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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929962/-determination-of-in-vitro-susceptibilities-of-brucella-spp-strains-against-11-different-antibacterial-gents-isolated-from-blood-cultures
#1
Recep Keşli, Hüseyin Bilgin, Halim Yılmaz
Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease and still continuous to be a major public health problem. In this study, it was aimed to identify the Brucella strains to the species level isolated from blood cultures, and to determine the rate of antimicrobial susceptibility against eleven antibacterial agents. A total of 106 Brucella spp. strains were included in the study, which were isolated from blood cultures in University of Health Sciences, Konya Training and Research Hospital, Medical Microbiology Laboratory between January 2011 and June 2013...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927988/impact-of-experimental-variables-on-the-protein-binding-of-tigecycline-in-human-plasma-as-determined-by-ultrafiltration
#2
Christoph Dorn, Alexander Kratzer, Uwe Liebchen, Michael Schleibinger, Alexandra Murschhauser, Jens Schlossmann, Frieder Kees, Philipp Simon, Martin G Kees
Tigecycline, a tetracycline derivative, shows atypical plasma-protein-binding behavior. The unbound fraction decreases with increasing concentration at therapeutic concentrations. Moreover, uncertainty exists about the magnitude of tigecyline's protein binding in man. Unbound fractions between 2.5 and 35% have been reported in plasma from healthy volunteers, and between 25 and 100 % in patients, respectively. In the present study, the protein binding of tigecycline has been investigated by ultrafiltration using different experimental conditions...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920959/targeting-mitochondrial-oxidative-phosphorylation-eradicates-therapy-resistant-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-stem-cells
#3
Elodie M Kuntz, Pablo Baquero, Alison M Michie, Karen Dunn, Saverio Tardito, Tessa L Holyoake, G Vignir Helgason, Eyal Gottlieb
Treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with imatinib mesylate and other second- and/or third-generation c-Abl-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has substantially extended patient survival. However, TKIs primarily target differentiated cells and do not eliminate leukemic stem cells (LSCs). Therefore, targeting minimal residual disease to prevent acquired resistance and/or disease relapse requires identification of new LSC-selective target(s) that can be exploited therapeutically. Considering that malignant transformation involves cellular metabolic changes, which may in turn render the transformed cells susceptible to specific assaults in a selective manner, we searched for such vulnerabilities in CML LSCs...
September 18, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910943/-study-on-antibiotic-resistance-of-escherichia-coli-and-enterococcus-colonized-in-intestine-of-neonates-from-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#4
X F Li, Z J Liu, X Chen, J Li, Z G Cui, B Kan, J R Ma, J H Cui
Objective: To understand the antibiotic resistance of bacteria colonized in intestine of the neonates from neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and provide evidence to guide clinical antibiotic treatment. Methods: From May, 2014 to May, 2015, a total of 572 stool samples were collected from the neonates of NICU in our hospital. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus were detected with VITEK-2 system. Results: A total of 328 strains of E. coli and 243 strains of Enterococcus were isolated respectively in this study...
September 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904326/intravenous-polymyxins-revival-with-puzzle
#5
Yun Yu, Aihua Fei, Zengbin Wu, Chengjin Gao, Shuming Pan
With the increasing incidence of multi-drug resistant strains, especially carbapenem resistant strains, polymyxsins (mainly colistin and polymyxin B) based regimens seem to be a revival as an effective treatment of last resort in these infections. Evidence from 47 clinical trials or case series we reviewed showed that polymyxins based regimens are effective and have less toxicity compared with previous trials. When used alone, the mortality of intravenous polymyxsins ranged from 0% to 74.3%, clinical response (cure and improvement) rate was 7-82...
2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894400/a-combination-of-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-and-ceftazidime-showed-good-in-vitro-activity-against-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia
#6
Nabilah Ismail, Zarifah Zam, Siti Asma Hassan, Zaidah Abdul Rahman
BACKGROUND: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen, capable of causing a wide spectrum of infections. Treatment is difficult because it is resistant to many antimicrobial agents, thus reducing the treatment options. The aims of this study were to describe the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and synergistic effect of selected antimicrobial combinations against S. maltophilia isolates. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study undertaken in the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from April 2011 to March 2012...
