyaev, A A Nazarov, Yu R Zagidullina, N Yu Parkhimovich, V V Rubanik, Yu V Tsarenko
Commercially pure nickel was processed by high pressure torsion (HPT) and subjected to ultrasonic treatment (UST) with different amplitudes of compression-tension stresses in the zone of stress antinode of a standing wave. It was found that microstructure parameters such as the dislocation density, low- and high-angle grain boundary fractions, microhardness, and the stored excess energy as well, non-monotonically depend on the ultrasound amplitude. A structure relaxation leading to a reduction of internal stresses and stored energy and increase of the fraction of high-angle boundaries was observed at some intermediate amplitudes of the oscillating stress...
September 15, 2017: Ultrasonics
Christos Tsiokos, Mahsa Malekmohammadi, Nicholas AuYong, Nader Pouratian
OBJECTIVE: Recent discoveries suggest that it is most likely the coupling of β oscillations (13-30Hz) and not merely their power that relates to Parkinson disease (PD) pathophysiology. METHODS: We analyzed power and phase amplitude coupling (PAC) in local field potentials (LFP) recorded from Pallidum after placement of deep brain stimulation (DBS) leads in nineteen PD patients and three patients with dystonia. RESULTS: Within GPi, we identified PAC between phase of β and amplitude of high frequency oscillations (200-300Hz) and distinct β-low γ (40-80Hz) PAC both modulated by contralateral movement...
September 5, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Laibin Zhang, Xiangmu Kong, Mengmeng Zheng, Mei Wang
Fluorescent nucleobase analogs are of great interest because of their widespread applications in nucleic acids research. In the present work, a new benzo-homologated RNA alphabet comprising xtzA, xtzG, xtzC, and xtzU was computationally designed based on the isomorphic tz-bases. The structural, electronic, and photophysical properties are studied by means of DFT and TDDFT calculations, and the effects of water solution, ribose, and base pairing on the singlet excited transitions were examined. The results are compared with those for tz-bases and xth-bases...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Kai-Hsiang Chuang, Fatima A Nasrallah
Synchronous low-frequency oscillation in the resting human brain has been found to form networks of functionally associated areas and hence has been widely used to map the functional connectivity of the brain using techniques such as resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI). Interestingly, similar resting-state networks can also be detected in the anesthetized rodent brain, including the default mode-like network. This opens up opportunities for understanding the neurophysiological basis of the rsfMRI signal, the behavioral relevance of the network characteristics, connectomic deficits in diseases and treatment effects on brain connectivity using rodents, particularly transgenic mouse models...
September 20, 2017: NeuroImage
Amani Agha, Sandra Parker, Mangala P Patel
OBJECTIVES: To investigate working and setting times, compressive fracture strength (CFS), compressive modulus (CM), three-point flexure strength (TFS) and tensile flexure modulus (TFM) of commercial, control and experimental RMGICs. METHODS: RelyX Luting (RX, 3M-ESPE) and Fuji Plus (FP, GC), two control home liquids and eight new liquid compositions (F1-F4 and R1-R4) comprising different percentages of the monomer HPM (hydroxypropyl-methacrylate) and/or THFM (tetrahydrofurfuryl-methacrylate) with the original monomer HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate) were used in this study...
September 20, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
V Y Brodsky, L A Malchenko, N N Butorina, D S Lazarev Konchenko, N D Zvezdina, T K Dubovaya
Dense cultures of hepatocytes from old rats (~2 years old, body weight 530-610 g) are different from similar cultures of hepatocytes from young rats by the low amplitude of protein synthesis rhythm. Addition of glutamic acid (0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 mg/ml) into the culture medium with hepatocytes of old rats resulted in increase in the oscillation amplitudes of the protein synthesis rhythm to the level of young rats. A similar action of glutamic acid on the protein synthesis kinetics was observed in vivo after feeding old rats with glutamic acid...
August 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Andrés Ricardo Pérez-Riera, Raimundo Barbosa-Barros, Rodrigo Daminello-Raimundo, Luiz Carlos de Abreu
Electrocardiographic artifacts are defined as electrocardiographic alterations, not related to cardiac electrical activity. As a result of artifacts, the components of the electrocardiogram (ECG) such as the baseline and waves can be distorted. Motion artifacts are due to shaking with rhythmic movement. Examples of motion artifacts include tremors with no evident cause, Parkinson's disease, cerebellar or intention tremor, anxiety, hyperthyroidism, multiple sclerosis, and drugs such as amphetamines, xanthines, lithium, benzodiazepines, or shivering (due to hypothermia, fever (rigor due to shaking), cardiopulmonary resuscitation by chest compression (oscillations of great amplitude) and patients who move their limbs during the test, causing sudden irregularities in the ECG baseline that may resemble premature contractions or interfere with ECG wave shapes, or other supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias...
