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Prolactin receptor

Adele Bahar, Zahra Kashi, Ezzatossadat Daneshpour, Ozra Akha, Shahram Ala
BACKGROUND: Cabergoline is a long-acting agonist of dopamine, which has a high affinity to dopamine receptors (type 2). Treatment using a dopaminergic agonist reduces hypothalamic stimulation that increases during liver gluconeogenesis, lipids synthesis, and insulin resistance. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of cabergoline on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: This study was a double-blind, controlled clinical trial in patients with type 2 DM...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Rosario Pivonello, Marlijn Waaijers, Johan M Kros, Claudia Pivonello, Cristina de Angelis, Alessia Cozzolino, Annamaria Colao, Steven W J Lamberts, Leo J Hofland
The dopamine D2 receptor is the main dopamine receptor expressed in the human normal pituitary gland. The aim of the current study was to evaluate dopamine D2 receptor expression in the corticotroph cell populations of the anterior lobe and pars intermedia, as well as posterior lobe of the human normal pituitary gland by immunohistochemistry. Human normal pituitary gland samples obtained from routine autopsies were used for the study. In all cases, histology together with immunostaining for adrenocorticotropic hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and neurofilaments were performed and compared to the immunostaining for D2 receptor...
October 13, 2016: Endocrine
Robert E Chapin, Douglas J Ball, Zaher A Radi, Steven W Kumpf, Petra H Koza-Taylor, David M Potter, W Mark Vogel
Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Tofacitinib preferentially inhibits receptor signaling through JAK3 and JAK1, relative to JAK2. In the 2-year rat carcinogenicity study, there were tofacitinib, dose-related increases in the incidences of testicular Leydig cell hyperplasia and benign adenomas in male rats, and decreased incidences of mammary tumors and duct dilatation/galactocele in female rats. Such findings in rats are typical of agents, such as dopamine agonists, which decrease prolactin (PRL) activity...
October 5, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Gabriela A Altamirano, Jorge G Ramos, Ayelen L Gomez, Enrique H Luque, Monica Muñoz-de-Toro, Laura Kass
With the aim to analyze whether bisphenol A (BPA) modifies β-Casein (β-Cas) synthesis and transcriptional regulation in perinatally exposed animals, here, pregnant F0 rats were orally exposed to 0, 0.6 or 52 μg BPA/kg/day from gestation day 9 until weaning. Then, F1 females were bred and mammary glands were obtained on lactation day 2. Perinatal BPA exposure decreased β-Cas expression without modifying the activation of prolactin receptor. It also decreased the expression of glucocorticoid receptor in BPA52-exposed dams and β1 and α6 integrins as well as dystroglycan in both BPA groups...
September 30, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Carlos Villegas-Gabutti, Gisela E Pennacchio, Graciela A Jahn, Marta Soaje
Estrogen action is necessary for evidencing the stimulatory action of mifepristone and naloxone on prolactin (PRL) secretion during late pregnancy. Our aim is to determine the mechanism mediating this facilitator action of estrogens. To investigate the hypothalamic mechanisms involved in estrogen actions in PRL secretion at the end of pregnancy, we measured the effect of pretreatment with the estrogen antagonist tamoxifen on the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), hormone receptors (ERα and β, PRs, PRLR(long)), and μ- and κ- opioid receptors (ORs) at mRNA (by semiquantitative RT-PCR) and protein (by western blot for TH, PRLR(long), ERα, PRs, μ- and ORs) levels in extracts of medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) and serum PRL, E2 and P4 levels (by RIA) in mifepristone- and naloxone-treated rats...
October 1, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Adam Gesing, Denise Wiesenborn, Andrew Do, Vinal Menon, Augusto Schneider, Berta Victoria, Michael B Stout, John J Kopchick, Andrzej Bartke, Michal M Masternak
Disruption of the growth hormone (GH) signaling pathway promotes insulin sensitivity and is associated with both delayed aging and extended longevity. Two kinds of long-lived mice-Ames dwarfs (df/df) and GH receptor gene-disrupted knockouts (GHRKO) are characterized by a suppressed GH axis with a significant reduction of body size and decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin levels. Ames dwarf mice are deficient in GH, prolactin, and thyrotropin, whereas GHRKOs are GH resistant and are dwarf with decreased circulating IGF-1 and increased GH...