March 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893366/fidaxomicin-reduces-early-toxin-a-and-b-production-and-sporulation-in-clostridium-difficilein-vitro
#7
Michael J Aldape, Aaron E Packham, Dustin D Heeney, Savannah N Rice, Amy E Bryant, Dennis L Stevens
PURPOSE: Fidaxomicin, a macrocyclic antibiotic, has been approved for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Previous work by our group has demonstrated that some antibiotics at sub-inhibitory concentrations stimulate early toxin production and sporulation by C. difficile. Prior studies revealed that fidaxomicin, when added to late stationary-phase organisms, reduced exotoxin production and spore formation by C. difficile. However, the ability of fidaxomicin to trigger early virulence factor production and spore formation has never been investigated...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887199/temporal-evolution-of-polymyxin-b-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-clones-recovered-from-blood-cultures-in-a-teaching-hospital-during-a-7-year-period
#8
Graziela Braun, Rodrigo Cayô, Adriana Pereira Matos, Juliane de Mello Fonseca, Ana Cristina Gales
The polymyxins have become one of the last resorts to treat serious infections caused by KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae worldwide. However, the increase of polymyxin consumption has favored the emergence of resistance to these compounds. In this study we observed an increase in the polymyxin B resistance rates from 0 to 30.6% among 224 K. pneumoniae isolates recovered from blood cultures between 2009 and 2015. Only gentamicin, tigecycline and fosfomycin remained active against the polymyxin B-resistant K...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882013/antimicrobial-management-in-nosocomial-peritonitis-microbiota-drug-and-time
#9
REVIEW
A Montero, P Salgado Aranda, F Gilsanz, E Maseda
Complicated intra-abdominal infection requires surgical treatment and broad-spectrum empiric antibiotic treatment used early. The rapid spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria has become a serious threat, especially in critical care units. The excessive use of carbapenems has led to carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, leaving tigecycline and colistin as therapeutical options. The new antimicrobials, ceftazidime-avibactam and ceftolozane-tazobactam open new horizons in the treatment of multi-drug resistant Enterobacteriaceae...
September 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881515/-characteristics-of-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-gram-negative-bacterial-bloodstream-infections-in-children
#10
L Dong, X Y Zhang, C C Li, Z Li, Y Q Xia
Objective: To study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in children, and to guide the choice of antimicrobials and the control of nosocomial infection. Method: Clinical data, bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility test results were collected retrospectively in hospitalized children who were diagnosed with gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from January, 2010 to December, 2015...
September 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878521/time-to-positivity-and-antibiotic-sensitivity-of-neonatal-blood-cultures
#11
Sarah Magdy Abdelhamid
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a commonly encountered and potentially life-threatening problem in neonatal intensive care units, blood culture of neonatal sepsis helps in either optimizing treatment or terminating antibiotics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We determined the causative agent, time to positivity (TTP), and antibiogram of neonatal blood cultures collected in a tertiary care center, to investigate difference between early- and late-onset neonatal sepsis and to establish the time at which a blood culture could safely be considered negative, using the BacT/ALERT(®) 3D 60...
July 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874379/antagonism-between-front-line-antibiotics-clarithromycin-and-amikacin-used-for-the-treatment-of-mycobacterium-abscessus-infections-is-mediated-by-the-whib7-gene
#12
Mark Pryjma, Jan Burian, Kevin Kuchinski, Charles J Thompson
Combinations of antibiotics, each individually effective against Mycobacterium abscessus, are routinely co-administered based on the concept that this minimizes the spread of antibiotic resistance. However, our in vitro data contradicts this assumption and instead documents antagonistic interactions between two antibiotics (clarithromycin and amikacin) used to treat M. abscessus infections. Clinically relevant concentrations of clarithromycin induced increased resistance to both amikacin and itself. Induction of resistance was dependent on whiB7, a transcriptional activator of intrinsic antibiotic resistance that is induced by exposure to many different antibiotics...
September 5, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872282/changes-in-bacterial-flora-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-clinical-samples-isolated-from-patients-hospitalized-in-the-military-institute-of-medicine-in-warsaw-poland-between-2005-2012
#13
Aneta Guzek, Zbigniew Rybicki, Dariusz Tomaszewski
BACKGROUND: Hospital infections have become an important problem. Knowledge of microbiological situations both helps in ensuring that the optimal choice of antibacterial treatment is made, and in improving the results of the selected therapy. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, both the changes in the bacterial flora of patients hospitalized in the Military Institute of Medicine, and the bacterial resistance to antimicrobials were analyzed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected between 2005 and 2012...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870729/tigecylcine-induced-inhibition-of-mitochondrial-mtdna-translation-may-cause-a-lethal-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-human
#14
S J Vandecasteele, S Seneca, J Smet, M Reynders, J De Ceulaer, A V Vanlander, R Van Coster
OBJECTIVES: A 65-year old patient developed an unexplained and ultimately lethal metabolic acidosis under prolonged treatment with tigecycline. Tigecycline is known to have a selective inhibitory effect on eukaryotic mitochondrial translation. The underlying molecular mechanisms of the metabolic acidosis in this patient were explored. METHODS: OXPHOS analysis, blue native PAGE followed by in-gel activity staining in mitochondria, molecular analysis of mtDNA for genomic rearrangements and sequencing of the rRNA genes was performed on the proband's skeletal muscle...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870091/high-prevalence-of-oxa-type-carbapenemases-among-acinetobacter-baumannii-strains-in-a-teaching-hospital-of-tehran
#15
Mandana Zafari, Mohamad Mehdi Feizabadi, Sirous Jafari, Alireza Abdollahi, Azar Sabokbar
Nosocomial infection caused by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) has created a public health concern all around the world. In this study, 100 isolates of CRAB from hospitalized patients during 2015-2016 at Imam Khomeini Hospital were investigated to determine the rates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of six antibiotics were determined by broth microdilution method...
