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Habib Ali Molla, Rahul Bhowmick, Abu Saleh Musha Islam, Bibhutibhushan Show, Nillohit Mukherjee, Anup Mondal, Mahammad Ali
A novel highly sensitive and selective fluorescent chemosensor L has been synthesized and characterized by various physicochemical techniques. In 3 : 7 water : MeCN (v/v) at pH 7.2 (10 mM HEPES buffer, μ = 0.05 M LiCl), it selectively recognizes Fe3+ through 1 : 1 complexation resulting in a 106-fold fluorescence enhancement and a binding constant of 8.10 × 104 M-1. The otherwise non-fluorescent spirolactam form of the probe results a dual-channel (absorbance and fluorescence) recognition of Fe3+ via CHEF (chelation enhanced fluorescence) through the opening of the spirolactam ring...
March 22, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Jonathan D Breeze, Enrico Salvadori, Juna Sathian, Neil McN Alford, Christopher W M Kay
The maser-the microwave progenitor of the optical laser-has been confined to relative obscurity owing to its reliance on cryogenic refrigeration and high-vacuum systems. Despite this, it has found application in deep-space communications and radio astronomy owing to its unparalleled performance as a low-noise amplifier and oscillator. The recent demonstration of a room-temperature solid-state maser that utilizes polarized electron populations within the triplet states of photo-excited pentacene molecules in a p-terphenyl host paves the way for a new class of maser...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Yiting Yu, Wenli Li, Haoyong Li, Muyuan Li, Weizheng Yuan
Planar super-oscillation lenses (SOLs) can fulfill super-resolution focusing and nanoscopic imaging in the far field without the contribution of evanescent waves. Nevertheless, the existing deviations between the design and experimental results have been seldomly investigated, leaving the practical applications of SOLs unpredictable and uncontrollable. In this paper, some application-oriented issues are taken into consideration, such as the inevitable fabrication errors and the size effect of the designed SOLs, with the aim of providing an engineering reference to elaborately customize the demanded focusing light field...
March 22, 2018: Nanomaterials
Ji-Huan Guan, Yan-Yang Zhang, Weier Lu, Yang Xia, Shushen Li
We theoretically investigate the barrier tunneling in the three-dimensional model of the hyperhoneycomb lattice, which is a nodal-line semimetal with a Dirac loop at zero energy. In the presence of a rectangular potential, the scattering amplitudes for different injecting states around the nodal loop are calculated, by using analytical treatments of the effective model, as well as numerical simulations of the tight binding model. In the low energy regime, states with remarkable transmissions are only concentrated in a small range around the loop plane...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Meng-Yi Xu, Albert H C Wong
Schizophrenia is considered primarily as a cognitive disorder. However, functional outcomes in schizophrenia are limited by the lack of effective pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for cognitive impairment. GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) interneurons are the main inhibitory neurons in the central nervous system (CNS), and they play a critical role in a variety of pathophysiological processes including modulation of cortical and hippocampal neural circuitry and activity, cognitive function-related neural oscillations (eg, gamma oscillations) and information integration and processing...
March 22, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Troy J Rand, Mukul Mukherjee
The sensorimotor system prefers sway velocity information when maintaining upright posture. Sway velocity has a unique characteristic of being persistent on a short time-scale and anti-persistent on a longer time-scale. The time where the transition from persistence to anti-persistence occurs provides information about how sway velocity is controlled. It is, however, not clear what factors affect shifts in this transition point. This research investigated postural responses to support surface movements of different temporal correlations and movement velocities...
March 21, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Javier Cervera, José A Manzanares, Salvador Mafe
Genetic networks operate in the presence of local heterogeneities in single-cell transcription and translation rates. Bioelectrical networks and spatio-temporal maps of cell electric potentials can influence multicellular ensembles. Could cell-cell bioelectrical interactions mediated by intercellular gap junctions contribute to the stabilization of multicellular states against local genetic heterogeneities? We theoretically analyze this question on the basis of two well-established experimental facts: (i) the membrane potential is a reliable read-out of the single-cell electrical state and (ii) when the cells are coupled together, their individual cell potentials can be influenced by ensemble-averaged electrical potentials...
