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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230332/mechanisms-involving-myocardial-injury-in-tropical-stings-and-bites
#1
Thirunavukarasu Kumanan, Mahesan Guruparan, Ratnasamy Vithiya, Indika Gawarammana
It is known that a number of toxic substances produce myocardial injury by several mechanisms involving interruption of coronary blood flow due to stimulation of clotting mechanism and coronary vasospasm. Number of toxic substances may cause direct myocardial toxicity independent of coronary blood flow. Acute myocardial injury due to stings and bites is a rare entity and not well understood. Here we illustrate a case of myocardial injury due to Russell's viper envenomation.
2017: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229236/ultrastructural-analysis-of-early-toxic-effects-produced-by-bee-venom-phospholipase-a2-and-melittin-in-sertoli-cells-in-rats
#2
Mariana Tilinca, Adrian Florea
In this study, we aimed to investigate the testicular toxicity of two molecules derived from bee venom (BV): phospholipase A2 (PlA2) and melittin (Mlt). Ultrastructural effects of purified BV PlA2 and Mlt were assessed consecutive to repeated dose (30 days) and acute toxicity studies. For the subchronic treatment, PlA2 and Mlt were injected in daily doses equivalent to those released by a bee sting (105 μg PlA2/kg/day and 350 μg Mlt/kg/day), while in the acute treatment their doses corresponded to those released by 100 bee stings (9...
December 8, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215015/malaria-parasite-dna-harbouring-vesicles-activate-cytosolic-immune-sensors
#3
Xavier Sisquella, Yifat Ofir-Birin, Matthew A Pimentel, Lesley Cheng, Paula Abou Karam, Natália G Sampaio, Jocelyn Sietsma Penington, Dympna Connolly, Tal Giladi, Benjamin J Scicluna, Robyn A Sharples, Andreea Waltmann, Dror Avni, Eli Schwartz, Louis Schofield, Ziv Porat, Diana S Hansen, Anthony T Papenfuss, Emily M Eriksson, Motti Gerlic, Andrew F Hill, Andrew G Bowie, Neta Regev-Rudzki
STING is an innate immune cytosolic adaptor for DNA sensors that engage malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum) or other pathogen DNA. As P. falciparum infects red blood cells and not leukocytes, how parasite DNA reaches such host cytosolic DNA sensors in immune cells is unclear. Here we show that malaria parasites inside red blood cells can engage host cytosolic innate immune cell receptors from a distance by secreting extracellular vesicles (EV) containing parasitic small RNA and genomic DNA. Upon internalization of DNA-harboring EVs by human monocytes, P...
December 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214141/new-trends-in-anaphylaxis
#4
REVIEW
Margitta Worm, Gunter Sturm, Jörg Kleine-Tebbe, Ewa Cichocka-Jarosz, Victoria Cardona, Ioana Maris, Sabine Dölle
This review presents the current trends in anaphylaxis management discussed at the fourth International Network for Online-Registration of Anaphylaxis (NORA) conference held in Berlin in April 2017. Current data from the anaphylaxis registry show that Hymenoptera venom, foods, and pharmaceutical drugs are still among the most frequent triggers of anaphylaxis. Rare triggers include chicory, cardamom, asparagus, and goji berries. A meta-analysis on recent trends in insect venom anaphylaxis demonstrated for the first time that, although data on the efficacy of insect venom immunotherapy is limited, the occurrence of severe reactions upon repeated sting events can be prevented and patients' quality of life improved...
