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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334891/rad51-interconnects-between-dna-replication-dna-repair-and-immunity
#1
Souparno Bhattacharya, Kalayarasan Srinivasan, Salim Abdisalaam, Fengtao Su, Prithvi Raj, Igor Dozmorov, Ritu Mishra, Edward K Wakeland, Subroto Ghose, Shibani Mukherjee, Aroumougame Asaithamby
RAD51, a multifunctional protein, plays a central role in DNA replication and homologous recombination repair, and is known to be involved in cancer development. We identified a novel role for RAD51 in innate immune response signaling. Defects in RAD51 lead to the accumulation of self-DNA in the cytoplasm, triggering a STING-mediated innate immune response after replication stress and DNA damage. In the absence of RAD51, the unprotected newly replicated genome is degraded by the exonuclease activity of MRE11, and the fragmented nascent DNA accumulates in the cytosol, initiating an innate immune response...
February 21, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332775/ocular-involvement-in-pemphigus-vulgaris-a-retrospective-study-of-a-large-spanish-cohort
#2
Agustin España, Pilar Iranzo, Josep Herrero-González, José M Mascaro, Ricardo Suárez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ocular/periocular involvement in pemphigus vulgaris (OPV) has rarely been reported. The objective of the present study was to investigate the pattern of OPV and define the prognostic value of its manifestation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1985 to 2014, a total of 167 patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) were treated at four tertiary Spanish hospitals. In this retrospective study, we included all patients with OPV. Clinical data and information on associated symptoms were obtained from patients' medical records...
March 23, 2017: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331487/a-clinical-trial-protocol-to-treat-massive-africanized-honeybee-apis-mellifera-attack-with-a-new-apilic-antivenom
#3
Alexandre Naime Barbosa, Leslie Boyer, Jean-Philippe Chippaux, Natalia Bronzatto Medolago, Carlos Antonio Caramori, Ariane Gomes Paixão, João Paulo Vasconcelos Poli, Mônica Bannwart Mendes, Lucilene Delazari Dos Santos, Rui Seabra Ferreira, Benedito Barraviera
BACKGROUND: Envenomation caused by multiple stings from Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera constitutes a public health problem in the Americas. In 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health reported 13,597 accidents (incidence of seven cases per 100,000 inhabitants) with 39 deaths (lethality of 0.25%). The toxins present in the venom, which include melittin and phospholipase A2, cause lesions in diverse organs and systems that may be fatal. As there has been no specific treatment to date, management has been symptomatic and supportive only...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329705/sensing-of-bacterial-cyclic-dinucleotides-by-the-oxidoreductase-recon-promotes-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-and-shapes-a-proinflammatory-antibacterial-state
#4
Adelle P McFarland, Shukun Luo, Fariha Ahmed-Qadri, Meghan Zuck, Elizabeth F Thayer, Young Ah Goo, Kevin Hybiske, Liang Tong, Joshua J Woodward
Bacterial and host cyclic dinucleotides (cdNs) mediate cytosolic immune responses through the STING signaling pathway, although evidence suggests that alternative pathways exist. We used cdN-conjugated beads to biochemically isolate host receptors for bacterial cdNs, and we identified the oxidoreductase RECON. High-affinity cdN binding inhibited RECON enzyme activity by simultaneously blocking the substrate and cosubstrate sites, as revealed by structural analyses. During bacterial infection of macrophages, RECON antagonized STING activation by acting as a molecular sink for cdNs...
March 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329697/reconsidering-sensing-of-cyclic-dinucleotides
#5
Jonathan Maelfait, Jan Rehwinkel
Detection of cyclic dinucleotides (cdNs) by the STING pathway potently triggers the antiviral response. McFarland et al. now show that the mouse oxidoreductase RECON acts as a sensor for some bacterial cdNs, modulating innate signaling in a manner independent of STING to promote an antibacterial state.
March 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323387/induction-of-tumor-regression-by-intratumoral-sting-agonists-combined-with-anti-programmed-death-l1-blocking-antibody-in-a-preclinical-squamous-cell-carcinoma-model
#6
Shekhar K Gadkaree, Juan Fu, Rupashree Sen, Michael J Korrer, Clint Allen, Young J Kim
BACKGROUND: Cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) are bacterial intracellular messengers that have demonstrated antitumor activity in melanoma and breast tumors, although their role in immunotherapy of head and neck squamous cell cancers (HNSCCs) has not been well investigated. METHODS: We measured primary tumor growth rates, mechanism of antitumor activity, and efficacy of programmed death-L1 blockade combinatorial therapy in SCCFVII tumor-bearing C3H/HeOUJ mice undergoing intratumoral injections with RR-cyclic-di-guanine (synthetic CDG), CDG (natural cyclic-di-guanine), R848 (TLR 7/8 agonist), or phosphate buffered saline (PBS, control)...
March 21, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314590/inflammasome-activation-triggers-caspase-1-mediated-cleavage-of-cgas-to-regulate-responses-to-dna-virus-infection
#7
Yutao Wang, Xiaohan Ning, Pengfei Gao, Shuxian Wu, Mengyin Sha, Mengze Lv, Xiang Zhou, Juyi Gao, Run Fang, Guangxun Meng, Xiaodong Su, Zhengfan Jiang
Viral infection triggers host innate immune responses that result in the production of various cytokines including type I interferons (IFN), activation of inflammasomes, and programmed cell death of the infected cells. Tight control of inflammatory cytokine production is crucial for the triggering of an effective immune response that can resolve the infection without causing host pathology. In examining the inflammatory response of Asc(-/-) and Casp1(-/-) macrophages, we found that deficiency in these molecules resulted in increased IFN production upon DNA virus infection, but not RNA virus challenge...
