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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645198/diabetes-specific-and-general-life-stress-and-glycemic-outcomes-in-emerging-adults-with-type-1-diabetes-is-race-ethnicity-a-moderator
#1
Ashley M Butler, Bridget E Weller, Joyce P Yi-Frazier, Kelly Fegan-Bohm, Barbara Anderson, Catherine Pihoker, Marisa E Hilliard
This study examines whether race/ethnicity moderates relationships of (a) diabetes stress and general life stressors with (b) diabetes outcomes of glycemic control and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) among emerging adults (aged 18-25 years) with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Using a T1D Exchange Registry sample of non-Hispanic White, African American, and Hispanic emerging adults ( N  = 3,440), multiple group analyses were used to determine whether race/ethnicity moderates the relationships between stress and diabetes outcomes...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645146/analysis-of-in-vitro-evolution-reveals-the-underlying-distribution-of-catalytic-activity-among-random-sequences
#2
Abe Pressman, Janina E Moretti, Gregory W Campbell, Ulrich F Müller, Irene A Chen
The emergence of catalytic RNA is believed to have been a key event during the origin of life. Understanding how catalytic activity is distributed across random sequences is fundamental to estimating the probability that catalytic sequences would emerge. Here, we analyze the in vitro evolution of triphosphorylating ribozymes and translate their fitnesses into absolute estimates of catalytic activity for hundreds of ribozyme families. The analysis efficiently identified highly active ribozymes and estimated catalytic activity with good accuracy...
June 21, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645136/childhood-traumatic-experiences-and-the-association-with-marijuana-and-cocaine-use-in-adolescence-through-adulthood
#3
Joy D Scheidell, Kelly Quinn, Susan P McGorray, B Christopher Frueh, Nisha N Beharie, Linda B Cottler, Maria R Khan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Examination of longitudinal relationships between childhood traumatic experiences and drug use across the life-course at the national level, with control of confounding by other forms of trauma, is needed. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of nine typologies of childhood traumas and the cumulative number experienced, correlation between traumas, and associations between individual and cumulative number of traumas with drug use during adolescence, emerging adulthood, and adulthood...
June 23, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645042/the-changing-health-priorities-of-earthquake-response-and-implications-for-preparedness-a-scoping-review
#4
REVIEW
C Cartwright, M Hall, A C K Lee
OBJECTIVES: Earthquakes have substantial impacts on mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The academic evidence base to support Disaster Risk Reduction activities in LMIC settings is, however, limited. We sought to address this gap by identifying the health and healthcare impacts of earthquakes in LMICs and to identify the implications of these findings for future earthquake preparedness. STUDY DESIGN: Scoping review. METHODS: A scoping review was undertaken with systematic searches of indexed databases to identify relevant literature...
June 20, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645013/per-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substances-in-human-serum-and-urine-samples-from-a-residentially-exposed-community
#5
Rachel Rogers Worley, Susan McAfee Moore, Bruce C Tierney, Xiaoyun Ye, Antonia M Calafat, Sean Campbell, Million B Woudneh, Jeffrey Fisher
BACKGROUND: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are considered chemicals of emerging concern, in part due to their environmental and biological persistence and the potential for widespread human exposure. In 2007, a PFAS manufacturer near Decatur, Alabama notified the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) it had discharged PFAS into a wastewater treatment plant, resulting in environmental contamination and potential exposures to the local community. OBJECTIVES: To characterize PFAS exposure over time, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) collected blood and urine samples from local residents...
June 20, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644980/making-power-visible-doing-theatre-based-status-work-with-nursing-students
#6
Steven S Taylor, Rosemary A Taylor
As part of a senior leadership class in an undergraduate baccalaureate nursing program in the northeastern United States, we conducted an experiential, theater-based workshop designed to increase student awareness of the micro-dynamics of power and the enactment of status in their day-to-day lives. These exercises allowed student participants to embody status and power and understand it in ways that they did not after simply completing assigned readings. At the conclusion of the workshop the participants were asked to reflect on their status habits and the consequences of these habits in a single hand-written page...
