Read by QxMD icon Read


Christine E Boone, Heydar Davoudi, Jon B Harrold, David J Foster
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and single-gene cause of autism spectrum disorder. The Fmr1 null mouse models much of the human disease including hyperarousal, sensory hypersensitivity, seizure activity, and hippocampus-dependent cognitive impairment. Sleep architecture is disorganized in FXS patients, but has not been examined in Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1-KO) mice. Hippocampal neural activity during sleep, which is implicated in memory processing, also remains uninvestigated in Fmr1-KO mice...
May 15, 2018: Neuroscience
Yuan Huang, Xiao Wang, Xu Zhang, Xianjue Chen, Baowen Li, Bin Wang, Ming Huang, Chongyang Zhu, Xuewei Zhang, Wolfgang S Bacsa, Feng Ding, Rodney S Ruoff
Raman spectra of large graphene bubbles showed size-dependent oscillations in spectral intensity and frequency, which originate from optical standing waves formed in the vicinity of the graphene surface. At a high laser power, local heating can lead to oscillations in the Raman frequency and also create a temperature gradient in the bubble. Based on Raman data, the temperature distribution within the graphene bubble was calculated, and it is shown that the heating effect of the laser is reduced when moving from the center of a bubble to its edge...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Alexandre P Solon, Jordan M Horowitz
For two canonical examples of driven mesoscopic systems-a harmonically trapped Brownian particle and a quantum dot-we numerically determine the finite-time protocols that optimize the compromise between the standard deviation and the mean of the dissipated work. In the case of the oscillator, we observe a collection of protocols that smoothly trade off between average work and its fluctuations. However, for the quantum dot, we find that as we shift the weight of our optimization objective from average work to work standard deviation, there is an analog of a first-order phase transition in protocol space: two distinct protocols exchange global optimality with mixed protocols akin to phase coexistence...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Soham Pal, Naveen Nishad, T S Mahesh, G J Sreejith
We experimentally study the response of star-shaped clusters of initially unentangled N=4, 10, and 37 nuclear spin-1/2 moments to an inexact π-pulse sequence and show that an Ising coupling between the center and the satellite spins results in robust period-2 magnetization oscillations. The period is stable against bath effects, but the amplitude decays with a timescale that depends on the inexactness of the pulse. Simulations reveal a semiclassical picture in which the rigidity of the period is due to a randomizing effect of the Larmor precession under the magnetization of surrounding spins...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Chunlei Qu, Sandro Stringari
By applying a position-dependent detuning to a spin-orbit-coupled Hamiltonian with equal Rashba and Dresselhaus coupling, we exploit the behavior of the angular momentum of a harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensed atomic gas and discuss the distinctive role of its canonical and spin components. By developing the formalism of spinor hydrodynamics, we predict the precession of the dipole oscillation caused by the synthetic rotational field, in analogy with the precession of the Foucault pendulum, the excitation of the scissors mode, following the sudden switching off of the detuning, and the occurrence of Hall-like effects...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
F Yoshihara, T Fuse, Z Ao, S Ashhab, K Kakuyanagi, S Saito, T Aoki, K Koshino, K Semba
We report on experimentally measured light shifts of superconducting flux qubits deep-strongly coupled to LC oscillators, where the coupling constants are comparable to the qubit and oscillator resonance frequencies. By using two-tone spectroscopy, the energies of the six lowest levels of each circuit are determined. We find huge Lamb shifts that exceed 90% of the bare qubit frequencies and inversions of the qubits' ground and excited states when there are a finite number of photons in the oscillator. Our experimental results agree with theoretical predictions based on the quantum Rabi model...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Jun Jiang, Kira Bailey, Xiao Xiao
Past attempts to characterize the neural mechanisms of affective priming have conceptualized it in terms of classic cognitive conflict, but have not examined the neural oscillatory mechanisms of subliminal affective priming. Using behavioral and electroencephalogram (EEG) time frequency (TF) analysis, the current study examines the oscillatory dynamics of unconsciously triggered conflict in an emotional facial expressions version of the masked affective priming task. The results demonstrate that the power dynamics of conflict are characterized by increased midfrontal theta activity and suppressed parieto-occipital alpha activity...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Le Zhang, Wei Geng, Chuan-Jia Tong, Xueguang Chen, Tengfei Cao, Mingyang Chen
