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Andriy Shevchenko, Maksym Barabash
It was established that at low temperatures, quantum oscillations of a pair of interacting nanoscale structural inhomogeneities (vertical Bloch lines) occur in a domain wall of stripe domain in uniaxial ferromagnetic film. The effective mass of vertical Bloch line and conditions for this effect were determined. The effect can be used in the hybrid storage devices bit + q-bit.
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
Rowshanak Hashemiyoon, Jens Kuhn, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a complex, idiopathic neuropsychiatric disorder whose pathophysiological mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. It is phenotypically heterogeneous and manifests more often than not with both motor and behavioral impairment, although tics are its clinical hallmark. Tics themselves present with a complex profile as they characteristically wax and wane and are often preceded by premonitory somatosensory sensations to which it is said a tic is the response. Highly comorbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, it is purported to be an epigenetic, neurodevelopmental spectrum disorder with a complex genetic profile...
October 25, 2016: Brain Topography
Petrina Yau-Pok Lau, Linda Katona, Peter Saghy, Kathryn Newton, Peter Somogyi, Karri P Lamsa
Long-term plasticity is well documented in synapses between glutamatergic principal cells in the cortex both in vitro and in vivo. Long-term potentiation (LTP) and -depression (LTD) have also been reported in glutamatergic connections to hippocampal GABAergic interneurons expressing parvalbumin (PV+) or nitric oxide synthase (NOS+) in brain slices, but plasticity in these cells has not been tested in vivo. We investigated synaptically-evoked suprathreshold excitation of identified hippocampal neurons in the CA1 area of urethane-anaesthetized rats...
October 25, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Antoine Carof, Mathieu Salanne, Thibault Charpentier, Benjamin Rotenberg
Using molecular simulations, we analyze the microscopic processes driving the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation of quadrupolar cations in water. The fluctuations of the Electric Field Gradient (EFG) experienced by alkaline and magnesium cations, which determine the NMR relaxation time, are mainly due to the dynamics of water molecules in their solvation shell. The dynamics of the ion plays a less important role, with the exception of the short-time dynamics in the lighter Li(+) case, for which rattling in the solvent cage results in oscillations of the EFG autocorrelation function (ACF)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Hiroyuki Katsuki, Kenji Ohmori
We have experimentally performed the coherent control of delocalized ro-vibrational wave packets (RVWs) of solid para-hydrogen (p-H2) by the wave packet interferometry (WPI) combined with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). RVWs of solid p-H2 are delocalized in the crystal, and the wave function with wave vector k ∼ 0 is selectively excited via the stimulated Raman process. We have excited the RVW twice by a pair of femtosecond laser pulses with delay controlled by a stabilized Michelson interferometer...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Xinlong Li, Melanie A R Reber, Christopher Corder, Yuning Chen, Peng Zhao, Thomas K Allison
We present a detailed description of the design, construction, and performance of high-power ultrafast Yb:fiber laser frequency combs in operation in our laboratory. We discuss two such laser systems: an 87 MHz, 9 W, 85 fs laser operating at 1060 nm and an 87 MHz, 80 W, 155 fs laser operating at 1035 nm. Both are constructed using low-cost, commercially available components, and can be assembled using only basic tools for cleaving and splicing single-mode fibers. We describe practical methods for achieving and characterizing low-noise single-pulse operation and long-term stability from Yb:fiber oscillators based on nonlinear polarization evolution...
September 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
J R Noriega, L A García-Delgado, R Gómez-Fuentes, A García-Juárez
A low power RF amplifier circuit for ion trap applications is presented and described. The amplifier is based on a class-D half-bridge amplifier with a voltage mirror driver. The RF amplifier is composed of an RF class-D amplifier, an envelope modulator to ramp up the RF voltage during the ion analysis stage, a detector or amplitude demodulation circuit for sensing the output signal amplitude, and a feedback amplifier that linearizes the steady state output of the amplifier. The RF frequency is set by a crystal oscillator and the series resonant circuit is tuned to the oscillator frequency...