March 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Wajid Mumtaz, Pham Lam Vuong, Aamir Saeed Malik, Rusdi Bin Abd Rashid
The screening test for alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients has been of subjective nature and could be misleading in particular cases such as a misreporting the actual quantity of alcohol intake. Although the neuroimaging modality such as electroencephalography (EEG) has shown promising research results in achieving objectivity during the screening and diagnosis of AUD patients. However, the translation of these findings for clinical applications has been largely understudied and hence less clear. This study advocates the use of EEG as a diagnostic and screening tool for AUD patients that may help the clinicians during clinical decision making...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Lai-Hua Liu, Teng-Fei Fan, Dong-Xue Shi, Chang-Jun Li, Ming-Jie He, Yi-Yin Chen, Lei Zhang, Chao Yang, Xiao-Yuan Cheng, Xu Chen, Di-Qin Li, Yi-Chen Sun
Although many members encoding different ammonium- and nitrate-transporters (AMTs, NRTs) were identified and functionally characterized from several plant species, little is known about molecular components for [Formula: see text]- and [Formula: see text] acquisition/transport in tobacco, which is often used as a plant model for biological studies besides its agricultural and industrial interest. We reported here the first molecular identification in tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ) of nine AMTs and four NRTs , which are respectively divided into four ( AMT1/2/3/4 ) and two ( NRT1/2 ) clusters and whose functionalities were preliminarily evidenced by heterologous functional-complementation in yeast or Arabidopsis...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Antonio A Nunez, Lily Yan, Laura Smale
For humans, activity during the night is correlated with multiple pathologies that may reflect a lack of harmony among components of the circadian system; however, it remains difficult to identify causal links between nocturnal activity and different pathologies based on the data available from epidemiological studies. Animal models that use forced activity or timed sleep deprivation provide evidence of circadian disruptions that may be at the core of the health risks faced by human night and shift workers...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Francesca Sylos-Labini, Andrea d'Avella, Francesco Lacquaniti, Yury Ivanenko
Handholding can naturally occur between two walkers. When people walk side-by-side, either with or without hand contact, they often synchronize their steps. However, despite the importance of haptic interaction in general and the natural use of hand contact between humans during walking, few studies have investigated forces arising from physical interactions. Eight pairs of adult subjects participated in this study. They walked on side-by-side treadmills at 4 km/h independently and with hand contact. Only hand contact-related sensory information was available for unintentional synchronization, while visual and auditory communication was obstructed...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Benedikt Zoefel, Sanne Ten Oever, Alexander T Sack
It is undisputed that presenting a rhythmic stimulus leads to a measurable brain response that follows the rhythmic structure of this stimulus. What is still debated, however, is the question whether this brain response exclusively reflects a regular repetition of evoked responses, or whether it also includes entrained oscillatory activity. Here we systematically present evidence in favor of an involvement of entrained neural oscillations in the processing of rhythmic input while critically pointing out which questions still need to be addressed before this evidence could be considered conclusive...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Stephen Dubsky, Jordan Thurgood, Andreas Fouras, Bruce R Thompson, Gregory J Sheard
The beating heart is known to produce pressure and airflow oscillations in the lungs of mammals. This phenomenon is often disregarded as detailed measurement of its effects in the lung have hitherto not been possible. Previous studies have attempted to measure the effect of these oscillations on gas mixing. However, the results have proven inconclusive, due to the lack of a direct measurement tool capable of flow measurement throughout the entire bronchial tree. Here we present the first detailed measurement of cardiogenic oscillations, using synchrotron-based dynamic lung imaging of live mechanically ventilated mice...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Victor Garcia, Emily C Glassberg, Arbel Harpak, Marcus W Feldman
Within-host adaptation of pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often occurs at more than two loci. Multiple beneficial mutations may arise simultaneously on different genetic backgrounds and interfere, affecting each other's fixation trajectories. Here, we explore how these evolutionary dynamics are mirrored in multilocus linkage disequilibrium (MLD), a measure of multi-way associations between alleles. In the parameter regime corresponding to HIV, we show that deterministic early infection models induce MLD to oscillate over time in a wavelet-like fashion...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Miroslav Pohanka
Piezoelectric biosensors are a group of analytical devices working on a principle of affinity interaction recording. A piezoelectric platform or piezoelectric crystal is a sensor part working on the principle of oscillations change due to a mass bound on the piezoelectric crystal surface. In this review, biosensors having their surface modified with an antibody or antigen, with a molecularly imprinted polymer, with genetic information like single stranded DNA, and biosensors with bound receptors of organic of biochemical origin, are presented and discussed...
