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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923204/case-report-of-the-surgical-management-of-small-bowel-and-colonic-ischaemia-associated-with-anorexia-nervosa-binge-purge-subtype
#1
Ann T Foran, Cillian Clancy, Tom F Gorey
INTRODUCTION: Anorexia Nervosa affects up to 1% of the population and can present with binge/purge episodes. A paucity of literature exists regarding small bowel and colonic ischaemia relating to this common condition. We report our own experience and management of a patient with anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype with small bowel and colon ischaemia and review existing cases in the literature. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 32year old female self-presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain, abdominal distension and vomiting on a background history of binge/purge subtype eating disorder, following consumption of a large amount of carbohydrates...
August 25, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923183/the-distal-consequences-of-physical-and-emotional-neglect-in-emerging-adults-a-person-centered-multi-wave-longitudinal-study
#2
Joseph R Cohen, Suvarna V Menon, Ryan C Shorey, Vi Donna Le, Jeff R Temple
Despite being the most prevalent form of child maltreatment, the correlates and consequences of neglect are poorly understood, particularly during early adulthood. The present multi-wave, longitudinal study sought to address this gap in this literature by examining physical and emotional neglect in emerging adults in a diverse community sample. 580 adolescents (AgeMean=18.25; AgeSD=0.59; 58.3% female; 31% Hispanic, 28.9% Caucasian; 26.2% African-American; 13.9% other) completed self-report measures for child maltreatment at baseline, and measures for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and substance use every year for three years...
December 3, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923180/insight-into-the-structure-and-stability-of-tc-and-re-dmsa-complexes-a-computational-study
#3
Daniel Hernández-Valdés, Alejandro Blanco-González, Ariel García-Fleitas, Zalua Rodríguez-Riera, Giuseppe Meola, Roger Alberto, Ulises Jáuregui-Haza
Meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is used in nuclear medicine as ligand for preparation of diagnostic and therapy radiopharmaceuticals. DMSA has been the subject of numerous investigations during the past three decades and new and significant information of the chemistry and pharmacology of DMSA complexes have emerged. In comparison to other ligands, the structure of some DMSA complexes is unclear up today. The structures and applications of DMSA complexes are strictly dependent on the chemical conditions of their preparation, especially pH and components ratio...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923149/the-effect-of-cerebral-asymmetries-and-eye-scanning-on-pseudoneglect-for-a-visual-search-task
#4
Michael E R Nicholls, Amelia Hobson, Joanne Petty, Owen Churches, Nicole A Thomas
Pseudoneglect is the tendency for the general population to over-attend to the left. While pseudoneglect is classically demonstrated using line bisection, it also occurs for visual search. The current study explored the influence of eye movements and functional cerebral asymmetry on asymmetries for visual search. In Experiment 1, 24 participants carried out a conjunction search for a target within a rectangular array. A leftward advantage for detecting targets was observed when the eyes were free to move, but not when they were restricted by short exposure durations...
December 3, 2016: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923115/a-comparison-of-the-universal-tor-guideline-to-the-absence-of-prehospital-rosc-and-duration-of-resuscitation-in-predicting-futility-from-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#5
Ian R Drennan, Erin Case, P Richard Verbeek, Joshua C Reynolds, Zachary D Goldberger, Jamie Jasti, Mark Charleston, Heather Herren, Ahamed H Idris, Paul R Leslie, Michael A Austin, Yan Xiong, Robert H Schmicker, Laurie J Morrison
INTRODUCTION: The Universal Termination of Resuscitation (TOR) Guideline accurately identifies potential out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survivors. However, implementation is inconsistent with some Emergency Medical Service (EMS) agencies using absence of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) as sole criterion for termination. OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of the Universal TOR Guideline with the single criterion of no prehospital ROSC. Second, to determine factors associated with survival for patients transported without a ROSC...
December 3, 2016: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923114/effect-of-bystander-cpr-initiation-prior-to-the-emergency-call-on-rosc-and-30day-survival-an-evaluation-of-548-emergency-calls
#6
Søren Viereck, Thea Palsgaard Møller, Annette Kjær Ersbøll, Fredrik Folke, Freddy Lippert
BACKGROUND: This study aimed at evaluating if time for initiation of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) - prior to the emergency call (CPRprior) versus during the emergency call following dispatcher-assisted CPR (CPRduring) - was associated with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and 30-day survival. The secondary aim was to identify predictors of CPRprior. METHODS: This observational study evaluated out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) occurring in the Capital Region of Denmark from 01...
