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Prolactin receptor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914036/prolactin-regulatory-element-binding-protein-is-involved-in-suppression-of-the-adiponectin-gene-in-vivo
#1
X Z Zhang, H Imachi, J Y Lyu, K Fukunaga, S Sato, T Ibata, T Kobayashi, T Yoshimoto, F Kikuchi, T Dong, K Murao
PURPOSE: Prolactin regulatory element-binding protein (PREB), a member of the WD-repeat protein family, has been recognized as a transcriptional factor that regulates prolactin promoter activity in the anterior pituitary of rats. PREB is expressed not only in the pituitary but also in various other tissues, including the adipose tissue. Previous studies have shown that PREB acts as a transcriptional regulator and suppresses the expression of the adiponectin gene in cultured 3T3L1 preadipocytes...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913611/silent-somatotroph-tumour-revisited-from-a-study-of-80-patients-with-and-without-acromegaly-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#2
Laura Chinezu, Alexandre Vasiljevic, Jacqueline Trouillas, Marion Lapoirie, Emmanuel Jouanneau, Gérald Raverot
BACKGROUND: Silent somatotroph tumours are growth hormone (GH) immunoreactive (IR) pituitary tumours without clinical and biological signs of acromegaly. Their better characterisation is required to improve the diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one silent somatotroph tumours were compared to 59 somatotroph tumours with acromegaly. Tumours in each group were classified into GH and plurihormonal (GH/prolactin (PRL)/±thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)) and into densely granulated (DG) and sparsely granulated (SG) types...
February 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901187/interactions-between-prolactin-and-kisspeptin-to-control-reproduction
#3
Jose Donato, Renata Frazão
Prolactin is best known for its effects of stimulating mammary gland development and lactogenesis. However, prolactin is a pleiotropic hormone that is able to affect several physiological functions, including fertility. Prolactin receptors (PRLRs) are widely expressed in several tissues, including several brain regions and reproductive tract organs. Upon activation, PRLRs may exert prolactin's functions through several signaling pathways, although the recruitment of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 causes most of the known effects of prolactin...
November 24, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893788/effects-of-high-fat-diet-on-stress-response-in-male-and-female-wildtype-and-prolactin-knockout-mice
#4
Manu Kalyani, Kathryn Hasselfeld, James M Janik, Phyllis Callahan, Haifei Shi
Prolactin (PRL) is well characterized for its roles in initiation and maintenance of lactation, and it also suppresses stress-induced responses. Feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) disrupts activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Whether PRL regulates HPA axis activation under HFD feeding is not clear. Male and female wildtype (WT) and PRL knockout (KO) mice were fed either a standard low-fat diet (LFD) or HFD for 12 weeks. Circulating corticosterone (CORT) levels were measured before, during, and after mice were subjected to an acute restraint stress or remained in their home cages as no stress controls...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849387/serum-levels-of-f%C3%A4-broblast-growth-factor-23-osteoproteger%C3%A4-n-and-receptor-act%C3%A4-vator-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-l%C3%A4-gand-rankl-%C3%A4-n-pat%C3%A4-ents-w%C3%A4-h-prolact%C3%A4-noma
#5
Muyesser Sayki Arslan, Mustafa Sahin, Melia Karakose, Esra Tutal, Oya Topaloglu, Bekir Ucan, Taner Demirci, Mustafa Caliskan, Seyda Sahingol, Mustafa Ozbek, Erman Cakal
PURPOSE: The aim of this study to was to evaluate the effect of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator nuclear kB ligand (RANKL), and vitamin D hormones on bone loss in patients with hyperprolactinemia due to the pituitary prolactinoma. METHODS: 46 premenopausal female patients with prolactinoma and age and sex matched healthy controls (Group 3, n=20) were recruited to this cross sectional study. Prolactinoma patients were divided into two groups as patients newly diagnosed (Group 1, n=26), and under cabergoline treatment (Group 2, n=20)...