March 19, 2018: Materials
Seiichiro Amemiya, A David Redish
During decision making, hippocampal activity encodes information sometimes about present and sometimes about potential future plans. The mechanisms underlying this transition remain unknown. Building on the evidence that gamma oscillations at different frequencies (low gamma [LG], 30-55 Hz; high gamma [HG], 60-90 Hz; and epsilon, 100-140 Hz) reflect inputs from different circuits, we identified how changes in those frequencies reflect different information-processing states. Using a unique noradrenergic manipulation by clonidine, which shifted both neural representations and gamma states, we found that future representations depended on gamma components...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Anna Isakova, Billy J Murdoch, Katarina Novakovic
The oscillatory palladium-catalysed carbonylation reaction opens new horizons for applications in smart materials due to the versatility of its conditions and substrates, as well as the adjustability of amplitude and period of pH oscillations. A variety of viable substrates have been demonstrated, including polymeric alkyne-terminated substrates. However, so far, there have not been any reports of polymer-based palladium catalysts in oscillatory mode. In this paper, we demonstrate pH oscillations in various systems, using commercially available palladium acetate, a triphenylphosphine palladium acetate complex and a polymer-bound palladium catalyst...
March 21, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yimy Amarillo, Angela Isabel Tissone, German Mato, Marcela S Nadal
Slow repetitive burst firing by hyperpolarized thalamocortical (TC) neurons correlates with global slow rhythms (< 4 Hz), which are the physiological oscillations during N-REM sleep, or pathological ones during idiopathic epilepsy. The pacemaker activity of TC neurons depends on the expression of several subthreshold conductances, which are modulated in a behaviorally dependent manner. Here we show that up-regulation of the small and neglected inward rectifier potassium current IKir induces repetitive burst firing at slow and delta frequency bands...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Karsten Klauke, Dzmitry H Zaitsau, Mark Bülow, Li He, Maximilian Klopotowski, Tim-Oliver Knedel, Juri Barthel, Christoph Held, Sergey P Verevkin, Christoph Janiak
Three selenoether-functionalized ionic liquids (ILs) of N-[(phenylseleno)methylene]pyridinium (1), N-(methyl)- (2) and N-(butyl)-N'-[(phenylseleno)methylene]imidazolium (3) with bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide anions ([NTf2]) were prepared from pyridine, N-methylimidazole and N-butylimidazole with in situ obtained phenylselenomethyl chloride, followed by ion exchange to give the desired compounds. The crystal structures of the bromide and tetraphenylborate salts of the above cations (1-Br, 2-BPh4 and 3-BPh4) confirm the formation of the desired cations and indicate a multitude of different supramolecular interactions besides the dominating Coulomb interactions between the cations and anions...
March 21, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Daisuke Ono, Ken-Ichi Honma, Yuchio Yanagawa, Akihiro Yamanaka, Sato Honma
In mammals, circadian rhythms, such as sleep/wake cycles, are regulated by the central circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The SCN consists of thousands of individual neurons, which exhibit circadian rhythms. They synchronize with each other and produce robust and stable oscillations. Although several neurotransmitters are expressed in the SCN, almost all SCN neurons are γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-ergic. Several studies have attempted to understand the roles of GABA in the SCN; however, precise mechanisms of the action of GABA in the SCN are still unclear...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
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