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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782515/simulation-of-dyslexia-how-literacy-and-cognitive-skills-can-help-distinguish-college-students-with-dyslexia-from-malingerers
#1
Madelon van den Boer, Elise H de Bree, Peter F de Jong
Academic accommodations associated with a diagnosis of dyslexia might be incentives for college students without reading or spelling difficulties to feign dyslexia and obtain the diagnosis unfairly. In the current study we examined malingering practices by comparing the performance of college students instructed to malinger dyslexia (n = 28) to that of students actually diagnosed with dyslexia (n = 16). We also included a control group of students without reading and spelling difficulties (n = 28). The test battery included tasks tapping literacy skills as well as underlying cognitive skills associated with literacy outcomes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769367/similarities-between-military-and-medical-service-stigma-of-seeking-mental-health-assistance
#2
EDITORIAL
Fergus Gardiner, E C Gardiner
Studies have identified that there are many barriers to treatment of mental health illnesses in military populations, including the negative-associated stigma. One such barrier includes perceptions of weakness, leading to concerns about leadership and competency and being seen as malingering. Furthermore, similarities can be seen in civilian health professionals, where concerns of negative perceptions can limit reporting and treatment of mental health illnesses. Despite the frequency of stressful events, military and health professionals do not become immune to stress and are often ill prepared to cope with acute stressors that can often build on each other until emotional exhaustion and/or crisis point...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749255/development-of-the-subtle-adhd-malingering-screener
#3
Sujith Ramachandran, Erin R Holmes, Meagen Rosenthal, Benjamin F Banahan, John Young, John P Bentley
The objective of this study was to develop a subtle self-report scale-the Subtle ADHD Malingering Screener (SAMS)-to screen for malingering among individuals reporting symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study employed a cross-sectional experimental design with an ADHD group, a control group-comprising individuals without ADHD-and a malingering group-comprising individuals without ADHD who were instructed to feign ADHD in their responses. Factor analysis and psychometric testing were conducted to develop a final scale that could distinguish the malingering from the other groups...
May 1, 2018: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677192/the-dyad-adaptive-paced-auditory-serial-addition-test-da-pasat-normative-data-and-the-effects-of-repeated-testing-simulated-malingering-and-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
David L Woods, John M Wyma, Timothy J Herron, E William Yund, Bruce Reed
The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) is widely used to evaluate processing speed and executive function in patients with multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, and other neurological disorders. In the PASAT, subjects listen to sequences of digits while continuously reporting the sum of the last two digits presented. Four different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) are usually tested, with difficulty increasing as SOAs are reduced. Ceiling effects are common at long SOAs, while the digit delivery rate often exceeds the subject's processing capacity at short SOAs, causing some subjects to stop performing altogether...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659666/reliable-digit-span-does-it-adequately-measure-suboptimal-effort-in-an-adult-epilepsy-population
#5
Moshe Maiman, Victor A Del Bene, William S MacAllister, Sloane Sheldon, Eileen Farrell, Miguel Arce Rentería, Mitchell Slugh, Siddhartha S Nadkarni, William B Barr
Objective: Assessment of performance validity is a necessary component of any neuropsychological evaluation. Prior research has shown that cutoff scores of ≤6 or ≤7 on Reliable Digit Span (RDS) can detect suboptimal effort across numerous adult clinical populations; however, these scores have not been validated for that purpose in an adult epilepsy population. This investigation aims to determine whether these previously established RDS cutoff scores could detect suboptimal effort in adults with epilepsy...
April 5, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627349/recurrent-ethylene-glycol-poisoning-with-elevated-lactate-levels-to-obtain-opioid-medications
#6
Matthew Zuckerman, Tim Vo
BACKGROUND: Malingering is when a patient feigns illness for secondary gain. While most patients with malingering manufacture or exaggerate symptoms, some patients may induce illness. Previous reports of malingering patients inducing illness include sepsis, kidney pain, migraine, and chest pain. However, acute poisoning as a manifestation of malingering appears to be rare. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 39-year-old man who presented to the emergency department complaining of diffuse body pain...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618539/sexsomnia-as-a-defense-in-repeated-sex-crimes
#7
Amir Mohebbi, Brian J Holoyda, William J Newman
Sexsomnia and related sexual behaviors during sleep may be diagnosed in individuals accused of sex crimes. Although sexsomnia is now formally recognized in the DSM-5, the variable presentation of such behaviors and the possibility of malingering in medicolegal situations can cause challenges for forensic evaluators and legal professionals alike. Review of the literature reveals a paucity of cases involving allegations of repeated incidents due to abnormal sexual behaviors or experiences in sleep. It is important for experts involved in such cases to understand how the courts have responded to sexsomnia defenses involving diverse alleged incidents...
