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Prolactin receptor

Haroon Latif Khan, Shahzad Bhatti, Sana Abbas, Yousaf Latif Khan, Rosa Maria Marquez Gonzalez, Muhammad Aslamkhan, Gerardo Rodriguez Gonzalez, Hikmet Hakan Aydin
Background: Despite its worldwide high occurrence, the obscurity regarding the description, epidemiology and management of premature ejaculation remains provocative. It is well established that male premature ejaculatory dysfunction is an increasing problem due to spontaneous ejaculation across a variety of general and clinical subjects. The main goal of this study was to determine the relationships between trinucleotide repeats of the androgen receptor (AR), sex steroids, and pituitary hormones with sexual function in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and reported with acquired premature ejaculation (PE)...
2018: Basic and Clinical Andrology
P Xie, X P Wan, Z Bu, E J Diao, D Q Gong, X T Zou
The present study was conducted to determine the changes in concentrations of hormones and growth factors and their related receptor gene expressions in crop tissue, relative organ weight, and serum biochemical parameters in male and female pigeons during incubation and chick-rearing periods under artificial farming conditions. Seventy-eight pairs of 60-week-old White King pigeons with 2 fertile eggs per pair were randomly divided into 13 groups by different breeding stages. Serum prolactin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations in crop tissue homogenates were the highest in both male and female pigeons at 1 d of chick-rearing (R1), while epidermal growth factor (EGF) in female pigeons peaked at d 17 of incubation (I17) (P < 0...
March 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Chengyuan Lin, Jin Bai, Mulan He, Anderson O L Wong
In this study, structural analysis of grass carp prolactin (PRL) gene was performed and the signaling mechanisms for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) regulation of PRL promoter activity were investigated. In αT3-1 cells, PRL promoter activity could be induced by oPACAP38 which was blocked by PACAP antagonist but not the VIP antagonist. The stimulatory effect of oPACAP38 was mimicked by activation of AC/cAMP and voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channel (VSCC) signaling, or induction of Ca2+ entry...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Laercio R Porto-Neto, Derek M Bickhart, Antonio J Landaeta-Hernandez, Yuri T Utsunomiya, Melvin Pagan, Esbal Jimenez, Peter J Hansen, Serdal Dikmen, Steven G Schroeder, Eui-Soo Kim, Jiajie Sun, Edward Crespo, Norman Amati, John B Cole, Daniel J Null, Jose F Garcia, Antonio Reverter, William Barendse, Tad S Sonstegard
Evolutionary adaptations are occasionally convergent solutions to the same problem. A mutation contributing to a heat tolerance adaptation in Senepol cattle, a New World breed of mostly European descent, results in the distinct phenotype known as slick, where an animal has shorter hair and lower follicle density across its coat than wild type animals. The causal variant, located in the 11th exon of prolactin receptor , produces a frameshift that results in a truncated protein. However, this mutation does not explain all cases of slick coats found in criollo breeds...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Gabriela Recalde, Tamara Moreno-Sosa, Florencia Yudica, Cristian A Quintero, Belén Sanchez, Graciela A Jahn, Alexis M Kalergis, Juan Pablo Mackern-Oberti
In this review we discuss how sex steroids and prolactin affect regulation and responsiveness of B and T cells. Sex hormones exert profound effects on several physiological processes of non- reproductive tissues. In the immune system, several studies with experimental models for SLE have shown a noticeable pro-inflammatory role for ERα, contributing to disease development reflected in proteinuria and renal pathology. On the other hand, ERβ appears to have an anti- inflammatory and immunosuppressive effect...
March 8, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Shanshan Shao, Zhenyu Yao, Jiayu Lu, Yongfeng Song, Zhao He, Chunxiao Yu, Xiaoming Zhou, Lifang Zhao, Jiajun Zhao, Ling Gao
Increasing prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) worldwide has necessitated a more thorough understanding of it and expanded the scope of research in this field. Women are more resistant to NAFLD than men despite equal exposure to major risk factors, such as obesity or hyperlipidemia. Female resistance is hormone-dependent, as evidenced by the sharp increase in NAFLD incidence in post-menopausal women who do not take hormone replacement therapy. Here, we found that the estrogen-responsive pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL), through specific PRL receptor (PRLR), down-regulates hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation...