November 16, 2016: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848079/cabergoline-and-prolactinomas-lack-of-association-between-drd2-polymorphisms-and-response-to-treatment
#6
Cbf Bueno, E B Trarbach, M D Bronstein, A Glezer
BACKGROUND: About 80% of prolactinomas respond to dopamine agonists (DA) with hormonal normalization and tumor shrinkage. Mechanisms of DA resistance include reduction of dopamine receptor subtype 2 (DRD2) expression, short and long isoform ratio and post-receptor mechanisms. It was suggested that polymorphisms in the gene encoding dopamine receptor subtype 2 gene (DRD2) could be associated with variable effectiveness of cabergoline (CAB). OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of DRD2 polymorphisms in responsiveness of CAB treatment in patients with prolactinoma...
November 15, 2016: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836941/target-site-investigation-for-the-plasma-prolactin-response-mechanism-based-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-analysis-of-risperidone-and-paliperidone-in-the-rat
#7
Shinji Shimizu, Sandra M den Hoedt, Victor Mangas Sanjuan, Sinziana Cristea, Jana K Geuer, Dirk-Jan van den Berg, Robin Hartman, Francisco Bellanti, Elizabeth C M de Lange
In order to understand the drivers in the biological system response to dopamine D2 receptor antagonists, a mechanistic semi-physiologically-based (PB) pharmacokinetic-pharmacodymanic (PKPD) model was developed to describe prolactin responses to risperidone (RIS) and its active metabolite paliperidone (PAL). A microdialysis study in rats was performed to obtain detailed plasma, brain extracellular fluid (brainECF), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of PAL and RIS. To assess the impact of P-gp functioning on brain distribution, experiments were performed in absence or presence of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor tariquidar (TQD)...
November 11, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829125/development-of-a-new-anti-prolactin-receptor-prlr-antibody-f56-which-can-serve-as-a-prlr-antagonist
#8
Huanzhong Cui, Yun Zhi Ma, Yanrong Wang, Meng Song, Hui Zhang
In this work, we developed a new prolactin receptor (PRLR) antagonist using the hybridoma technique. A series of monoclonal antibodies against prolactin receptor (PRLR) were prepared, from which we characterized and selected one anti-PRLR antibody, F56. Epitome mapping showed that F56 and prolactin (PRL) share a common binding epitope on PRLR, and therefore, F56 could compete with prolactin (PRL) for binding to PRLR. Subsequent experiments indicated that F56 could effectively neutralize PRLR-mediated intracellular signalling molecules, such as signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and kinase 2 (ERK1/2), either by endogenously expressed PRLR or in a cell model transfected with PRLR...
November 6, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815160/expression-and-regulation-of-prolactin-like-protein-messenger-rna-in-undifferentiated-chicken-granulosa-cells
#9
Shenqiang Hu, Raj Duggavathi, David Zadworny
Prolactin-like protein (PRL-L; LOC417800) is a homolog of PRL in non-mammalian vertebrates and can act as a functional ligand of PRL receptor (PRLR). Despite its widespread expression in extrapituitary tissues, mechanisms of regulation of PRL-L in the chicken ovary remain unknown. In this study, we first examined PRL-L expression in chicken ovarian developing follicles. PRL-L transcript levels were highest (P<0.05) in follicular walls of <2mm follicles and progressively declined during follicle maturation...
November 1, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807604/safety-and-tolerability-of-cariprazine-in-the-long-term-treatment-of-schizophrenia-results-from-a-48-week-single-arm-open-label-extension-study
#10
Suresh Durgam, William M Greenberg, Dayong Li, Kaifeng Lu, Istvan Laszlovszky, Gyorgy Nemeth, Raffaele Migliore, Stephen Volk
RATIONALE: Cariprazine, a dopamine D3/D2 receptor partial agonist antipsychotic, demonstrated efficacy and tolerability in 6-week, randomized, placebo-controlled schizophrenia trials. Schizophrenia is a chronic disorder that requires continuous treatment; therefore, the long-term safety and tolerability profile of antipsychotic agents is an important factor in guiding clinician decisions. OBJECTIVE: This single-arm, open-label extension study evaluated the long-term safety and tolerability of cariprazine in patients with schizophrenia...
