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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286844/performance-validity-testing-in-children-and-adolescents-a-descriptive-study-comparing-direct-and-embedded-measures
#1
Stephanie J Weiss, Melissa C Blackwell, Kirk M Griffith, Leslie S Jordan, Vincent P Culotta
Effort testing is a standard element in adult neuropsychological assessment. Research examining performance validity tests (PVTs) has focused on adults. The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine direct and embedded PVTs in children and adolescents. The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), a stand-alone PVT, was compared to two embedded measures of effort: California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version/Second Edition (CVLT-C/II) Recognition Discriminability and Reliable Digit Span (RDS). The sample consisted of 119 children and adolescents referred for outpatient assessment...
December 29, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273864/-testing-and-approach-when-non-organic-visual-loss-is-suspected
#2
Anna Sophie Mursch-Edlmayr, D Mojon, M Bolz
Approximately 5% of the patients in the ophthalmological practice suffer from non-organic vision loss. In children non-organic vision loss has been observed from the age of 6 years. In order to be able to make a rapid diagnosis knowledge of the relevant clinical tests is decisive. If a patient shows signs of non-organic visual loss, diagnostic externalization of the visual function is crucial. Depending on the symptoms there are various tests, which can be used to differentiate between organic and non-organic disorders...
December 22, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227127/symptom-and-performance-validity-with-veterans-assessed-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#3
Robert D Shura, John H Denning, Holly M Miskey, Jared A Rowland
Little is known about attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in veterans. Practice standards recommend the use of both symptom and performance validity measures in any assessment, and there are salient external incentives associated with ADHD evaluation (stimulant medication access and academic accommodations). The purpose of this study was to evaluate symptom and performance validity measures in a clinical sample of veterans presenting for specialty ADHD evaluation. Patients without a history of a neurocognitive disorder and for whom data were available on all measures (n = 114) completed a clinical interview structured on DSM-5 ADHD symptoms, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), and the Test of Memory Malingering Trial 1 (TOMM1) as part of a standardized ADHD diagnostic evaluation...
December 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227126/intentional-inattention-detecting-feigned-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-on-the-personality-assessment-inventory
#4
Shannon T Smith, Jennifer Cox, Elyse N Mowle, John F Edens
Given the increasing number of college students seeking Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnoses as well as the potential secondary gains associated with this disorder (e.g., access to stimulant medication, academic accommodations), the detection of malingered symptom presentations in this population is a major concern. The present study examined the ability of validity indicators on the widely used Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) to distinguish between individuals experiencing genuine ADHD symptoms and individuals instructed to present with ADHD symptomatology for secondary gain...
December 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227125/utility-of-the-conners-adult-adhd-rating-scale-validity-scales-in-identifying-simulated-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-random-responding
#5
Brittany D Walls, Elizabeth R Wallace, Stacey L Brothers, David T R Berry
Recent concern about malingered self-report of symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in college students has resulted in an urgent need for scales that can detect feigning of this disorder. The present study provided further validation data for a recently developed validity scale for the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS), the CAARS Infrequency Index (CII), as well as for the Inconsistency Index (INC). The sample included 139 undergraduate students: 21 individuals with diagnoses of ADHD, 29 individuals responding honestly, 54 individuals responding randomly (full or half), and 35 individuals instructed to feign...
December 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227124/the-effects-of-symptom-information-coaching-on-the-feigning-of-adult-adhd
#6
Maryanne Edmundson, David T R Berry, Hannah L Combs, Stacey L Brothers, Jordan P Harp, Ande Williams, Stephanie L Rojas, Ahmed K Saleh, April B Scott
College students without ADHD may feign symptoms of ADHD to gain access to stimulant medications and academic accommodations. Unfortunately, research has shown that it can be difficult to discriminate malingered from genuine ADHD symptomatology, especially when evaluations are based only on self-report questionnaires. The present study investigated whether nonclinical college students given no additional information could feign ADHD as successfully as those who were coached on symptoms of the disorder. Similar to Jasinski et al...
December 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209645/molecular-pathways-driven-by-eto2-glis2-in-aggressive-pediatric-leukemia
#7
Cécile Thirant, Cécile Lopez, Sébastien Malinge, Thomas Mercher
The ETO2-GLIS2 fusion oncoprotein is associated with poor prognosis pediatric acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. Recently, we observed that ETO2-GLIS2 controls enhancers activity at genes regulating haematopoietic progenitor self-renewal and differentiation toward the megakaryocytic lineage. We also showed that targeting ETO2-GLIS2 complex stability inhibits these properties and may represent a novel therapeutic strategy.