September 20, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
Charlotte Heijkenskjöld-Rentzhog, Christer Janson, Lars Berglund, Magnus P Borres, Lennart Nordvall, Kjell Alving, Andrei Malinovschi
BACKGROUND: Classic spirometry is effort-dependent and of limited value in assessing small airways. Peripheral airway involvement, and relation to poor control, in asthma, has been highlighted recently. Forced oscillation technique (FOT) offers an effort-independent assessment of overall and peripheral lung mechanics. We studied the association between lung function variables, obtained either by spirometry or multi-frequency (5, 11 and 19 Hz) FOT, and asthma diagnosis and control. METHODS: Spirometry measures, resistance at 5 (R5) and 19 Hz (R19), reactance at 5 Hz (X5), resonant frequency (fres ), resistance difference between 5-19 Hz (R5-R19) and Asthma Control Test scores were determined in 234 asthmatic and 60 healthy subjects (aged 13-39 years)...
September 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Anna-Maria Marbà-Ardébol, Anika Bockisch, Peter Neubauer, Stefan Junne
Physiologic responses of yeast to oscillatory environments as they appear in the liquid phase in large-scale bioreactors were studied in the past. So far, however, the impact on the sterol household and intracellular regulation remains to be investigated. Since oxygen is a co-factor in several reaction steps within the sterol metabolism, changes in oxygen availability, as it occurs in aerated bioreactors of production scales, might have an influence on the regulation and incorporation of free sterols into the cells' lipid layer...
September 21, 2017: Yeast
Denggui Fan, Qingyun Wang, Jianzhong Su, Hongguang Xi
It is believed that thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) controls spindles and spike-wave discharges (SWD) in seizure or sleeping processes. The dynamical mechanisms of spatiotemporal evolutions between these two types of activity, however, are not well understood. In light of this, we first use a single-compartment thalamocortical neural field model to investigate the effects of TRN on occurrence of SWD and its transition. Results show that the increasing inhibition from TRN to specific relay nuclei (SRN) can lead to the transition of system from SWD to slow-wave oscillation...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
Julian Bartram, Martin C Kahn, Simon Tuohy, Ole Paulsen, Tony Wilson, Edward O Mann
Slow-wave sleep is thought to be important for retuning cortical synapses, but the cellular mechanisms remain unresolved. During slow-wave activity, cortical neurons display synchronized transitions between depolarized Up states and hyperpolarized Down states. Here, using recordings from LIII pyramidal neurons from acute slices of mouse medial entorhinal cortex, we find that subthreshold inputs arriving during the Up state undergo synaptic weakening. This does not reflect a process of global synaptic downscaling, as it is dependent on presynaptic spiking, with network state encoded in the synaptically evoked spine Ca(2+) responses...
September 22, 2017: Nature Communications
Sean G Brown, Sarah Costello, Mark C Kelly, Mythili Ramalingam, Ellen Drew, Stephen J Publicover, Christopher L R Barratt, Sarah Martins Da Silva
STUDY QUESTION: Does progesterone in human follicular fluid (hFF) activate CatSper and do other components of hFF modulate this effect and/or contribute separately to hFF-induced Ca2+ signaling? SUMMARY ANSWER: hFF potently stimulates CatSper and increases [Ca2+]i, primarily due to high concentrations of progesterone, however, other components of hFF also contribute to [Ca2+]i signaling, including modulation of CatSper channel activity and inhibition of [Ca2+]i oscillations...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
Matthew J Fuxjager, Meredith C Miles, Franz Goller, John Petersen, Julia Yancey
Steroid hormone action in the brain regulates many animals' elaborate social displays used for courtship and competition, but it is increasingly recognized that the periphery may also be a site for potent steroidal modulation of complex behavior. However, the mechanisms of such "bottom up" regulation of behavioral outflow are largely unclear. To study this problem, we examine how androgenic sex hormones act through the skeletal muscular system to mediate elaborate courtship acrobatics in a tropical bird called the golden-collared manakin...
August 29, 2017: Endocrinology
Helene Benveniste, Hedok Lee, Fengfei Ding, Qian Sun, Ehab Al-Bizri, Rany Makaryus, Stephen Probst, Maiken Nedergaard, Elliot A Stein, Hanbing Lu
BACKGROUND: The glymphatic pathway transports cerebrospinal fluid through the brain, thereby facilitating waste removal. A unique aspect of this pathway is that its function depends on the state of consciousness of the brain and is associated with norepinephrine activity. A current view is that all anesthetics will increase glymphatic transport by inducing unconsciousness. This view implies that the effect of anesthetics on glymphatic transport should be independent of their mechanism of action, as long as they induce unconsciousness...
September 22, 2017: Anesthesiology
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