September 29, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Haruhiko Kanasaki, Aki Oride, Tomomi Hara, Tselmeg Mijiddorj, Unurjargal Sukhbaatar, Satoru Kyo
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropins are indispensable hormones for maintaining female reproductive functions. In a similar manner to other endocrine hormones, GnRH and gonadotropins are controlled by their principle regulators. Although it has been previously established that GnRH regulates the synthesis and secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-both gonadotropins-from pituitary gonadotrophs, it has recently become clear that hypothalamic GnRH is under the control of hypothalamic kisspeptin...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Obi L Griffith, Szeman Ruby Chan, Malachi Griffith, Kilannin Krysiak, Zachary L Skidmore, Jasreet Hundal, Julie A Allen, Cora D Arthur, Daniele Runci, Mattia Bugatti, Alexander P Miceli, Heather Schmidt, Lee Trani, Krishna-Latha Kanchi, Christopher A Miller, David E Larson, Robert S Fulton, William Vermi, Richard K Wilson, Robert D Schreiber, Elaine R Mardis
Estrogen receptor alpha-positive (ERα+) luminal tumors are the most frequent subtype of breast cancer. Stat1(-/-) mice develop mammary tumors that closely recapitulate the biological characteristics of this cancer subtype. To identify transforming events that contribute to tumorigenesis, we performed whole genome sequencing of Stat1(-/-) primary mammary tumors and matched normal tissues. This investigation identified somatic truncating mutations affecting the prolactin receptor (PRLR) in all tumor and no normal samples...
September 27, 2016: Cell Reports
L Long, S G Wu, F Yuan, H J Zhang, J Wang, G H Qi
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary octacosanol supplementation on laying performance, egg quality, serum hormone levels, and gene expression related to reproductive axis in laying hens to confirm the reproduction-promoting function of octacosanol. In total, 360 Hy-Line Brown (67-wk-old) laying hens were randomly assigned to one of three treatments with 0, 5, and 10 mg octacosanol (extracted from rice bran, purity >92%)/kg feed. The feeding trial lasted for 10 weeks. The results showed that the dietary addition of 5 and 10 mg/kg octacosanol improved feed efficiency by 4...
September 24, 2016: Poultry Science
Carrie S Shemanko
Prolactin and prolactin receptor signaling and function are complex in nature and intricate in function. Basic, pre-clinical and translational research has opened up our eyes to the understanding that prolactin and prolactin receptor signaling function differently within different cellular contexts and microenvironmental conditions. Its multiple roles in normal physiology are subverted in cancer initiation and progression, and gradually we are teasing out the intricacies of function and therapeutic value. Recently, we observed that prolactin has a role in accelerating the time to bone metastasis in breast cancer patients and identified the mechanism by which prolactin stimulated breast cancer cell-mediated lytic osteoclast formation...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Annika Mohr, Florenza Lüder Ripoli, Susanne Conradine Hammer, Saskia Willenbrock, Marion Hewicker-Trautwein, Zdzisław Kiełbowicz, Hugo Murua Escobar, Ingo Nolte
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is currently considered the method of choice for steroid hormone receptor status evaluation in human breast cancer and, therefore, it is commonly utilized for assessing canine mammary tumors. In case of low hormone receptor expression, IHC is limited and thus is complemented by molecular analyses. In the present study, a multiplex bDNA assay was evaluated as a method for hormone receptor gene expression detection in canine mammary tissues. Estrogen receptor (ESR1), progesterone receptor (PGR), prolactin receptor (PRLR) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene expressions were evaluated in neoplastic and non-neoplastic canine mammary tissues...
2016: PloS One
Ewa Ocłoń, Agnieszka Leśniak-Walentyn, Gili Solomon, Michal Shpilman, Anna Hrabia, Arieh Gertler
Recombinant chicken prolactin, expressed in Escherichia coli as an unfolded protein, was successfully refolded and purified to homogeneity as a monomeric protein. Its biological activity was evidenced by its ability to interact with rabbit prolactin receptor extracellular domain and stimulate prolactin receptor-mediated proliferation in three cell types possessing mammalian prolactin receptors. Chicken prolactin activity in those assays was 20-100-fold lower than that of mammalian lactogenic hormones, likely due to lower affinity for mammalian prolactin receptors and not to improper refolding, because in two homologous bioassays, chicken prolactin activity was equal to or higher than that of ovine prolactin and the CD spectra of chicken and human prolactin were almost identical...
September 15, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Amal Alachkar, Lamees Alhassen, Zhiwei Wang, Lien Wang, Kara Onouye, Nayna Sanathara, Olivier Civelli
In order to prepare the mother for the demands of pregnancy and lactation, the maternal brain is subjected to a number of adaptations. Maternal behaviors are regulated by complex neuronal interactions. Here, we show that the melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) system is an important regulator of maternal behaviors. First, we report that melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 knockout (MCHR1 KO) mice display a disruption of maternal behavior. Early postpartum MCHR1 KO females exhibit poor nesting, deficits in pup retrieval and maternal aggression...