2017: Allergo Journal International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213193/anti-inflammatory-activity-of-crude-venom-isolated-from-parasitoid-wasp-bracon-hebetor-say
#5
Evelyn Saba, Tahir Shafeeq, Muhammad Irfan, Yuan Yee Lee, Hyuk-Woo Kwon, Myung Gi Seo, Sang-Joon Park, Kyeong-Yeoll Lee, Man Hee Rhee
Pest control in the agricultural fields, a major concern globally, is currently achieved through chemical or biological methods. Chemical methods, which leave toxic residue in the produce, are less preferred than biological methods. Venoms injected by stings of various wasps that kill the pest is considered as the examples of the biological method. Although several studies have investigated the biological control of pests through these venoms, very few studies have reported the effects of these venoms on mammalian cells...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212905/cyclic-gmp-amp-synthase-is-the-cytosolic-sensor-of-plasmodium-falciparum-genomic-dna-and-activates-type-i-ifn-in-malaria
#6
Carolina Gallego-Marin, Jacob E Schrum, Warrison A Andrade, Scott A Shaffer, Lina F Giraldo, Alvaro M Lasso, Evelyn A Kurt-Jones, Kate A Fitzgerald, Douglas T Golenbock
Innate immune receptors have a key role in the sensing of malaria and initiating immune responses. As a consequence of infection, systemic inflammation emerges and is directly related to signs and symptoms during acute disease. We have previously reported that plasmodial DNA is the primary driver of systemic inflammation in malaria, both within the phagolysosome and in the cytosol of effector cells. In this article, we demonstrate that Plasmodium falciparum genomic DNA delivered to the cytosol of human monocytes binds and activates cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211914/stinging-nettle-and-neem-enhance-antibody-response-to-local-killed-and-imported-live-infectious-bursal-disease-vaccines-in-indigenous-chicken-in-kenya
#7
M O Bwana, L W Njagi, P N Nyaga, P G Mbuthia, L C Bebora, M W Wahome, W U Mutinda, P M Kitala
Immune responses are critical for protection of chickens from infectious bursal disease (IBD). In this study, the antibody response-enhancing effect of drinking water supplementation of 1% stinging nettle and neem on different IBD vaccines and vaccination regimes was evaluated, using 36 (n = 36) specific antibody negative indigenous chicks. The birds were allocated into 3 groups as follows: 1A-C, 2A-C, and 3A-B, while group 3C acted as the unvaccinated non-supplemented control. A local inactivated K1 and imported live attenuated D78 IBD vaccines were given to groups 1A-C and 3A-B at 14 and 28 d of age, respectively...
December 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207818/clinical-efficacy-and-safety-on-combining-20-trichloroacetic-acid-peel-with-topical-5-ascorbic-acid-for-melasma
#8
Surabhi Dayal, Priyadarshini Sahu, Manoj Yadav, V K Jain
Introduction: Trichloroacetic Acid (TCA) is a versatile peeling agent for treatment of melasma. However, Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation (PIH) is reported to be the most common side-effect associated with TCA peel. Topical Ascorbic Acid (AA) due to its effect as antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitor helps to prevent PIH and maintains the response. Aim: To assess the clinical efficacy, safety and reduction in Melasma Quality of Life (MELASQOL) on combining 20% TCA peel with 5% ascorbic acid cream in epidermal melasma...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207746/dengue-stings-the-eye
#9
Sumana J Kamath, Madhurima K Nayak, Ruchi Gour, Neha Singh
Dengue is a vector borne viral fever and has varied ocular affections. We report two cases of Dengue Associated Maculopathy (DAM). The first patient was a 22-year-old lady with dengue fever, presented with diminution of vision in the left eye with best corrected visual acuity of 20/40. Fundus revealed soft exudates and streak haemorrhages at the macula in the left eye. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) showed cystoid macular oedema. She recovered completely within four days. The second patient was a 33-year-old lady with dengue, with blurred vision in the left eye and with a visual acuity of 20/80...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204893/the-development-of-a-patient-reported-outcome-measure-for-assessment-of-genital-psoriasis-symptoms-the-genital-psoriasis-symptoms-scale-gpss
#10
Alice B Gottlieb, Brian Kirby, Caitriona Ryan, April N Naegeli, Russel Burge, Alison Potts Bleakman, Milena D Anatchkova, Gil Yosipovitch
INTRODUCTION: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROs) specific for genital psoriasis (GenPs) have not been described. METHODS: In this cross-sectional, qualitative study in patients with moderate-to-severe GenPs, we sought to develop a PRO useful for GenPs symptom assessment. A literature review was performed to identify relevant psoriasis or GenPs symptoms and existing PROs that may be useful in the evaluation of symptom severity in GenPs patients. The literature review findings were discussed with clinicians, and then patients with GenPs...
