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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445412/assessing-the-efficacy-of-first-aid-measures-in-physalia-sp-envenomation-using-solution-and-blood-agarose-based-models
#1
Christie L Wilcox, Jasmine L Headlam, Thomas K Doyle, Angel A Yanagihara
Stings from the hydrozoan species in the genus Physalia cause intense, immediate skin pain and elicit serious systemic effects. There has been much scientific debate about the most appropriate first aid for these stings, particularly with regard to whether vinegar use is appropriate (most current recommendations recommend against vinegar). We found that only a small percentage (≤1.0%) of tentacle cnidae discharge during a sting event using an ex vivo tissue model which elicits spontaneous stinging from live cnidarian tentacles...
April 26, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439470/mitochondrial-diversity-in-gonionemus-trachylina-hydrozoa-and-its-implications-for-understanding-the-origins-of-clinging-jellyfish-in-the-northwest-atlantic-ocean
#2
Annette F Govindarajan, Mary R Carman, Marat R Khaidarov, Alexander Semenchenko, John P Wares
Determining whether a population is introduced or native to a region can be challenging due to inadequate taxonomy, the presence of cryptic lineages, and poor historical documentation. For taxa with resting stages that bloom episodically, determining origin can be especially challenging as an environmentally-triggered abrupt appearance of the taxa may be confused with an anthropogenic introduction. Here, we assess diversity in mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I sequences obtained from multiple Atlantic and Pacific locations, and discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the origin of clinging jellyfish Gonionemus in the Northwest Atlantic...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436963/a-sting-activating-nanovaccine-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#3
Min Luo, Hua Wang, Zhaohui Wang, Haocheng Cai, Zhigang Lu, Yang Li, Mingjian Du, Gang Huang, Chensu Wang, Xiang Chen, Matthew R Porembka, Jayanthi Lea, Arthur E Frankel, Yang-Xin Fu, Zhijian J Chen, Jinming Gao
The generation of tumour-specific T cells is critically important for cancer immunotherapy. A major challenge in achieving a robust T-cell response is the spatiotemporal orchestration of antigen cross-presentation in antigen-presenting cells with innate stimulation. Here, we report a minimalist nanovaccine, comprising a simple physical mixture of an antigen and a synthetic polymeric nanoparticle, PC7A NP, which generates a strong cytotoxic T-cell response with low systemic cytokine expression. Mechanistically, the PC7A NP achieves efficient cytosolic delivery of tumour antigens to antigen-presenting cells in draining lymph nodes, leading to increased surface presentation while simultaneously activating type I interferon-stimulated genes...
April 24, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436934/biopolymers-codelivering-engineered-t-cells-and-sting-agonists-can-eliminate-heterogeneous-tumors
#4
Tyrel T Smith, Howell F Moffett, Sirkka B Stephan, Cary F Opel, Amy G Dumigan, Xiuyun Jiang, Venu G Pillarisetty, Smitha P S Pillai, K Dane Wittrup, Matthias T Stephan
Therapies using T cells that are programmed to express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR T cells) consistently produce positive results in patients with hematologic malignancies. However, CAR T cell treatments are less effective in solid tumors for several reasons. First, lymphocytes do not efficiently target CAR T cells; second, solid tumors create an immunosuppressive microenvironment that inactivates T cell responses; and third, solid cancers are typified by phenotypic diversity and thus include cells that do not express proteins targeted by the engineered receptors, enabling the formation of escape variants that elude CAR T cell targeting...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435107/wasp-venomic-unravelling-the-toxins-arsenal-of-polybia-paulista-venom-and-its-potential-pharmaceutical-applications
#5
REVIEW
Amilcar Perez-Riverol, José Roberto Aparecido Dos Santos-Pinto, Alexis Musacchio Lasa, Mario Sergio Palma, Márcia Regina Brochetto-Braga