September 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
K Szajna, M Kratzer, D Wrana, C Mennucci, B R Jany, F Buatier de Mongeot, C Teichert, F Krok
We have investigated the growth and stability of molecular ultra-thin films, consisting of rod-like semiconducting para-hexaphenyl (6P) molecules vapor deposited on ion beam modified TiO2(110) surfaces. The ion bombarded TiO2(110) surfaces served as growth templates exhibiting nm-scale anisotropic ripple patterns with controllable parameters, like ripple depth and length. In turn, by varying the ripple depth one can tailor the average local slope angle and the local step density/terrace width of the stepped surface...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Rajib Biswas, William Carpenter, Gregory A Voth, Andrei Tokmakoff
Infrared (IR) spectroscopy of the water O-H stretch has been widely used to probe both the local hydrogen-bonding structure and dynamics of aqueous systems. Although of significant interest, the IR spectroscopy of excess protons in water remains difficult to assign as a result of extensive and strong intermolecular interactions in hydrated proton complexes. As an alternate approach, we develop a mixed quantum-classical model for the vibrational spectroscopy of the excess proton in isotopically dilute water that draws on frozen proton-water clusters taken from reactive molecular dynamics trajectories of the latest generation multi-state empirical valence bond proton model (MS-EVB 3...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
David Cappelletti, Stefano Falcinelli, Fernando Pirani
Gas phase collisions of a D2 projectile by CF4 and by CCl4 targets have been investigated with the molecular beam technique. The integral cross section, Q, has been measured for both collisional systems in the thermal energy range and oscillations due to the quantum "glory" interference have been resolved in the velocity dependence of Q. The analysis of the measured Q(v) data provided novel information on the anisotropic potential energy surfaces of the studied systems at intermediate and large separation distances...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Shigeyuki Okahara, Zu Soh, Satoshi Miyamoto, Hidenobu Takahashi, Hideshi Itoh, Shinya Takahashi, Taijiro Sueda, Toshio Tsuji
During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), blood viscosity conspicuously increases and decreases due to changes in hematocrit and blood temperature. Nevertheless, blood viscosity is typically not evaluated, because there is no technology that can provide simple, continuous, noncontact monitoring. We modeled the pressure-flow characteristics of an oxygenator in a previous study, and in that study we quantified the influence of viscosity on oxygenator function. The pressure-flow monitoring information in the oxygenator is derived from our model and enables the estimation of viscosity...
October 26, 2016: Artificial Organs
Keiko Okamoto, Akifumi Kijima, Yoshitaka Umeno, Hiroyuki Shima
When two or more candle flames are fused by approaching them together, the resulting large flame often exhibits flickering, i.e., prolonged high-frequency oscillation in its size and luminance. In the present work, we investigate the collective behaviour of three-coupled candle flame oscillators in a triangular arrangement. The system showed four distinct types of syncronised modes as a consequence of spontaneous symmetry breaking. The modes obtained include the in-phase mode, the partial in-phase mode, the rotation mode, and an anomalous one called the "death" mode that causes a sudden stop of the flame oscillation followed by self-sustained stable combustion...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Y Kobayashi, H Kori
We investigate synchronization in complex networks of noisy phase oscillators. We find that, while too weak a coupling is not sufficient for the whole system to synchronize, too strong a coupling induces a nontrivial type of phase slip among oscillators, resulting in synchronization failure. Thus, an intermediate coupling range for synchronization exists, which becomes narrower when the network is more heterogeneous. Analyses of two noisy oscillators reveal that nontrivial phase slip is a generic phenomenon when noise is present and coupling is strong...