September 8, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Amit Taneja, An Vermeulen, Dymphy R H Huntjens, Meindert Danhof, Elizabeth C M De Lange, Johannes H Proost
We provide the reader with relevant data related to our recently published paper, comparing two mathematical models to describe prolactin turnover in rats following one or two doses of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonists risperidone, paliperidone and remoxipride, "A comparison of two semi-mechanistic models for prolactin release and prediction of receptor occupancy following administration of dopamine D2 receptor antagonists in rats" (Taneja et al., 2016) [1]. All information is tabulated. Summary level data on the in vitro potencies and the physicochemical properties is presented in Table 1...
September 2016: Data in Brief
Fatemeh Abdi, Hamid Mobedi, Nasibeh Roozbeh
Menopause is a critical stage of women's life associated with various complaints and distresses. Vasomotor symptoms (VMS), such as hot flushes, night sweats, sleep disturbances, and fatigue, are the most common menopause symptoms affecting about 50% to 80% of middle-aged women. Obviously, these symptoms, resulting from estrogen deficiency during menopause, can exert negative effects on women's health and quality of life and thus require to be managed through approaches such as hormone replacement therapy (HRT)...
August 2016: Journal of Menopausal Medicine
Man Wai Tang, Kris A Reedquist, Samuel Garcia, Bea Malvar Fernandez, Veronica Codullo, Elsa Vieira-Sousa, Vincent Goffin, Anne Q Reuwer, Marcel T Twickler, Daniëlle M Gerlag, Paul-Peter Tak
OBJECTIVES: Prolactin (PRL) is a lactation-inducing hormone with immunomodulatory properties and is found at elevated levels in the serum of patients with RA and other rheumatic diseases. The PRL receptor (PRLR) has been shown to be expressed by macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was to examine PRLR expression by synovial macrophages and its role in the regulation of macrophage activation. METHODS: Serum monomeric 23 kDa PRL levels were measured in 119 RA patients using a fluoroimmunometric assay...
September 10, 2016: Rheumatology
Panida Loutchanwoot, Tina Vortherms, Hubertus Jarry
AIMS: Previous research has revealed that puerarin, the major phytoestrogen in tuberous roots of Pueraria lobota and Pueraria mirifica, acts as a selective estrogen receptor modulator that displays predominantly estrogenic potential for health benefit. However, little is known about the estrogenic potency of puerarin in pituitary, especially in the rat model of postmenopausal females. MAIN METHODS: Plasma prolactin and growth hormone levels as well as mRNA expression levels of pituitary estrogen-regulated genes, such as estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ), truncated ER product-1 (TERP-1) and -2 (TERP-2) and gonadotropin alpha subunit, were examined using radioimmunoassay and TaqMan® real-time PCR, respectively...
September 8, 2016: Life Sciences
L Baeyens, S Hindi, R L Sorenson, M S German
Pregnancy in placental mammals places unique demands on the insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The pancreas anticipates the increase in insulin resistance that occurs late in pregnancy by increasing β-cell numbers and function earlier in pregnancy. In rodents, this β-cell expansion depends on secreted placental lactogens that signal through the prolactin receptor. Then at the end of pregnancy, the β-cell population contracts back to its pre-pregnancy size. In the current review, we focus on how glucose metabolism changes during pregnancy, how β-cells anticipate these changes through their response to lactogens and what molecular mechanisms guide the adaptive compensation...
September 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Sonia A Ronchetti, Leticia I Machiavelli, Fernanda A Quinteros, Beatriz H Duvilanski, Jimena P Cabilla
Changes in the estrogenic status produce deep changes in pituitary physiology, mainly because estrogens (E2) are one of the main regulators of pituitary cell population. Also, E2 negatively regulate pituitary neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity and expression and may thereby modulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), an important regulator of cell death and survival. Little is known about how ovary ablation affects anterior pituitary cell remodelling and molecular mechanisms that regulate this process have not yet been elucidated...
2016: PloS One
Xue Zhang, Li-Juan Fu, Xue-Qing Liu, Zhuo-Ying Hu, Yu Jiang, Ru-Fei Gao, Qian Feng, Xi Lan, Yan-Qing Geng, Xue-Mei Chen, Jun-Lin He, Ying-Xiong Wang, Yu-Bin Ding
STUDY QUESTION: Does nm23 have functional significance in decidualization in mice and humans? SUMMARY ANSWER: nm23 affects decidualization via the phosphoinositide 3 kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K-Akt-mTOR) signaling pathways in mouse endometrial stromal cells (ESCs; mESCs) and human ESCs. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The function of nm23 in suppressing metastasis has been demonstrated in a variety of cancer types. nm23 also participates in the control of DNA replication and cell proliferation and differentiation...
October 2016: Human Reproduction
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