March 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489075/psychological-aspects-of-factitious-disorder
#8
Mohammad Jafferany, Zaira Khalid, Katherine A McDonald, Amanda J Shelley
Factitious disorder can present in multiple health care settings, with patients intentionally producing symptoms to assume the sick role. This assumption of the sick role can result in multiple hospitalizations with unnecessary diagnostic workup, as well as invasive diagnostic procedures that can lead to worrisome side effects. Differential diagnoses that should be ruled out include malingering, somatic symptom disorder, and anxiety disorders. For many providers, patients with factitious disorder can be a challenge to treat because the etiology of the disorder remains unclear...
February 22, 2018: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484745/the-fourth-ventricle-index-a-sonographic-marker-for-severe-fetal-vermian-dysgenesis-agenesis
#9
Karina Krajden Haratz, Sharon Leshem Shulevitz, Zvi Leibovitz, Dorit Lev, Shalev Josef, Mordechai Tomarkin, Gustavo Malinger, Tally Lerman-Sagie, Liat Gindes
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal diagnosis of midbrain-hindbrain malformations rely primarily on abnormal size and shape of the cerebellum and retrocerebellar space. The aim of this study was to present the 4th ventricle index (4VI), and to evaluate its role as a marker of severe vermian dysgenesis / agenesis cases without an open 4th ventricle (4v). METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study included 384 healthy fetuses between 14 to 37 gestational weeks. Axial images of the 4v were obtained and the 4VI was calculated as the ratio between the latero-lateral and anteroposterior diameters...
February 26, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469640/detecting-malingering-in-traumatic-brain-injury-combining-response-time-with-performance-validity-test-accuracy
#10
Robert J Kanser, Lisa J Rapport, Jesse R Bashem, Robin A Hanks
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the incremental utility of item-level response time (RT) variables on a traditional performance validity test in distinguishing adults with verified TBI from adults coached to feign neurocognitive impairment. METHOD: Participants were 45 adults with moderate to severe TBI, 45 healthy adults coached to feign neurocognitive impairment (SIM), and 61 healthy adult comparisons providing full effort (HC). All participants completed a computerized version of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM-C) in the context of a larger test battery...
February 22, 2018: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460826/defining-clinical-posturographic-and-intra-posturographic-discordances-what-do-these-two-concepts-mean
#11
REVIEW
Philippe Perrin, Art Mallinson, Christian Van Nechel, Laetitia Peultier-Celli, Hannes Petersen, Mans Magnusson, Herman Kingma, Raphaël Maire
The European Society for Clinical Evaluation of Balance Disorders - ESCEBD - Executive Committee meets yearly to identify and address clinical equilibrium problems that are not yet well understood. This particular discussion addressed "discordances" (defined as "lack of agreement") in clinical assessment. Sometimes there is disagreement between a clinical assessment and measured abnormality (ies); sometimes the results within the assessment do not agree. This is sometimes thought of as "malingering" or an attempt to exaggerate what is wrong, but this is not always the case...
February 20, 2018: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454642/moderate-financial-incentive-does-not-appear-to-influence-the-p300-concealed-information-test-cit-effect-in-the-complex-trial-protocol-ctp-version-of-the-cit-in-a-forensic-scenario-while-affecting-p300-peak-latencies-and-behavior
#12
J Peter Rosenfeld, Evan Sitar, Joshua Wasserman, Anne Ward
Previous research indicated that the skin conductance response (SCR) of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) in the Concealed Information Test (CIT) is typically increased in subjects who are financially and otherwise incentivized to defeat the CIT (the paradoxical "motivational impairment" effect). This is not the case for RT-based CITs, nor for P300 tests based on the 3-stimulus protocol or Complex Trial Protocol for detection of cognitive malingering (although these are not the same as forensic CITs)...
March 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421790/edgar-adrian-1889-1977-and-shell-shock-electrotherapy-a-forgotten-history
#13
Laurent Tatu
The English electrophysiologist Edgar Adrian (1889-1977) was the recipient of the Nobel Prize for physiology in 1932 for his research on the functions of neurons. During World War I, at Queen Square in London, he devised an intensive electrotherapeutic treatment for shell-shocked soldiers. The procedure, developed with Lewis Yealland (1884-1954), was similar to "torpillage," the faradic psychotherapy used in France. Adrian and Yealland considered that the pain accompanying the use of faradic current was necessary for both therapeutic and disciplinary reasons, especially because of the suspicion of malingering...