2017: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151097/the-dancing-manias-psychogenic-illness-as-a-social-phenomenon
#8
Douglas J Lanska
The dancing mania erupted in the 14th century in the wake of the Black Death, and recurred for centuries in central Europe - particularly Germany, the Netherlands, and Belgium - finally abating in the early 17th century. The term "dancing mania" was derived from "choreomania," a concatenation of choros (dance) and mania (madness). A variant, tarantism, was prevalent in southern Italy from the 15th to the 17th centuries, and was attributed at the time to bites from the tarantula spider. Affected individuals participated in continuous, prolonged, erratic, often frenzied and sometimes erotic, dancing...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151093/munchausen-syndrome-and-the-wide-spectrum-of-factitious-disorders
#9
Laurent Tatu, Selma Aybek, Julien Bogousslavsky
Since its initial description in 1851, Munchausen syndrome has been widely used interchangeably with factitious disorder. Nevertheless, this syndrome is only one form of factitious disorder that is both severe and chronic. The syndrome was named after Karl Friedrich Hieronymus, Baron von Münchhausen (1720-1797), a German nobleman who became famous as a narrator of false and exaggerated exploits. His name was progressively corrupted to Munchausen. Factitious disorders and Munchausen syndrome remain a great diagnosis challenge for physicians...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151092/conversion-factitious-disorder-and-malingering-a-distinct-pattern-or-a-continuum
#10
Silvio Galli, Laurent Tatu, Julien Bogousslavsky, Selma Aybek
This chapter is aimed at highlighting the recent findings concerning physiopathology, diagnosis, and management of conversion, factitious disorder, and malingering. Conversion disorder is the unintentional production of neurological symptom, whereas malingering and factitious disorder represent the voluntary production of symptoms with internal or external incentives. They have a close history and this has been frequently confounded. Practitioners are often confronted to medically unexplained symptoms; they represent almost 30% of neurologist's consultation...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151087/ganser-syndrome
#11
Sebastian Dieguez
Ganser's syndrome is a rare and controversial condition, whose main and most striking feature is the production of approximate answers (or near misses) to very simple questions. For instance, asked how many legs a horse has, Ganser patients will reply "5", and answers to plain arithmetic questions will likewise be wrong, but only slightly off the mark (e.g., 2 + 2 = 3). This symptom was originally described by Sigbert Ganser in 1897 in prisoners on remand and labeled Vorbeigehen ("to pass by"), although the term Vorbeireden ("to talk beside the point") is also frequently used...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148028/blindness-and-visual-impairment-in-opera
#12
Pinar Aydin, Robert Ritch, John O'Dwyer
PURPOSE: The performing arts mirror the human condition. This study sought to analyze the reasons for inclusion of visually impaired characters in opera, the cause of the blindness or near blindness, and the dramatic purpose of the blindness in the storyline. METHODS: We reviewed operas from the 18th century to 2010 and included all characters with ocular problems. We classified the cause of each character's ocular problem (organic, nonorganic, and other) in relation to the thematic setting of the opera: biblical and mythical, blind beggars or blind musicians, historical (real or fictional characters), and contemporary or futuristic...
November 4, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119569/the-utility-of-fetal-neurosonography-and-brain-mri-in-cases-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-during-pregnancy-a-retrospective-analysis-with-outcome-correlation
#13
Roee Birnbaum, Liat Ben-Sira, Tally Lerman-Sagie, Gustavo Malinger
OBJECTIVE: To analyze ultrasound and MRI results and developmental outcome in cases of maternal primary CMV infection during pregnancy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the results of fetal neurosonography and brain MRI of CMV infected fetuses (Group 1). Cases of maternal infection in which the fetal status was unknown, and subsequently had a negative CMV postnatal urine analysis, were independently analyzed (Group 2). Imaging results were classified as: positive, negative or inconclusive...