September 5, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867170/assessment-of-pit-latrines-in-a-peri-urban-community-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa-as-a-source-of-antibiotic-resistant-e-coli-strains
#16
Lorika S Beukes, Tracy L B King, Stefan Schmidt
Due to the frequent use of antibiotics and recurring illnesses related to multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in South Africa, we determined if MDR Escherichia coli were present in pit latrine fecal sludge samples obtained from a peri-urban community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The abundance of E. coli in pit latrine samples was established using a most probable number (MPN) method with species confirmation done using biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Forty-four randomly selected E. coli pit latrine isolates were further characterized, using the European committee on antimicrobial susceptibility testing (EUCAST) disk diffusion method to establish antibiotic resistance profiles for these E...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865218/determination-of-tigecycline-in-turkey-plasma-by-lc-ms-ms-validation-and-application-in-a-pharmacokinetic-study
#17
A Jasiecka-Mikołajczyk, J J Jaroszewski
Tigecycline (TIG), a novel glycylcycline antibiotic, plays an important role in the management of complicated skin and intra-abdominal infections. The available data lack any description of a method for determination of TIG in avian plasma. In our study, a selective, accurate and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of TIG in turkey plasma. Sample preparation was based on protein precipitation and liquid-liquid extraction using 1,2-dichloroethane...
March 1, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840351/activity-of-temocillin-and-15-other-agents-including-fosfomycin-and-colistin-against-enterobacteriaceae-in-hong-kong
#18
Margaret Ip, Christopher K Lai, Kitty S C Fung, K-Tak Wong, Chendi Zhu, Sebastien Van de Velde, Dominic N Tsang, Peter Hawkey
Limited data are available on temocillin susceptibilities in Enterobacteriaceae from Asian countries where antimicrobial resistance is prevalent. The in vitro activities of temocillin and 15 commonly used antimicrobials against 613 non-duplicate blood (n = 310) and urine (with clinically significant bacteriuria; n = 303) isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from patients who attended 3 out of 7 clusters of public hospitals of the Hospital Authority, Hong Kong, during 2015/2016 were tested. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) microbroth dilution (agar dilution with fosfomycin)...
August 25, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839253/complete-sequences-of-two-novel-bla-ndm-1-harbouring-plasmids-from-two-acinetobacter-towneri-isolates-in-china-associated-with-the-acquisition-of-tn125
#19
Dayang Zou, Yong Huang, Wei Liu, Zhan Yang, Derong Dong, Simo Huang, Xiaoming He, Da Ao, Ningwei Liu, Shengshu Wang, Yong Wang, Yigang Tong, Jing Yuan, Liuyu Huang
Two novel New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1)-positive plasmids containing a complete composite transposon, Tn125, from two respective Acinetobacter towneri isolates were characterized. Plasmid pNDM-GJ01 (30,293 bp) isolated from A. towneri G165 did not show homology to any known plasmid structure, except for the transposon Tn125 containing bla NDM-1. A novel repB gene and two XRE-type transcriptional regulators were found in pNDM-GJ01. Plasmid pNDM-GJ02 (62,011 bp) isolated from A. towneri G295 showed the highest homology to pBJAB0715 (41% coverage, 99% nucleotide identity)...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836547/trends-in-antimicrobial-resistance-against-enterobacteriaceae-strains-isolated-from-blood-a-10-year-epidemiological-study-in-mainland-china-2004-2014
#20
Xiang-Jun Liu, Yuan Lyu, Yun Li, Feng Xue, Jian Liu
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a serious problem that compromises the empirical treatment of infections, resulting in a lack of effective antibiotics and high medical expenses. Here, we aimed to monitor the trends in antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from blood samples in mainland China. METHODS: A total of 2240 Enterobacteriaceae isolates from blood were collected from hospitalized patients at 19 tertiary hospitals between October 2004 and June 2014...
September 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
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