June 15, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644970/overexpression-of-populus%C3%A3-canescens-isoprene-synthase-gene-in-camelina-sativa-leads-to-alterations-in-its-growth-and-metabolism
#7
Lorenzo Rossi, Monica Borghi, Jinfen Yang, De-Yu Xie
Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is a hemiterpene molecule. It has been estimated that the plant kingdom emits 500-750 million tons of isoprene in the environment, half of which results from tropical broadleaf trees and the remainder from shrubs. Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) is an emerging bioenergy plant for biodiesel. In this study, we characterized isoprene formation following a diurnal/nocturnal cycle in wild-type Camelina plants. To understand the potential effects of isoprene emission on this herbaceous plant, a gray poplar Populus×canescens isoprene synthase gene (PcISPS) was overexpressed in Camelina...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644943/failure-of-wrist-hemiarthroplasty
#8
Eric G Huish, Zachary Lum, H Brent Bamberger, Marc A Trzeciak
BACKGROUND: Wrist hemiarthroplasty has emerged as a motion-sparing option for severe wrist arthritis. It is technically easy with advantages of limited bone resection and no risk of nonunion. Given the relative infancy of the procedure in clinical practice, there are limited data on patient outcomes. METHODS: Eleven patients were treated with wrist reconstructive hemiarthroplasty. Indications included 1 patient with scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse, 9 patients with scapholunate advanced collapse, and 1 patient with capitolunate arthritis...
July 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644942/total-wrist-arthroplasty-versus-wrist-fusion-utilization-and-complication-rates-as-reported-by-abos-part-ii-candidates
#9
Richard M Hinds, John T Capo, Marco Rizzo, James R Roberson, Michael B Gottschalk
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess national trends in the utilization and complication rates of total wrist arthroplasty (TWA) and total wrist fusion (WF) as identified via review of the American Board of Orthopedic Surgery (ABOS) Part II candidate database. METHODS: The ABOS Part II candidate database is a collection of cases reported by candidates of the ABOS Part II board certification oral exam. The ABOS database was queried for all TWA and WF cases performed from 2005 to 2014...
July 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644934/fingertip-injuries-in-children-epidemiology-financial-burden-and-implications-for-prevention
#10
Rachel R Yorlets, Kathleen Busa, Kyle R Eberlin, Mohammad Ali Raisolsadat, Donald S Bae, Peter M Waters, Brian I Labow, Amir H Taghinia
BACKGROUND: Although fingertip injuries are common, there is limited literature on the epidemiology and hospital charges for fingertip injuries in children. This descriptive study reports the clinical features of and hospital charges for fingertip injuries in a large pediatric population treated at a tertiary medical center. METHODS: Our hospital database was queried using International Classification of Diseases, Revision 9 (ICD-9) codes, and medical records were reviewed...
July 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644926/gangnam-style-plastic-surgery-the-science-of-westernized-beauty-in-south-korea
#11
So Yeon Leem
New beauty ideals and particular types of plastic surgery beauty have emerged in South Korea from the early twenty-first century. By defining Gangnam-style plastic surgery as a hybrid of old Westernized beauty ideals and a new science of beauty with variations and contradictions, I intend to twist the simplistic understanding of non-Western plastic surgery as an effort to resemble the white westerner's body. I also draw political implications from a case of monstrous Gangnam-style beauty made by excessive plastic surgery...
June 23, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644924/intravenous-thrombolysis-for-acute-ischemic-stroke-a-bridge-between-two-centuries
#12
Georgios Tsivgoulis, Odysseas Kargiotis, Andrei Alexandrov
Intravenous tissue-plasminogen activator (tPA) remains the only approved systemic reperfusion therapy suitable for most patients presenting timely with acute ischemic stroke. Accumulating real-word experience for over 20 years regarding tPA safety and effectiveness lead to re-appraisal of original contraindications for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). Areas covered: This narrative review focuses on fast yet appropriate selection of patients for safe administration of tPA per recently expanded indications. Novel strategies for rapid patient assessment will be discussed...