November 2, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805870/prolactin-promotes-adipose-tissue-fitness-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-males
#11
Xarubet Ruiz-Herrera, Ericka A de Los Ríos, Juan M Díaz, Ricardo M Lerma-Alvarado, Lucía Martínez de la Escalera, Fernando López-Barrera, María Lemini, Edith Arnold, Gonzalo Martínez de la Escalera, Carmen Clapp, Yazmín Macotela
Excessive accumulation of body fat triggers insulin resistance and features of the metabolic syndrome. Recently, evidence has accumulated that obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are associated with reduced levels of serum prolactin (PRL) in humans and rodents, raising the question of whether low PRL levels contribute to metabolic dysfunction. Here, we have addressed this question by investigating the role of PRL in insulin sensitivity and adipose tissue fitness in obese rodents and humans. In diet-induced obese rats, treatment with PRL delivered via osmotic mini-pumps, improved insulin sensitivity, prevented adipocyte hypertrophy, and reduced inflammatory cytokine expression in visceral fat...
November 2, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802964/chronic-hyperprolactinemia-evoked-by-disruption-of-lactotrope-dopamine-d2-receptors-impacts-on-liver-and-adipocyte-genes-related-to-glucose-and-insulin-balance
#12
Guillermina Maria Luque, Felicitas Lopez-Vicchi, Ana Maria Ornstein, Belen Brie, Catalina De Winne, Esteban Fiore, Maria Ines Perez Millan, Guillermo Mazzolini, Marcelo Rubinstein, Damasia Becu-Villalobos
We studied the impact of high prolactin titers on liver and adipocyte gene expression related to glucose and insulin homeostasis, in correlation with obesity onset. To that end we used mutant female mice that selectively lack dopamine type 2 receptors (D2Rs) from pituitary lactotropes (lacDrd2KO) which have chronic high prolactin levels associated with increased body weight, marked increments in fat depots, adipocyte size, and serum lipids, a metabolic phenotype which intensifies with age. LacDrd2KO mice of two developmental ages, 5 and 10 months were used...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788487/stimulation-of-prolactin-receptor-induces-stat-5-phosphorylation-and-cellular-invasion-in-glioblastoma-multiforme
#13
Amira Alkharusi, Shengze Yu, Natalia Landázuri, Fahad Zadjali, Belghis Davodi, Thomas Nyström, Torbjörn Gräslund, Afsar Rahbar, Gunnar Norstedt
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in humans and is characterized with poor outcome. In this study, we investigated components of prolactin (Prl) system in cell models of GBM and in histological tissue sections obtained from GBM patients. Expression of Prolactin receptor (PrlR) was detected at high levels in U251-MG, at low levels in U87-MG and barely detectable in U373 cell lines and in 66% of brain tumor tissues from 32 GBM patients by immunohistochemical technique...
October 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749534/effects-of-cabergoline-on-blood-glucose-levels-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-a-double-blind-controlled-clinical-trial
#14
Adele Bahar, Zahra Kashi, Ezzatossadat Daneshpour, Ozra Akha, Shahram Ala
BACKGROUND: Cabergoline is a long-acting agonist of dopamine, which has a high affinity to dopamine receptors (type 2). Treatment using a dopaminergic agonist reduces hypothalamic stimulation that increases during liver gluconeogenesis, lipids synthesis, and insulin resistance. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of cabergoline on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: This study was a double-blind, controlled clinical trial in patients with type 2 DM...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738887/dopamine-d2-receptor-expression-in-the-corticotroph-cells-of-the-human-normal-pituitary-gland
#15
Rosario Pivonello, Marlijn Waaijers, Johan M Kros, Claudia Pivonello, Cristina de Angelis, Alessia Cozzolino, Annamaria Colao, Steven W J Lamberts, Leo J Hofland
The dopamine D2 receptor is the main dopamine receptor expressed in the human normal pituitary gland. The aim of the current study was to evaluate dopamine D2 receptor expression in the corticotroph cell populations of the anterior lobe and pars intermedia, as well as posterior lobe of the human normal pituitary gland by immunohistochemistry. Human normal pituitary gland samples obtained from routine autopsies were used for the study. In all cases, histology together with immunostaining for adrenocorticotropic hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and neurofilaments were performed and compared to the immunostaining for D2 receptor...