December 4, 2017: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203515/brucella-abortus-triggers-a-cgas-independent-sting-pathway-to-induce-host-protection-that-involves-guanylate-binding-proteins-and-inflammasome-activation
#11
Miriam M Costa Franco, Fernanda Marim, Erika S Guimarães, Natan R G Assis, Daiane M Cerqueira, Juliana Alves-Silva, Jerome Harms, Gary Splitter, Judith Smith, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti, Nina M G P de Queiroz, Delia Gutman, Glen N Barber, Sergio C Oliveira
Immunity against microbes depends on recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by innate receptors. Signaling pathways triggered by Brucella abortus DNA involves TLR9, AIM2, and stimulator of IFN genes (STING). In this study, we observed by microarray analysis that several type I IFN-associated genes, such as IFN-β and guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs), are downregulated in STING knockout (KO) macrophages infected with Brucella or transfected with DNA. Additionally, we determined that STING and cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) are important to engage the type I IFN pathway, but only STING is required to induce IL-1β secretion, caspase-1 activation, and GBP2 and GBP3 expression...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202591/venom-immunotherapy-in-patients-with-allergic-reactions-to-insect-stings
#12
Cristoforo Incorvaia, Marina Mauro, Bruna L Gritti, Eleni Makri, Erminia Ridolo
Allergy to Hymenoptera (Apis mellifera, Vespula species, Polistes species, Vespa crabro) venom can be safely and effectively treated by venom immunotherapy (VIT), which in the 40 years since its introduction has been able to prevent reactions to stings, and to treatment as well, though systemic reactions, occasionally severe, are possible. Areas covered: We reviewed the recent literature on VIT by searching in PubMed for the terms "venom immunotherapy" and "Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy" to highlight the current status of VIT and the likely development in the coming years...
December 5, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201959/demographics-of-scorpion-sting-in-iran-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Babak Mahshidfar, Hamed Basir Ghafouri, Mohammad Reza Yasinzadeh, Mani Mofidi, Mahdi Rezai, Davood Farsi, Saeed Abbasi, Peyman Hafezimoghadam
Introduction: Scorpion sting is an important public health problem in some countries, including Iran. This study aimed to describe the demographics of a large number of these victims in some endemic areas of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated baseline characteristics, clinical findings, management, and disposition of scorpion stung cases in 26 cities of 4 provinces in the southwest quarter of Iran, during one year. Results: 3008 cases of scorpion sting with mean age of 27...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201911/transmissible-gastroenteritis-virus-papain-like-protease-1-antagonizes-production-of-interferon-%C3%AE-through-its-deubiquitinase-activity
#14
Xiaoliang Hu, Jin Tian, Hongtao Kang, Dongchun Guo, Jiasen Liu, Dafei Liu, Qian Jiang, Zhijie Li, Juanjuan Qu, Liandong Qu
Coronaviruses (CoVs), such as human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV), murine hepatitis virus (MHV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), encode papain-like (PL) proteases that inhibit Sendai virus- (SeV-) induced interferon (IFN-β) production. Recently, the crystal structure of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) PL1 has been solved, which was similar to that of SARS-CoV PL2pro, which may antagonize host innate immunity...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189388/cd11c-targeted-delivery-of-dna-to-dendritic-cells-leads-to-cgas-and-sting-dependent-maturation
#15
Marlene F Laursen, Esben Christensen, Laura L T Degn, Kasper Jønsson, Martin R Jakobsen, Ralf Agger, Emil Kofod-Olsen
Immunotherapeutic activation of tumor-specific T cells has proven to be an interesting approach in anticancer treatment. Particularly, anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 treatment looks promising, and conceivably, even better clinical results might be obtained if such treatment could be combined with boosting the existing tumor-specific T-cell response. One way to achieve this could be by increasing the level of maturation of dendritic cells locally and in the draining lymph nodes. When exposed to cancer cells, dendritic cells may spontaneously mature because of danger-associated molecular patterns derived from the tumor cells...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188071/postoperative-tropheryma-whipplei-endophthalmitis-a-case-report-highlighting-the-additive-value-of-molecular-testing
#16
Julia Dick, Patrizia Krauß, Jost Hillenkamp, Britta Kohlmorgen, Christoph Schoen
Introduction.Tropheryma whipplei is the causative agent of Whipple's disease. Gastrointestinal and lymphatic tissues are affected in the majority of cases, resulting in diarrhoea, malabsorption and fever. Here, we report a rare case of ocular manifestation in a patient lacking the typical Whipple symptoms. Case presentation. A 74-year-old Caucasian female presented with blurred vision in the right eye over a period of 1-2 months, accompanied by stinging pain and conjunctival hyperaemia for the last 2 days...