March 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Chung Thong Lim, Márta Korbonits
Pituitary adenomas are the third most common central nervous system tumours and arise from the anterior pituitary within the pituitary fossa. The signs and symptoms of patients with pituitary adenomas vary from 'mass effects' caused by a large adenoma to features secondary to excess pituitary hormones produced by the functioning pituitary adenoma. Detailed histopathological assessment, based on novel classifications and the latest WHO guidelines, helps to categorise pituitary adenomas into different subtypes and identify features that, in some cases, help to predict their behaviour...
March 2, 2018: Endocrine Practice
Emmanuel Amabebe, F O Robert, L F O Obika
Pregnancy and lactation are accompanied by an increase in circulating blood volume secondary to a 10 mOsmol/kgH20 decrease in plasma osmolality, decrease in the osmotic threshold for thirst and arginine vasopressin (AVP) release, prolactin-induced AVP, oxytocin and aldosterone release, as well as increased water intake and retention. The increased blood volume as a result of increased thirst; drinking and fluid retention could be beneficial for milk production and secretion during lactation. Furthermore, AVP can directly initiate milk ejection similar to oxytocin by interacting with both vasopressin and oxytocin receptors located in myoepithelial cells of the mammary gland...
December 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
Vânia Vieira Borba, Gisele Zandman-Goddard, Yehuda Shoenfeld
The great asymmetry of autoimmune diseases between genders represents one of the most enigmatic observations among the mosaic of autoimmunity. Sex hormones are believed to play a crucial role on this dimorphism. The higher prevalence of autoimmunity among women at childbearing ages, disease onset/relapses during pregnancy, and post-partum are some of the arguments that support this hypothesis. Certainly, motherhood represents one of the most remarkable challenges for the immune system, which not only has to allow for the conceptus, but also has to deal with complex endocrine alterations...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Gabriella S Antoniotti, Melinda Coughlan, Lois A Salamonsen, Jemma Evans
STUDY QUESTION: Do obese levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) within the uterine cavity detrimentally alter tissue function in embryo implantation and placental development? SUMMARY ANSWER: Obese levels of AGEs activate inflammatory signaling (p65 NFκB) within endometrial epithelial cells and alter their function, cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in endometrial stromal cells and impair decidualization, compromise implantation of blastocyst mimics and inhibit trophoblast invasion...
February 20, 2018: Human Reproduction
Bibiana Moreno-Carranza, Marco Bravo-Manríquez, Arelí Baez, María G Ledesma-Colunga, Xarubet Ruiz-Herrera, Pamela Reyes-Ortega, Ericka A De Los Ríos, Yazmín Macotela, Gonzalo Martínez de la Escalera, Carmen Clapp
The liver grows during the early postnatal period first at slower and then at faster rates than the body to achieve the adult liver-to-body weight ratio (LBW), a constant reflecting liver health. The hormone prolactin (PRL) stimulates adult liver growth and regeneration and its levels are high in the circulation of newborn infants, but whether PRL plays a role on neonatal liver growth is unknown. Here, we show that the liver produces PRL and upregulates the PRL receptor in mice during the first 2 weeks after birth, when liver growth lags behind body growth...
February 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Valérie Bernard, Chiara Villa, Aurélie Auguste, Sophie Lamothe, Anne Guillou, Agnès Martin, Sandrine Caburet, Jacques Young, Reiner A Veitia, Nadine Binart
Lactotroph adenoma, also called prolactinoma, is the most common pituitary tumor but little is known about its pathogenesis. Mouse models of prolactinoma can be useful to better understand molecular mechanisms involved in abnormal lactotroph cell proliferation and secretion. We have previously developed a prolactin receptor deficient ( Prlr -/- ) mouse, which develops prolactinoma. The present study aims to explore the natural history of prolactinoma formation in Prlr -/- mice, using hormonal, radiological, histological and molecular analyses to uncover mechanisms involved in lactotroph adenoma development...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
Gabriel Adan Araújo Leite, Marciana Sanabria, Marilia Martins Cavariani, Janete Aparecida Anselmo-Franci, Patrícia Fernanda Felipe Pinheiro, Raquel Fantin Domeniconi, Wilma De Grava Kempinas
The increase of obesity, bad eating habits and the lack of physical exercises are highly related to dyslipidemias. Rosuvastatin is a lipid-lowering drug and has been indicated to prevent cardiovascular diseases and to treat dyslipidemias due to its higher efficiency to reduce serum cholesterol concentrations. This study aimed to evaluate the reproductive adverse effects on sexual maturity due to rosuvastatin exposure in juvenile male rats during prepuberty. Three groups were randomly formed with newly weaned rats: control, whose rats received saline solution 0...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Kevin Christian Bermea, Alejandro Rodríguez-García, Andrew Tsin, Hugo Alberto Barrera-Saldaña
IMPORTANCE: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common of all diabetic complications. The number of people with DR in the United States is expected to increase to 16 million by 2050. DR is the leading cause of blindness among working-age adults in many different countries, including the United States. In later DR stages, neovascularization is associated with extensive retinal capillary non-perfusion and vitreo-proliferation leading to retinal detachment. This neovascularization is orchestrated by an imbalance of growth factors in the retina from which somatolactogens (pituitary growth hormone, GH-N; placental growth hormone, GH-V; prolactin, PRL; and placental lactogen, PL, also referred as chorionic somatomammotropin, CSH), may play an important role...