Methyl-ammonium lead iodide perovskite (CH3 NH3 PbI3 ) has drawn great attention due to its excellent photovoltaic properties. Because of its loosely compacted structure, the structural, electronic and optical properties of CH3 NH3 PbI3 are sensitive to external modulations. Strain effects on CH3 NH3 PbI3 are fully investigated by the first principles calculations. The results indicate that the inorganic framework deforms under compression or stretch and the embedded organic CH3 NH3 + molecules rotate correspondingly...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nuttida Rungratsameetaweemana, Sirawaj Itthipuripat, Annalisa Salazar, John T Serences
Two factors play an important role in shaping perception: the allocation of selective attention to behaviorally relevant sensory features, and prior expectations about regularities in the environment. Signal detection theory proposes distinct roles of attention and expectation on decision-making such that attention modulates early sensory processing whereas expectation influences the selection and execution of motor responses. Challenging this classic framework, recent studies suggest that expectations about sensory regularities enhance the encoding and accumulation of sensory evidence during decision-making...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Masanori Yasuo, Yoshiaki Kitaguchi, Fumiya Kinota, Makoto Kosaka, Kazuhisa Urushihata, Atsuhito Ushiki, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Satoshi Kawakami, Masayuki Hanaoka
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) comprise the traditional method for detecting central airway obstruction (CAO) and evaluating therapeutic effects, but are effort-dependent. By contrast, the forced oscillation technique (FOT) is performed during tidal breathing in an effort-independent mode and is universally used to assess respiratory function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. We used the FOT to measure airway resistance and reactance in patients with CAO before and after interventional bronchoscopy and compared the results to data obtained using PFTs...
May 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Marc W Slutzky
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have exploded in popularity in the past decade. BMIs, also called brain-computer interfaces, provide a direct link between the brain and a computer, usually to control an external device. BMIs have a wide array of potential clinical applications, ranging from restoring communication to people unable to speak due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or a stroke, to restoring movement to people with paralysis from spinal cord injury or motor neuron disease, to restoring memory to people with cognitive impairment...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Norio Kodaka, Toru Yamagishi, Kayo Watanabe, Kumiko Kishimoto, Chihiro Nakano, Takeshi Oshio, Kumiko Niitsuma, Nagashige Shimada, Hiroto Matsuse
OBJECTIVES: International guidelines recommend the use of long-acting bronchodilators for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the usefulness of short-acting bronchodilator assist use for stable COPD remains uncertain. The purpose of the present study was to objectively demonstrate the effects of assist use of procaterol, a short-acting -agonist, on the respiratory mechanics of stable COPD patients treated with a long-acting bronchodilator using forced oscillation technique (FOT) and conventional spirometry...
May 17, 2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
Yi Pu, Brian R Cornwell, Douglas Cheyne, Blake W Johnson
In rodents, hippocampal cell assemblies formed during learning of a navigation task are observed to re-emerge during resting (offline) periods, accompanied by high-frequency oscillations (HFOs). This phenomenon is believed to reflect mechanisms for strengthening newly-formed memory traces. Using magnetoencephalography recordings and a beamforming source location algorithm (synthetic aperture magnetometry), we investigated high-gamma (80-140 Hz) oscillations in the hippocampal region in 18 human participants during inter-trial rest periods in a virtual navigation task...
May 14, 2018: NeuroImage
Tara G Bautista, Angelina Y Fong, Paul M Pilowsky, Keiko Ikeda, Kiyoshi Kawakami, Darko Spirovski, Hiroshi Onimaru
The inhibitory peptide galanin is expressed within the retrotrapezoidal nucleus (RTN) - a key central chemoreceptor site that also contains the active expiratory oscillator. It was previously reported that microinjection of galanin into pre-Bötzinger complex - containing the inspiratory oscillator - exerts inhibitory effects on inspiratory motor output and respiratory rhythm. In neonatal rats, the present study aimed to investigate: 1) expression of galanin within the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG), which overlaps anatomically and functionally with the adult RTN, and; 2) effects of galanin on respiratory rhythm using the in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparation...