October 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183291/optimization-of-the-hockey-fans-in-training-hockey-fit-weight-loss-and-healthy-lifestyle-program-for-male-hockey-fans
#17
Wendy Blunt, Dawn P Gill, Shannon L Sibbald, Brendan Riggin, Roseanne W Pulford, Ryan Scott, Karen Danylchuk, Cindy M Gray, Sally Wyke, Christopher Bunn, Robert J Petrella
BACKGROUND: The health outcomes of men continue to be poorer than women globally. Challenges in addressing this problem include difficulties engaging men in weight loss programs as they tend to view these programs as contrary to the masculine narrative of independence and self-reliance. Researchers have been turning towards sports fans to engage men in health promotion programs as sports fans are typically male, and tend to have poor health habits. METHODS: Developed from the highly successful gender-sensitized Football Fans in Training program, Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT) recruited 80 male hockey fans of the London Knights and Sarnia Sting who were overweight or obese into a weekly, 90-minute classroom education and group exercise program held over 12 weeks; a 40-week minimally-supported phase followed...
November 28, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178068/roles-of-mitochondrial-dna-signaling-in-immune-responses
#18
Lingyan Wang, Michael N Liebmen, Xiangdong Wang
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) plays an important role in immune responses during the evolution. The present chapter systemically describes its role on immune-related diseases and its interaction on immune responses. It is important to explore the main function and mechanisms of mtDNA in immune responses by which mtDNA regulates the signaling pathways of Toll-like receptor 9, autophagy, and STING. There are potentials to discover therapeutic targets of mtDNA in immune diseases and inflammation. It will be more exciting if the CRISPR-Cas9 method can be applied for mtDNA gene editing to cure diseases and provide a novel insight of mtDNA in immune responses as well as new therapies...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175280/surfing-as-a-risk-factor-for-sensitization-to-poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acid-in-fermented-soybeans-natto-allergy
#19
Naoko Inomata, Mami Miyakawa, Michiko Aihara
BACKGROUND: Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) is an allergen in natto, fermented soybeans, which causes late-onset anaphylaxis. We hypothesized that jellyfish stings sensitize adults to PGA because a surfer had allergies to both natto and jellyfish, whose sting contains PGA. The aim of the study was to identify behavioral factors, such as marine sports, associated with PGA sensitization. METHODS: Outpatients diagnosed with food allergies based on relevant clinical history, positive skin test and/or food challenge test answered a questionnaire during a regular visit in 2016...
November 24, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171032/immunological-differences-between-insect-venom-allergic-patients-with-and-without-immunotherapy-and-asymptomatically-sensitized-subjects
#20
Lisa Arzt, Danijela Bokanovic, Christoph Schrautzer, Karin Laipold, Christian Möbs, Wolfgang Pfützner, Sereina Annik Herzog, Jutta Vollmann, Norbert Reider, Barbara Bohle, Werner Aberer, Gunter Sturm
BACKGROUND: Currently available tests are unable to distinguish between asymptomatic sensitization and clinically relevant Hymenoptera venom allergy. A reliable serological marker to monitor venom immunotherapy (VIT) does also not exist. Our aim was to find reliable serological markers to predict tolerance to bee and vespid stings. METHODS: We included 77 asymptomatically-sensitized subjects, 85 allergic-patients with acute systemic sting reactions, and 61 allergic-patients currently treated with VIT...
November 23, 2017: Allergy
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