February 6, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Pengzi Zhang, Zhijuan Ge, Hongdong Wang, Wenhuan Feng, Xitai Sun, Xuehui Chu, Can Jiang, Yan Wang, Dalong Zhu, Yan Bi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Prolactin (PRL) is a multifunctional polypeptide with effects on metabolism; however, little is known about its effect on hepatic steatosis and lipid metabolism. METHODS: The serum PRL levels of 456 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients and 403 non-NAFLD controls diagnosed by ultrasound, and 85 subjects with liver histology obtained during metabolic surgery (44 female and 30 male NAFLD patients and 11 age-matched non-NAFLD female subjects) were evaluated...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Kazunori Suzuki, Akina Harada, Hirobumi Suzuki, Clizia Capuani, Annarosa Ugolini, Mauro Corsi, Haruhide Kimura
Activation of indirect pathway medium spiny neurons (MSNs) via promotion of cAMP production is the principal mechanism of action of current antipsychotics with dopamine D2 receptor antagonism. TAK-063 [1-[2-fluoro-4-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl]-5-methoxy-3-(1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)pyridazin-4(1H)-one] is a novel phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitor that activates both direct and indirect pathway MSNs through increasing both cAMP and cGMP levels by inhibition of their degradation. The activation of indirect pathway MSNs through the distinct mechanism of action of these drugs raises the possibility of augmented pharmacological effects by combination therapy...
February 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Baris Olten, Michael H Bloch
Our objective was to examine the association between antipsychotic receptor binding profiles and the magnitude of common side-effects. We used regression analysis to examine the association between the receptor binding affinities of antipsychotic agents (log Ki) and degree of specific antipsychotic side-effects. Data on magnitude of weight gain, prolactin increase and QTc prolongation (in Standardized Mean Difference) and risk of sedation and extrapyramidal symptoms (in Odds Ratio) between individual antipsychotic medications as compared to placebo was based on a recent network meta-analysis examining the treatment of schizophrenia...
February 1, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Xin-Yuan Cao, Xu Hua, Jian-Wei Xiong, Wen-Ting Zhu, Jun Zhang, Ling Chen
Triclosan (TCS), a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, is widely used in clinical settings and various personal care products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of TCS on reproductive endocrine and function. Here, we show that the exposure of adult female mice to 10 or 100 mg/kg/day TCS caused prolongation of diestrus, and decreases in antral follicles and corpora lutea within 2 weeks. TCS mice showed decreases in the levels of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and progesterone, and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA with the lack of LH surge and elevation of prolactin (PRL)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Ericka A de Los Ríos, Xarubet Ruiz-Herrera, Viridiana Tinoco-Pantoja, Fernando López-Barrera, Gonzalo Martínez de la Escalera, Carmen Clapp, Yazmín Macotela
Maternal diet during lactation affects offspring metabolic health throughout life. Prolactin (PRL) is present in high quantities in maternal milk; however, the effects of milk PRL on the offspring remain poorly characterized. In this study, we evaluated whether feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) to rats during lactation alters PRL, both in the mother's serum and in milk, and whether this factor contributes to HFD-induced metabolic dysfunction in the offspring. Maternal HFD resulted in decreased PRL levels in milk (but not in serum), reduced mammary gland (MG) PRL receptor expression, and altered MG structure and function...
January 31, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Hugo Geerts, Athan Spiros, Patrick Roberts, Larry Alphs
Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic formulations are increasingly used for improving patient compliance and long-term outcomes. Transitioning to LAIs raises questions regarding how optimum efficacy can be rapidly achieved while minimizing potential efficacy and safety concerns related to overlapping plasma levels of prior treatments and the new LAI. Ideally, randomized clinical trials would provide guidance regarding transition algorithms, but the number of studies and sample size required to address relevant questions makes this approach unachievable...
January 25, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
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