May 14, 2018: Neuroscience
Weinan Gao, Zhong-Ping Jiang
This paper proposes a novel data-driven control approach to address the problem of adaptive optimal tracking for a class of nonlinear systems taking the strict-feedback form. Adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) and nonlinear output regulation theories are integrated for the first time to compute an adaptive near-optimal tracker without any a priori knowledge of the system dynamics. Fundamentally different from adaptive optimal stabilization problems, the solution to a Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation, not necessarily a positive definite function, cannot be approximated through the existing iterative methods...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Christina M Ketchum, Xiaoyu Sun, Alexandra Suberi, John T Fourkas, Wenxia Song, Arpita Upadhyaya
B cell signaling activation is most effectively triggered by the binding of B cell receptors (BCRs) to membrane-bound antigens.  In vivo, B cells encounter antigen on antigen presenting cells (APC), which possess complex surfaces with convoluted topographies, a fluid membrane and deformable cell bodies. However, whether and how the physical properties of antigen presentation affect B cell activation is not well understood. Here, we use nanotopographic surfaces that allow systematic variation of geometric parameters to show that surface features on a subcellular scale influence B cell signaling and actin dynamics...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
John Biggins, Sadegh Yazdi, Emilie Ringe
Nanoparticles of some metals (Cu/Ag/Au) sustain oscillations of their electron cloud called localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs). These resonances can occur at optical frequencies and be driven by light, generating enhanced electric fields and spectacular photon scattering. However, current plasmonic metals are rare, expensive, and have a limited resonant frequency range. Recently, much attention has been focused on earth-abundant Al, but Al nanoparticles cannot resonate in the IR. The earth-abundant Mg nanoparticles reported here surmount this limitation...
May 17, 2018: Nano Letters
Kenneth S Suslick, Nathan C Eddingsaas, David J Flannigan, Stephen D Hopkins, Hangxun Xu
Acoustic cavitation (the growth, oscillation, and rapid collapse of bubbles in a liquid) occurs in all liquids irradiated with sufficient intensity of sound or ultrasound. The collapse of such bubbles creates local heating and provides a unique source of energy for driving chemical reactions. In addition to sonochemical bond scission and formation, cavitation also induces light emission in many liquids. This phenomenon of sonoluminescence (SL) has captured the imagination of many researchers since it was first observed 85 years ago...
May 17, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Ryota Akiyama, Kazuki Sumida, Satoru Ichinokura, Ryosuke Nakanishi, Akio Kimura, Konstantin A Kokh, Oleg Tereshchenko, Shuji Hasegawa
We show Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations in topological insulator (Bi<sub>x</sub>Sb<sub>1-x</sub>)<sub>2</sub>Te<sub>3</sub> flakes whose carrier types are <i>p</i>-type (<i>x</i> = 0.29, 0.34) and <i>n</i>-type (<i>x</i> = 0.42). The physical properties such as the Berry phase, carrier mobility, and scattering time significantly changed by tuning the Fermi-level position with the concentration <i>x</i>...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Hai-Rui Liu, Qing-Bo Gao, Fa-Qi Zhang, Gulzar Khan, Shi-Long Chen
The varying topography and environment that resulted from paleoorogeny and climate fluctuations of the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM) areas had a considerable impact on the evolution of biota during the Quaternary. To understand the phylogeographic pattern and historical dynamics of Triosteum himalayanum (Caprifoliaceae), we sequenced three chloroplast DNA fragments ( rbcL-accD , rps15-ycf1 , and trnH-psbA ) from 238 individuals representing 20 populations. Nineteen haplotypes (H1-H19) were identified based on 23 single-site mutations and eight indels...
2018: PeerJ
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"