December 3, 2016: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923113/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-young-adults-who-suffered-an-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-ohca
#7
Michael Yih-Chong Chia, Qing Shu Lu, Nik Hisamuddin Rahman, Nausheen Edwin Doctor, Tatsuya Nishiuchi, Benjamin Sieu-Hon Leong, Lai Peng Tham, E-Shaun Goh, Ling Tiah, Apichaya Monsomboon, Marcus Eng Hock Ong
BACKGROUND: There is paucity of data examining the incidence and outcomes of young OHCA adults. The aim of this study is to determine the outcomes and characteristics of young adults who suffered an OHCA and identify factors that are associated with favourable neurologic outcomes. METHODS: All EMS-attended OHCA adults between the ages of 16 and 35 years in the Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study (PAROS) registry were analysed. The primary outcome was favourable neurologic outcome (Cerebral Performance Category 1 or 2) at hospital discharge or at 30th day post OHCA if not discharged...
December 3, 2016: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923069/characterization-in-helicobacter-pylori-of-a-nickel-transporter-essential-for-colonization-that-was-acquired-during-evolution-by-gastric-helicobacter-species
#8
Frédéric Fischer, Marie Robbe-Saule, Evelyne Turlin, Francesco Mancuso, Valérie Michel, Pierre Richaud, Frédéric J Veyrier, Hilde De Reuse, Daniel Vinella
Metal acquisition is crucial for all cells and for the virulence of many bacterial pathogens. In particular, nickel is a virulence determinant for the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori as it is the cofactor of two enzymes essential for in vivo colonization, urease and a [NiFe] hydrogenase. To import nickel despite its scarcity in the human body, H. pylori requires efficient uptake mechanisms that are only partially defined. Indeed, alternative ways of nickel entry were predicted to exist in addition to the well-described NixA permease...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923053/different-evolutionary-paths-to-complexity-for-small-and-large-populations-of-digital-organisms
#9
Thomas LaBar, Christoph Adami
A major aim of evolutionary biology is to explain the respective roles of adaptive versus non-adaptive changes in the evolution of complexity. While selection is certainly responsible for the spread and maintenance of complex phenotypes, this does not automatically imply that strong selection enhances the chance for the emergence of novel traits, that is, the origination of complexity. Population size is one parameter that alters the relative importance of adaptive and non-adaptive processes: as population size decreases, selection weakens and genetic drift grows in importance...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923036/cotargeting-of-cyp-19-aromatase-and-emerging-pivotal-signalling-pathways-in-metastatic-breast-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Stine Daldorff, Randi Margit Ruud Mathiesen, Olav Erich Yri, Hilde Presterud Ødegård, Jürgen Geisler
Aromatase inhibition is one of the cornerstones of modern endocrine therapy of oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) metastatic breast cancer (MBC). The nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors anastrozole and letrozole, as well as the steroidal aromatase inactivator exemestane, are the preferred drugs and established worldwide in all clinical phases of the disease. However, although many patients suffering from MBC experience an initial stabilisation of their metastatic burden, drug resistance and disease progression occur frequently, following in general only a few months on treatment...
December 6, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922974/training-and-validating-a-deep-convolutional-neural-network-for-computer-aided-detection-and-classification-of-abnormalities-on-frontal-chest-radiographs
#11
Mark Cicero, Alexander Bilbily, Errol Colak, Tim Dowdell, Bruce Gray, Kuhan Perampaladas, Joseph Barfett
OBJECTIVES: Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are a subtype of artificial neural network that have shown strong performance in computer vision tasks including image classification. To date, there has been limited application of CNNs to chest radiographs, the most frequently performed medical imaging study. We hypothesize CNNs can learn to classify frontal chest radiographs according to common findings from a sufficiently large data set. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our institution's research ethics board approved a single-center retrospective review of 35,038 adult posterior-anterior chest radiographs and final reports performed between 2005 and 2015 (56% men, average age of 56, patient type: 24% inpatient, 39% outpatient, 37% emergency department) with a waiver for informed consent...
December 5, 2016: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922966/local-coverage-for-acute-severely-herniated-brain-using-scalp-and-forehead-flaps-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-head-trauma
#12
Matthew Brown, Navid Pourtaheri, Kristopher Katira, Sunil Manjila, Ali S Totonchi
A 4-year-old-boy required emergent craniectomy and drainage of a large right-sided acute subdural hematoma after head trauma, during which massive sinus hemorrhage with brain swelling occurred. Acute intraoperative management entailed dural cover using synthetic dural membrane substitute and scalp coverage over the herniated brain using acellular dermal matrix. After intensive monitoring and control of raised intracranial pressure over the next few days, the exposed brain was then covered by scalp and forehead flaps with cadaveric skin grafting to the donor site...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922936/the-rejoice-trial-a-phase-3-randomized-controlled-trial-evaluating-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-a-novel-vaginal-estradiol-soft-gel-capsule-for-symptomatic-vulvar-and-vaginal-atrophy
#13
Ginger D Constantine, James A Simon, James H Pickar, David F Archer, Harvey Kushner, Brian Bernick, Gina Gasper, Shelli Graham, Sebastian Mirkin
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of TX-004HR vaginal estradiol soft-gel capsules for moderate-to-severe dyspareunia associated with postmenopausal vulvar and vaginal atrophy. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study, postmenopausal women with a self-identified most bothersome symptom of dyspareunia received 4, 10, or 25 μg TX-004HR or placebo for 12 weeks. Four co-primary efficacy endpoints were change from baseline to week 12 in percentages of superficial and parabasal cells, vaginal pH, and severity of dyspareunia...