November 8, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117603/-clinical-tests-for-symptom-validity-assessment
#14
Bernhard Widder
Assessing symptom validity is essential both in the clinical and medicolegal contexts. If neurological symptoms are demonstrated and/or a patient complains of pain that is not or cannot be fully explained by an underlying disease, it is necessary to recognize reliably a possible psychological cause in order to avoid further unnecessary examinations. In the medicolegal context, malingering or exaggeration of complaints for obtaining financial benefit is to be differentiated in a further step. The present overview contains a summary of clinical observations and tests for neurologists and psychiatrists used for symptom validity assessment of sensorimotor symptoms, tremor, gait, equilibrium and visual disturbances as well as pain...
November 8, 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098674/development-of-new-diagnostic-techniques-machine-learning
#15
Delin Sun
Traditional diagnoses on addiction reply on the patients' self-reports, which are easy to be dampened by false memory or malingering. Machine learning (ML) is a data-driven procedure that learns algorithms from training data and makes predictions. It is quickly developed and is more and more utilized into clinical applications including diagnoses of addiction. This chapter reviewed the basic concepts and processes of ML. Some studies utilizing ML to classify addicts and non-addicts, separate different types of addiction, and evaluate the effects of treatment are also reviewed...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094263/exophiala-dermatitidis-revealing-cystic-fibrosis-in-adult-patients-with-chronic-pulmonary-disease
#16
Frédéric Grenouillet, Bernard Cimon, Heloise Pana-Katatali, Christine Person, Marie Gainet-Brun, Marie-Claire Malinge, Yohann Le Govic, Bénédicte Richaud-Thiriez, Jean-Philippe Bouchara
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic inherited disease due to mutations in the gene cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Because of the huge diversity of CFTR mutations, the CF phenotypes are highly heterogeneous, varying from typical to mild form of CF, also called atypical CF. These atypical features are more frequently diagnosed at adolescence or adulthood, and among clinical signs and symptoms leading to suspect a mild form of CF, colonization or infection of the respiratory tract due to well-known CF pathogens should be a warning signal...
November 1, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078000/erratum-for-why-we-should-worry-about-malingering-in-the-va-system-comment-on-jackson-et%C3%A2-al-2011
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072481/classification-accuracy-of-the-minnesota-multiphasic-personality-inventory-2-mmpi-2-restructured-form-validity-scales-in-detecting-malingered-pain-related-disability
#18
Kevin J Bianchini, Luis E Aguerrevere, Kelly L Curtis, Tresa M Roebuck-Spencer, F Charles Frey, Kevin W Greve, Matthew Calamia
The symptom reports of individuals with chronic pain are multidimensional (e.g., emotional, cognitive, and somatic) and significantly contribute to increased morbidity and lost work productivity. When pain occurs in the context of a legally compensable event, reliable assessment of a patient's multifactorial symptom experience during psychological or neuropsychological evaluations is a necessity. The Validity Scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) have been shown useful in identifying symptom overreporting and feigning within chronic pain samples and a number of studies have emerged supporting the use of the MMPI-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) in the detection of simulated or feigned impairment in a variety of populations...
October 26, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069278/performance-validity-neurocognitive-disorder-and-post-concussion-symptom-reporting-in-service-members-with-a-history-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Sara M Lippa, Rael T Lange, Louis M French, Grant L Iverson
Objective: To examine the influence of different performance validity test (PVT) cutoffs on neuropsychological performance, post-concussion symptoms, and rates of neurocognitive disorder and postconcussional syndrome following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in active duty service members. Method: Participants were 164 service members (Age: M = 28.1 years [SD = 7.3]) evaluated on average 4.1 months (SD = 5.0) following injury. Participants were divided into three mutually exclusive groups using original and alternative cutoff scores on the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and the Effort Index (EI) from the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS): (a) PVT-Pass, n = 85; (b) Alternative PVT-Fail, n = 53; and (c) Original PVT-Fail, n = 26...
October 21, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057031/plausibility-judgments-of-atypical-symptoms-across-cultures-an-explorative-study-among-western-and-non-western-experts
#20
Irena Boskovic, Douwe van der Heide, Lorraine Hope, Harald Merckelbach, Marko Jelicic
Symptom validity tests (SVTs) are predicated on the assumption that overendorsement of atypical symptoms flags symptom exaggeration (i.e., questionable symptom validity). However, few studies have explored how practitioners from different cultural backgrounds evaluate such symptoms. We asked professionals working in Western (n = 56) and non-Western countries (n = 37) to rate the plausibility of uncommon symptoms taken from the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology (SIMS), dissociative symptoms from the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES-T), and standard symptoms (e...
2017: Psychological Injury and Law
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