Polybia paulista (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) is a neotropical social wasp from southeast Brazil. As most social Hymenoptera, venom from P. paulista comprises a complex mixture of bioactive toxins ranging from low molecular weight compounds to peptides and proteins. Several efforts have been made to elucidate the molecular composition of the P. paulista venom. Data derived from proteomic, peptidomic and allergomic analyses has enhanced our understanding of the whole envenoming process caused by the insect sting...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426911/tbk1-ikke-blockade-inhibits-mutant-sting-mediated-inflammatory-response-in-patient-cells
#6
Marie-Louise Frémond, Carolina Uggenti, Lien Van Eyck, Isabelle Melki, Vincent Bondet, Naoki Kitabayashi, Christina Hertel, Adrian Hayday, Bénédicte Neven, Yoann Rose, Darragh Duffy, Yanick J Crow, Mathieu P Rodero
OBJECTIVE: Gain-of-function mutations in TMEM173 encoding STING (stimulator of interferon genes) underlie a novel type I interferonopathy, minimally responsive to conventional immunosuppressive therapies and associated with high childhood morbidity and mortality. STING gain-of-function causes constitutive over secretion of interferon (IFN). We determined the effects of a TBK1/IKKE inhibitor (BX795) on IFN secretion and signaling in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from four patients...
April 20, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426870/a-new-viscous-cysteamine-eye-drops-treatment-for-ophthalmic-cystinosis-an-open-label-randomized-comparative-phase-iii-pivotal-study
#7
Hong Liang, Antoine Labbé, Jeannie Le Mouhaër, Céline Plisson, Christophe Baudouin
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of new viscous cysteamine hydrochloride (CH) eye drops (vCH 0.55%) compared with standard CH 0.10% drops treatment. Methods: This was an open-label, phase III, randomized, two-arm multicenter trial conducted at two centers in France. Cystinosis patients ≥2 years old were randomized 1:1 to receive eye drops, four times per day for 90 days in both eyes. We compared the superiority in reducing corneal cystine crystal density as assessed by in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM)...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424327/rig-i-mavs-and-sting-signaling-promote-gut-integrity-during-irradiation-and-immune-mediated-tissue-injury
#8
Julius C Fischer, Michael Bscheider, Gabriel Eisenkolb, Chia-Ching Lin, Alexander Wintges, Vera Otten, Caroline A Lindemans, Simon Heidegger, Martina Rudelius, Sébastien Monette, Kori A Porosnicu Rodriguez, Marco Calafiore, Sophie Liebermann, Chen Liu, Stefan Lienenklaus, Siegfried Weiss, Ulrich Kalinke, Jürgen Ruland, Christian Peschel, Yusuke Shono, Melissa Docampo, Enrico Velardi, Robert R Jenq, Alan M Hanash, Jarrod A Dudakov, Tobias Haas, Marcel R M van den Brink, Hendrik Poeck
The molecular pathways that regulate the tissue repair function of type I interferon (IFN-I) during acute tissue damage are poorly understood. We describe a protective role for IFN-I and the RIG-I/MAVS signaling pathway during acute tissue damage in mice. Mice lacking mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) were more sensitive to total body irradiation- and chemotherapy-induced intestinal barrier damage. These mice developed worse graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in a preclinical model of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) than did wild-type mice...
April 19, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422568/cgas-sting-tbk1-irf3-7-induced-interferon-%C3%AE-contributes-to-the-clearing-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-infection-in-mice
#9
Nanthapon Ruangkiattikul, Andreas Nerlich, Ketema Abdissa, Stefan Lienenklaus, Abdulhadi Suwandi, Nina Janze, Kristin Laarmann, Julia Spanier, Ulrich Kalinke, Siegfried Weiss, Ralph Goethe
Type I interferons (IFN-I), such as IFN-α and IFN-β are important messengers in the host response against bacterial infections. Knowledge about the role of IFN-I in infections by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is limited. Here we show that macrophages infected with pathogens of the Mycobacterium avium complex produced significantly lower amounts of IFN-β than macrophages infected with the opportunistic pathogen M. smegmatis. To dissect the molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon, we focussed on the obligate pathogen Mycobacterium avium ssp...