2018: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412011/embedded-performance-validity-indicator-for-children-california-verbal-learning-test-children-s-edition-forced-choice
#14
Kristin Verroulx, Rayna B Hirst, George Lin, Shelley Peery
Performance validity testing in children undergoing neuropsychological testing is a growing research area. Accurate identification of performance validity is necessary to avoid invalid assessment conclusions. In the present research, a forced choice (FC) trial was created for the California Verbal Learning Test - Children's Edition (CVLT-C), modeled after the established California Verbal Learning Test - Second Edition (CVLT-II) FC trial. Distractor words were taken directly from the CVLT-II FC Standard Form, with about half being concrete (n = 8) and half abstract (n = 7)...
February 7, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373627/comparison-of-performance-of-the-vip-and-wmt-in-a-criminal-forensic-sample
#15
Rachel L Fazio, Robert L Denney
Objective: To compare the efficacy of the Validity Indicator Profile (VIP) and Word Memory Test (WMT) in a criminal forensic population. Method: Potential participants included 225 male evaluees from a maximum-security Federal prison referred for neuropsychological evaluation for either forensic purposes or for suspected neurocognitive dysfunction as part of a medical evaluation. Examinees were included in the analysis if administered the VIP (Verbal, Nonverbal, or both tests) and WMT along with at least two other freestanding PVTs; 74 satisfied these criteria...
January 24, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361702/a-750-k-photocharge-linear-full-well-in-a-3-2-%C3%AE-m-hdr-pixel-with-complementary-carrier-collection
#16
Frédéric Lalanne, Pierre Malinge, Didier Hérault, Clémence Jamin-Mornet, Nicolas Virollet
Mainly driven by automotive applications, there is an increasing interest in image sensors combining a high dynamic range (HDR) and immunity to the flicker issue. The native HDR pixel concept based on a parallel electron and hole collection for, respectively, a low signal level and a high signal level is particularly well-suited for this performance challenge. The theoretical performance of this pixel is modeled and compared to alternative HDR pixel architectures. This concept is proven with the fabrication of a 3...
January 20, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349809/alexithymia-as-a-potential-source-of-symptom-over-reporting-an-exploratory-study-in-forensic-patients-and-non-forensic-participants
#17
Harald Merckelbach, Chinouk Prins, Irena Boskovic, Isabella Niesten, Joost À Campo
The traditional interpretation of symptom over-reporting is that it indicates malingering. We explored a different perspective, namely that over-reporting of eccentric symptoms is related to deficits in articulating internal experiences (i.e., alexithymia). Given that alexithymia has been linked to sleep problems and that fatigue may fuel inattentive responding to symptom lists, we administered measures of alexithymia (TAS-20) and symptom over-reporting (SIMS), but also sleep quality (SLEEP-50) to forensic psychiatric outpatients (n = 40) and non-forensic participants (n = 40)...
April 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344055/non-organic-vision-loss-in-the-afghanistan-and-iraq-conflicts
#18
Kevin M Broderick, Thomas B Ableman, Eric D Weber, Robert W Enzenauer, Harold J Wain, Keith J Wroblewski
Non-organic visual loss (NOVL), defined as a decrease in visual acuity or field without an identifiable organic cause, can be challenging to diagnose, especially in patients whose NOVL is superimposed on some component of true organic pathology. Exposure to combat puts soldiers at risk of emotional distress and physical trauma, which can contribute to the development of NOVL with conversion disorder or malingering. This case series describes six patients with NOVL who sustained ocular or non-ocular injuries while serving in combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, and highlights diagnostic pearls and components of inter-disciplinary management in the unique military context...
August 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286844/performance-validity-testing-in-children-and-adolescents-a-descriptive-study-comparing-direct-and-embedded-measures
#19
Stephanie J Weiss, Melissa C Blackwell, Kirk M Griffith, Leslie S Jordan, Vincent P Culotta
Effort testing is a standard element in adult neuropsychological assessment. Research examining performance validity tests (PVTs) has focused on adults. The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine direct and embedded PVTs in children and adolescents. The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), a stand-alone PVT, was compared to two embedded measures of effort: California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version/Second Edition (CVLT-C/II) Recognition Discriminability and Reliable Digit Span (RDS). The sample consisted of 119 children and adolescents referred for outpatient assessment...
December 29, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273864/-testing-and-approach-when-non-organic-visual-loss-is-suspected
#20
Anna Sophie Mursch-Edlmayr, D Mojon, M Bolz
Approximately 5% of the patients in the ophthalmological practice suffer from non-organic vision loss. In children non-organic vision loss has been observed from the age of 6 years. In order to be able to make a rapid diagnosis knowledge of the relevant clinical tests is decisive. If a patient shows signs of non-organic visual loss, diagnostic externalization of the visual function is crucial. Depending on the symptoms there are various tests, which can be used to differentiate between organic and non-organic disorders...
January 2018: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
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