October 13, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708194/effects-of-the-janus-kinase-inhibitor-tofacitinib-on-testicular-leydig-cell-hyperplasia-and-adenoma-in-rats-and-on-prolactin-signaling-in-cultured-primary-rat-leydig-cells
#16
Robert E Chapin, Douglas J Ball, Zaher A Radi, Steven W Kumpf, Petra H Koza-Taylor, David M Potter, W Mark Vogel
Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Tofacitinib preferentially inhibits receptor signaling through JAK3 and JAK1, relative to JAK2. In the 2-year rat carcinogenicity study, there were tofacitinib, dose-related increases in the incidences of testicular Leydig cell hyperplasia and benign adenomas in male rats, and decreased incidences of mammary tumors and duct dilatation/galactocele in female rats. Such findings in rats are typical of agents, such as dopamine agonists, which decrease prolactin (PRL) activity...
October 5, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697584/perinatal-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-modifies-the-transcriptional-regulation-of-the-%C3%AE-casein-gene-during-secretory-activation-of-the-rat-mammary-gland
#17
Gabriela A Altamirano, Jorge G Ramos, Ayelen L Gomez, Enrique H Luque, Monica Muñoz-de-Toro, Laura Kass
With the aim to analyze whether bisphenol A (BPA) modifies β-Casein (β-Cas) synthesis and transcriptional regulation in perinatally exposed animals, here, pregnant F0 rats were orally exposed to 0, 0.6 or 52 μg BPA/kg/day from gestation day 9 until weaning. Then, F1 females were bred and mammary glands were obtained on lactation day 2. Perinatal BPA exposure decreased β-Cas expression without modifying the activation of prolactin receptor. It also decreased the expression of glucocorticoid receptor in BPA52-exposed dams and β1 and α6 integrins as well as dystroglycan in both BPA groups...
September 30, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696120/role-of-estradiol-in-the-regulation-of-prolactin-secretion-during-late-pregnancy
#18
Carlos Villegas-Gabutti, Gisela E Pennacchio, Graciela A Jahn, Marta Soaje
Estrogen action is necessary for evidencing the stimulatory action of mifepristone and naloxone on prolactin (PRL) secretion during late pregnancy. Our aim is to determine the mechanism mediating this facilitator action of estrogens. To investigate the hypothalamic mechanisms involved in estrogen actions in PRL secretion at the end of pregnancy, we measured the effect of pretreatment with the estrogen antagonist tamoxifen on the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), hormone receptors (ERα and β, PRs, PRLR(long)), and μ- and κ- opioid receptors (ORs) at mRNA (by semiquantitative RT-PCR) and protein (by western blot for TH, PRLR(long), ERα, PRs, μ- and ORs) levels in extracts of medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) and serum PRL, E2 and P4 levels (by RIA) in mifepristone- and naloxone-treated rats...
December 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688483/a-long-lived-mouse-lacking-both-growth-hormone-and-growth-hormone-receptor-a-new-animal-model-for-aging-studies
#19
Adam Gesing, Denise Wiesenborn, Andrew Do, Vinal Menon, Augusto Schneider, Berta Victoria, Michael B Stout, John J Kopchick, Andrzej Bartke, Michal M Masternak
Disruption of the growth hormone (GH) signaling pathway promotes insulin sensitivity and is associated with both delayed aging and extended longevity. Two kinds of long-lived mice-Ames dwarfs (df/df) and GH receptor gene-disrupted knockouts (GHRKO) are characterized by a suppressed GH axis with a significant reduction of body size and decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin levels. Ames dwarf mice are deficient in GH, prolactin, and thyrotropin, whereas GHRKOs are GH resistant and are dwarf with decreased circulating IGF-1 and increased GH...
September 29, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681724/interactions-between-two-different-g-protein-coupled-receptors-in-reproductive-hormone-producing-cells-the-role-of-pacap-and-its-receptor-pac1r
#20
Haruhiko Kanasaki, Aki Oride, Tomomi Hara, Tselmeg Mijiddorj, Unurjargal Sukhbaatar, Satoru Kyo
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropins are indispensable hormones for maintaining female reproductive functions. In a similar manner to other endocrine hormones, GnRH and gonadotropins are controlled by their principle regulators. Although it has been previously established that GnRH regulates the synthesis and secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-both gonadotropins-from pituitary gonadotrophs, it has recently become clear that hypothalamic GnRH is under the control of hypothalamic kisspeptin...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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