April 19, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416447/evolutionary-origins-of-cgas-sting-signaling
#10
REVIEW
Shally R Margolis, Stephen C Wilson, Russell E Vance
Detection of foreign nucleic acids is an important strategy for innate immune recognition of pathogens. In vertebrates, pathogen-derived DNA is sensed in the cytosol by cGAS, which produces the cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) second messenger cGAMP to activate the signaling adaptor STING. While induction of antiviral type I interferons (IFNs) is the major outcome of STING activation in vertebrates, it has recently become clear that core components of the cGAS-STING pathway evolved more than 600 million years ago, predating the evolution of type I IFNs...
April 14, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414559/evaluating-the-cost-and-utility-of-mandating-schools-to-stock-epinephrine-auto-injectors
#11
Chelsea Steffens, Benjamin Clement, William Fales, Ahel El Haj Chehade, Kevin Putman, Robert Swor
BACKGROUND: The Michigan Legislature mandated that all public schools stock epinephrine auto-injectors (EAIs). A minimal amount is known regarding the incremental value of EAIs in schools. Our primary objective was to describe the frequency of administration of epinephrine for EMS patients with acute allergic reactions in public schools. Our secondary objective was to estimate the cost of mandating public schools to stock EAIs. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of EMS cases with an impression of allergic reaction and who received epinephrine recorded in the 2014 Michigan EMS Information System (MI-EMSIS)...
April 17, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412694/the-sting
#12
Mole
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412547/intracellular-dna-sensing-pathway-of-cgas-cgamp-is-decreased-in-human-newborns-and-young-children
#13
Zhan-Sheng Wang, Yu-Lu Liu, Nan Mi, Dao-Yun Duan
Newborns are highly susceptible to DNA virus infections, which may result from the characteristics of neonatal innate immune systems. Here we analyzed for the first time the development of innate immune sensing and signaling of intracellular DNA virus infection in human newborns and young children. Both mRNA and protein expression of cGAS, an intracellular DNA sensor, were shown to be significantly reduced in neonatal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In addition, cGAS expression in neonatal PBMCs could be induced upon herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or interferon-α (IFNα) stimulation...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411932/arthropod-envenomation-in-north-america
#14
REVIEW
Timothy B Erickson, Navneet Cheema
Arthropods (phylum Arthopoda) account for a higher percentage of morbidity and mortality to humans than do mammalian bites, snake bites, or marine envenomation. They are ubiquitous in domestic dwellings, caves, and campsites and in wilderness settings such as deserts, forests, and lakes. Although arthropods are most intrusive during warmer months, many are active throughout the winter, particularly indoors. Arthropods are also nocturnal and often bite unsuspecting victims while they are sleeping. Encounters with humans are generally defensive, accidental, or reactive...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411930/marine-envenomation
#15
REVIEW
Kirsten B Hornbeak, Paul S Auerbach
Venomous aquatic animals are hazardous to swimmers, surfers, divers, and fishermen. Exposures include mild stings, bites, abrasions, and lacerations. Severe envenomations can be life threatening. This article reviews common marine envenomations, exploring causative species, clinical presentation, and current treatment recommendations. Recommendations are included for cnidaria, sponges, bristle worms, crown-of-thorns starfish, sea urchins, venomous fish, stingrays, cone snails, stonefish, blue-ringed octopus, and sea snakes...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409038/a-foreign-body-granuloma-of-the-buccal-mucosa-induced-by-honeybee-sting
#16
Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Yohei Nakayama, Yumiko Matsusue, Miyako Kurihara, Takahiro Yagyuu, Tadaaki Kirita
A foreign body granuloma of the buccal mucosa induced by honeybee sting was reported. The patient was an 82-year-old female who presented with a submucous mass at the right buccal mucosa. The mass was 20 mm in diameter, elastically firm, partly mobile without pain or tenderness, and covered with almost normal mucosa. MR image did not delineate the lesion clearly. Under clinical diagnosis of a benign tumor, the lesion was excised under local anesthesia. The excised lesion was 14 × 11 × 9 mm in size and solid and yellowish in cut surface...