December 5, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922919/association-between-sarcopenia-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-cancer-survivors
#14
Su Jung Lee, Nam Cho Kim
BACKGROUND: Advanced cancer treatments have improved survival from cancer, but the incidence of cardiovascular disease in survivors has recently increased. Sarcopenia and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are related to cancer survival, and sarcopenia is an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, evidence of a relationship between sarcopenia and MetS in cancer survivors is lacking. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and MetS in cancer survivors and to investigate independent predictors of MetS in cancer survivors...
December 5, 2016: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922870/quality-and-safety-in-health-care-part-xx-goal-directed-fluid-therapy-and-the-universal-protocol
#15
Jay A Harolds
There have been numerous initiatives to improve quality and safety in surgery. Goal-directed fluid therapy and a quality bundle for emergency laparotomy surgery are two of them. The establishment of a Universal Protocol to prevent the wrong procedure, the wrong patient having a procedure, or the wrong site for a procedure is an important safeguard for patients.
December 3, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922855/liver-stiffness-predicts-variceal-bleeding-in-hiv-hcv-coinfected-patients-with-compensated-cirrhosis
#16
Nicolás Merchante, Antonio Rivero-Juárez, Francisco Téllez, Dolores Merino, Maria José Ríos-Villegas, Guillermo Ojeda-Burgos, Mohamed Omar, Juan Macías, Antonio Rivero, Monserrat Pérez-Pérez, Miguel Raffo, Inmaculada López-Montesinos, Manuel Márquez-Solero, Maria Amparo Gómez-Vidal, Juan A Pineda
BACKGROUND: A liver stiffness (LS) < 21 kPa has a high negative predictive value (NPV) to exclude the presence of esophageal varices (EV) at risk of bleeding in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. Consequently, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE) for the screening of EV could be avoided in these patients. However, this strategy has not been widely accepted due to concerns about its safety. OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of LS to predict the risk of portal hypertensive gastrointestinal bleeding (PHGB) in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with compensated cirrhosis...
December 5, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922852/hiv-associated-changes-in-the-enteric-microbial-community-potential-role-in-loss-of-homeostasis-and-development-of-systemic-inflammation
#17
David B Gootenberg, Jeffrey M Paer, Jesus-Mario Luevano, Douglas S Kwon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite HIV therapy advances, average life expectancy in HIV-infected individuals on effective treatment is significantly decreased relative to uninfected persons, largely because of increased incidence of inflammation-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and renal dysfunction. The enteric microbial community could potentially cause this inflammation, as HIV-driven destruction of gastrointestinal CD4 T cells may disturb the microbiota-mucosal immune system balance, disrupting the stable gut microbiome and leading to further deleterious host outcomes...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922851/future-prospects-for-new-vaccines-against-sexually-transmitted-infections
#18
Sami L Gottlieb, Christine Johnston
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an update on the need, development status, and important next steps for advancing development of vaccines against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including herpes simplex virus (HSV), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea), Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia), and Treponema pallidum (syphilis). RECENT FINDINGS: Global estimates suggest that more than a million STIs are acquired every day, and many new and emerging challenges to STI control highlight the critical need for development of new STI vaccines...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922847/apolipoprotein-e-metabolism-and-functions-in-brain-and-its-role-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Fan Liao, Hyejin Yoon, Jungsu Kim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: APOE4 genotype is the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Prevailing evidence suggests that amyloid β plays a critical role in Alzheimer's disease. The objective of this article is to review the recent findings about the metabolism of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and amyloid β and other possible mechanisms by which ApoE contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: ApoE isoforms have differential effects on amyloid β metabolism...
December 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922802/urban-breeding-corvids-as-disseminators-of-ticks-and-emerging-tick-borne-pathogens
#20
Attila D Sándor, Zsuzsa Kalmár, Ioana Matei, Angela Monica Ionică, Ioan-Daniel Mărcuţan
Crows (Corvidae) are common city dwellers worldwide and are increasingly important subjects of epidemiology studies. Although their importance as hosts and transmitters of a number of zoonotic parasites and pathogens is well known, there are no studies on their importance as tick hosts. After mosquitoes, ticks are the most important vectors of zoonotic pathogens, especially for those causing emerging zoonotic diseases. Pathogenic bacteria, especially Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma spp., vectored by ticks, are the cause for most vector-borne diseases in Europe...
December 6, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
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