September 2016: Chaos
Aditya Tandon, Malte Schröder, Manu Mannattil, Marc Timme, Sagar Chakraborty
Synchronization is the process of achieving identical dynamics among coupled identical units. If the units are different from each other, their dynamics cannot become identical; yet, after transients, there may emerge a functional relationship between them-a phenomenon termed "generalized synchronization." Here, we show that the concept of transient uncoupling, recently introduced for synchronizing identical units, also supports generalized synchronization among nonidentical chaotic units. Generalized synchronization can be achieved by transient uncoupling even when it is impossible by regular coupling...
September 2016: Chaos
Igor V Belykh, Barrett N Brister, Vladimir N Belykh
We study the co-existence of stable patterns of synchrony in two coupled populations of identical Kuramoto oscillators with inertia. The two populations have different sizes and can split into two clusters where the oscillators synchronize within a cluster while there is a phase shift between the dynamics of the two clusters. Due to the presence of inertia, which increases the dimensionality of the oscillator dynamics, this phase shift can oscillate, inducing a breathing cluster pattern. We derive analytical conditions for the co-existence of stable two-cluster patterns with constant and oscillating phase shifts...
September 2016: Chaos
Tongfa Deng, Weiqing Liu, Yun Zhu, Jinghua Xiao, Jürgen Kurths
The spatial distributions of system's frequencies have significant influences on the critical coupling strengths for amplitude death (AD) in coupled oscillators. We find that the left and right critical coupling strengths for AD have quite different relations to the increasing spatial period m of the frequency distribution in coupled oscillators. The left one has a negative linear relationship with m in log-log axis for small initial frequency mismatches while remains constant for large initial frequency mismatches...
September 2016: Chaos
Carlo R Laing
We consider the effects of several forms of delays on the existence and stability of travelling waves in non-locally coupled networks of Kuramoto-type phase oscillators and theta neurons. By passing to the continuum limit and using the Ott/Antonsen ansatz, we derive evolution equations for a spatially dependent order parameter. For phase oscillator networks, the travelling waves take the form of uniformly twisted waves, and these can often be characterised analytically. For networks of theta neurons, the waves are studied numerically...
September 2016: Chaos
Zhixin Lu, Kevin Klein-Cardeña, Steven Lee, Thomas M Antonsen, Michelle Girvan, Edward Ott
Cells in the brain's Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN) are known to regulate circadian rhythms in mammals. We model synchronization of SCN cells using the forced Kuramoto model, which consists of a large population of coupled phase oscillators (modeling individual SCN cells) with heterogeneous intrinsic frequencies and external periodic forcing. Here, the periodic forcing models diurnally varying external inputs such as sunrise, sunset, and alarm clocks. We reduce the dimensionality of the system using the ansatz of Ott and Antonsen and then study the effect of a sudden change of clock phase to simulate cross-time-zone travel...
September 2016: Chaos
Per Sebastian Skardal, Alex Arenas
The control of network-coupled nonlinear dynamical systems is an active area of research in the nonlinear science community. Coupled oscillator networks represent a particularly important family of nonlinear systems, with applications ranging from the power grid to cardiac excitation. Here, we study the control of network-coupled limit cycle oscillators, extending the previous work that focused on phase oscillators. Based on stabilizing a target fixed point, our method aims to attain complete frequency synchronization, i...
September 2016: Chaos
Erik A Martens, Christian Bick, Mark J Panaggio
The simplest network of coupled phase-oscillators exhibiting chimera states is given by two populations with disparate intra- and inter-population coupling strengths. We explore the effects of heterogeneous coupling phase-lags between the two populations. Such heterogeneity arises naturally in various settings, for example, as an approximation to transmission delays, excitatory-inhibitory interactions, or as amplitude and phase responses of oscillators with electrical or mechanical coupling. We find that breaking the phase-lag symmetry results in a variety of states with uniform and non-uniform synchronization, including in-phase and anti-phase synchrony, full incoherence (splay state), chimera states with phase separation of 0 or π between populations, and states where both populations remain desynchronized...
September 2016: Chaos
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