June 23, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644897/trpa1-and-trpv1-contribute-to-propofol-mediated-antagonism-of-u46619-induced-constriction-in-murine-coronary-arteries
#13
Pritam Sinharoy, Ian N Bratz, Sayantani Sinha, Loral E Showalter, Spencer R Andrei, Derek S Damron
BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels have emerged as key components contributing to vasoreactivity. Propofol, an anesthetic is associated with adverse side effects including hypotension and acute pain upon infusion. Our objective was to determine the extent to which TRPA1 and/or TRPV1 ion channels are involved in mediating propofol-induced vasorelaxation of mouse coronary arterioles in vitro and elucidate the potential cellular signal transduction pathway by which this occurs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644840/linking-structure-and-activity-in-nonlinear-spiking-networks
#14
Gabriel Koch Ocker, Krešimir Josić, Eric Shea-Brown, Michael A Buice
Recent experimental advances are producing an avalanche of data on both neural connectivity and neural activity. To take full advantage of these two emerging datasets we need a framework that links them, revealing how collective neural activity arises from the structure of neural connectivity and intrinsic neural dynamics. This problem of structure-driven activity has drawn major interest in computational neuroscience. Existing methods for relating activity and architecture in spiking networks rely on linearizing activity around a central operating point and thus fail to capture the nonlinear responses of individual neurons that are the hallmark of neural information processing...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644830/optimal-chemotactic-responses-in-stochastic-environments
#15
Martin Godány, Bhavin S Khatri, Richard A Goldstein
Although the "adaptive" strategy used by Escherichia coli has dominated our understanding of bacterial chemotaxis, the environmental conditions under which this strategy emerged is still poorly understood. In this work, we study the performance of various chemotactic strategies under a range of stochastic time- and space-varying attractant distributions in silico. We describe a novel "speculator" response in which the bacterium compare the current attractant concentration to the long-term average; if it is higher then they tumble persistently, while if it is lower than the average, bacteria swim away in search of more favorable conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644827/what-drives-cooperative-breeding
#16
Walter D Koenig
Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644823/eeg-characteristics-in-cooled-and-rewarmed-periods-in-post-cardiac-arrest-therapeutic-hypothermia-patients
#17
K Kim, Kimberly L Pargeon, Amy S Labar, Oren Friedman, Padmaja N Kandula, Douglas R Labar
PURPOSE: Continuous video EEG is a tool to assess brain function in injuries, including cardiac arrest (CA). In post-CA therapeutic hypothermia (TH) studies, some EEG features are linked to poor prognosis, but the evolvement of EEG characteristics during two temperature phases and its significance is unclear. We systematically analyzed EEG characteristics in cooled and rewarmed phases of post-CA therapeutic hypothermia patients and investigated their correlation to patient outcome. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of EEG analyses, from a single academic center, of 20 patients who underwent CA and therapeutic hypothermia...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644814/learning-multimodal-parameters-a-bare-bones-niching-differential-evolution-approach
#18
Yue-Jiao Gong, Jun Zhang, Yicong Zhou
Most learning methods contain optimization as a substep, where the nondifferentiability and multimodality of objectives push forward the interplay of evolutionary optimization algorithms and machine learning models. The recently emerged evolutionary multimodal optimization (MMOP) technique enables the learning of diverse sets of effective parameters for the models simultaneously, providing new opportunities to the applications requiring both accuracy and diversity, such as ensemble, interactive, and interpretive learning...
June 20, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644777/transitional-instability-predicts-polymorphous-distress-in-emerging-adults
#19
Chris Segrin, Corey A Pavlich, Melissa McNelis
The primary aim of this investigation is to determine the extent to which transitional instability can predict diverse markers of distress in emerging adults. Participants were 210 emerging adults, aged 18-25 who completed measures of distress that included loneliness, stress, problem drinking, and prescription medication use. One year later, they returned to complete these same measures of distress along with a measure of significant life transitions that they encountered during the past year in such domains as education, employment, residence, and relationships...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644774/cd33-splicing-polymorphism-determines-gemtuzumab-ozogamicin-response-in-de-novo-acute-myeloid-leukemia-report-from-randomized-phase-iii-children-s-oncology-group-trial-aaml0531
#20
Jatinder K Lamba, Lata Chauhan, Miyoung Shin, Michael R Loken, Jessica A Pollard, Yi-Cheng Wang, Rhonda E Ries, Richard Aplenc, Betsy A Hirsch, Susana C Raimondi, Roland B Walter, Irwin D Bernstein, Alan S Gamis, Todd A Alonzo, Soheil Meshinchi
Purpose Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO), a CD33-targeted immunoconjugate, is a re-emerging therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). CD33 single nucleotide polymorphism rs12459419 C>T in the splice enhancer region regulates the expression of an alternatively spliced CD33 isoform lacking exon2 (D2-CD33), thus eliminating the CD33 IgV domain, which is the antibody-binding site for GO, as well as diagnostic immunophenotypic panels. We aimed to determine the impact of the genotype of this splicing polymorphism in patients with AML treated with GO-containing chemotherapy...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
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