2017: Case Reports in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405853/age-related-changes-in-inflammatory-response-after-experimental-envenomation-impact-on-the-susceptibility-to-androctonus-australis-hector-venom
#17
Wassila Haddad-Ishak-Boushaki, Fatima Laraba-Djebari
In regions at risk of scorpion envenomation, children remain the principal victims; they exhibit severe symptoms and represent a higher mortality rate compared to adults. The pathophysiology of envenomation is related to an excessive inflammatory response; however, no studies have identified the differences in immune responses to scorpion stings and mainly the mechanisms of inflammation between children and adults, which may be a determinant key of the susceptibility of children to scorpion envenomation. In this study, we compared the systemic (blood and lung) and the central (brain) inflammatory responses after injection of Androctonus australis hector (Aah) venom to 7 and 21 postnatal days (pnds) and adult mice by subcutaneous route...
April 13, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399655/cyclic-gmp-amp-as-an-endogenous-second-messenger-in-innate-immune-signaling-by-cytosolic-dna
#18
Kazuki Kato, Hiroki Omura, Ryuichiro Ishitani, Osamu Nureki
The innate immune system functions as the first line of defense against invading bacteria and viruses. In this context, the cGAS/STING [cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP)-adenosine monophosphate (AMP) synthase/ STING] signaling axis perceives the nonself DNA associated with bacterial and viral infections, as well as the leakage of self DNA by cellular dysfunction and stresses, to elicit the host's immune responses. In this pathway, the noncanonical cyclic dinucleotide 2',3'-cyclicGMP-AMP(2',3'-cGAMP) functions as a second messenger for signal transduction: 2',3'-cGAMP is produced by the enzyme cGAS upon its recognition of double-stranded DNA, and then the 2',3'-cGAMP is recognized by the receptor STING to induce the phosphorylation of downstream factors, including TBK1 (TANK binding kinase 1) and IRF3 (interferon regulatory factor 3)...
April 7, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397286/primary-cutaneous-nocardiosis-caused-by-nocardia-brasiliensis-following-a-wasp-sting
#19
L Chu, X Xu, Y Ran
We report a case of an 87-year-old woman who presented with painful erythema of her right forearm 10 days after she had been stung by a wasp on her right hand. The lesion had rapidly deteriorated during the week before presentation, and treatment with antibiotics and glucocorticoids did not improve the condition. After careful evaluation, we performed cultures from the lesion aspiration, and morphological and genetic analysis of bacteria cultures confirmed a bacterial infection with Nocardia brasiliensis. The patient recovered after 3 weeks...
April 10, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396343/cyclic-dinucleotides-modulate-induced-type-i-ifn-responses-in-innate-immune-cells-by-degradation-of-sting
#20
Christine Rueckert, Ulfert Rand, Urmi Roy, Bahram Kasmapour, Till Strowig, Carlos A Guzmán
The cyclic dinucleotides, GMP-AMP (cGAMP) and c-di-AMP [bis-(3',5')-cyclic dimeric AMP], are potent type I IFN inducers via STING-TBK1-IRF3 cascade. They are promising adjuvants that promote antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in different preclinical models; however, an optimal outcome of vaccination depends on a balanced immune activation. Here, we characterize the process of IFN-β induction by c-di-AMP and cGAMP in an in vitro model on the basis of primary mouse dendritic cells. Results obtained show decreased IFN-β production upon prolonged cell stimulation...
April 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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