March 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302626/sting-irf3-triggers-endothelial-inflammation-in-response-to-free-fatty-acid-induced-mitochondrial-damage-in-diet-induced-obesity
#8
Yun Mao, Wei Luo, Lin Zhang, Weiwei Wu, Liangshuai Yuan, Hao Xu, Juhee Song, Keigi Fujiwara, Jun-Ichi Abe, Scott A LeMaire, Xing Li Wang, Ying H Shen
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic stress in obesity induces endothelial inflammation and activation, which initiates adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying endothelial inflammation induction are not completely understood. Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is an important molecule in immunity and inflammation. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of STING in palmitic acid-induced endothelial activation/inflammation...
March 16, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300747/pathophysiology-of-dilatation-of-pupils-due-to-scorpion-and-snake-envenomation-and-its-therapeutic-value-clinical-observations
#9
Himmatrao S Bawaskar, Parag H Bawaskar, Pramodini H Bawaskar
Dilated nonreacting pupils are routinely taken as a sign of irreversible brain damage. Alpha-receptor stimulation (scorpion sting) and presynaptic acetylcholine receptor blocker (krait bite) may result in dilation of pupils without involvement of the brain. This study was aimed to clinically evaluate the response of pupils in scorpion sting and krait bite. Victims of scorpion sting and krait bite were chosen from Raigad district. Scorpion sting and krait bite cases were admitted to hospital and were clinically evaluated in detail regarding neurological manifestations...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297677/recombinant-bcg-expressing-esx-1-of-mycobacterium-marinum-combines-low-virulence-with-cytosolic-immune-signaling-and-improved-tb-protection
#10
Matthias I Gröschel, Fadel Sayes, Sung Jae Shin, Wafa Frigui, Alexandre Pawlik, Mickael Orgeur, Robin Canetti, Nadine Honoré, Roxane Simeone, Tjip S van der Werf, Wilbert Bitter, Sang-Nae Cho, Laleh Majlessi, Roland Brosch
Recent insights into the mechanisms by which Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiologic agent of human tuberculosis, is recognized by cytosolic nucleotide sensors have opened new avenues for rational vaccine design. The only licensed anti-tuberculosis vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, provides limited protection. A feature of BCG is the partial deletion of the ESX-1 type VII secretion system, which governs phagosomal rupture and cytosolic pattern recognition, key intracellular phenotypes linked to increased immune signaling...
March 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294982/cubozoan-sting-site-seawater-rinse-scraping-and-ice-can-increase-venom-load-upending-current-first-aid-recommendations
#11
Angel Anne Yanagihara, Christie L Wilcox
Cnidarian envenomations are the leading cause of severe and lethal human sting injuries from marine life. The total amount of venom discharged into sting-site tissues, sometimes referred to as "venom load", has been previously shown to correlate with tentacle contact length and sequelae severity. Since <1% of cnidae discharge upon initial tentacle contact, effective and safe removal of adherent tentacles is of paramount importance in the management of life-threatening cubozoan stings. We evaluated whether common rinse solutions or scraping increased venom load as measured in a direct functional assay of venom activity (hemolysis)...
March 15, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285065/pharmacist-use-of-the-electronic-medical-record-to-identify-adults-at-risk-for-anaphylaxis-without-epinephrine-for-self-administration
#12
Autumn Stewart, Katherine Sulkowski
OBJECTIVES: To describe an innovative pharmacist-led approach, with the use of electronic medical record (EMR) data, to identify patients at risk of anaphylaxis in need of epinephrine auto-injector (EAI) for self-administration. SETTING: An urban free health care center for an uninsured indigent adult population in Pittsburgh, PA. PRACTICE INNOVATION: In this pilot service, patients with allergy history fields containing the words "anaphylaxis," "nut," "bee," or "shellfish" were screened for inclusion...
March 8, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275134/the-complement-anaphylatoxins-c5a-and-c3a-suppress-ifn-%C3%AE-production-in-response-to-listeria-monocytogenes-by-inhibition-of-the-cyclic-dinucleotide-activated-cytosolic-surveillance-pathway
#13
Stacey L Mueller-Ortiz, Daniel G Calame, Nancy Shenoi, Yi-Dong Li, Rick A Wetsel
Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular Gram-positive bacterium that induces expression of type I IFNs (IFN-α/IFN-β) during infection. These cytokines are detrimental to the host during infection by priming leukocytes to undergo L. monocytogenes-mediated apoptosis. Our previous studies showed that C5aR1(-/-) and C3aR(-/-) mice are highly susceptible to L. monocytogenes infection as a result of increased IFN-β-mediated apoptosis of major leukocyte cell populations, including CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. However, the mechanisms by which C3a and C5a modulate IFN-β expression during L...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274946/ontogeny-and-the-process-of-biomineralization-in-the-trichomes-of-loasaceae
#14
Adeel Mustafa, Hans-Jürgen Ensikat, Maximilian Weigend
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: South American Loasaceae have a morphologically complex trichome cover, which is characterized by multiple biomineralization. The current study investigates the ontogeny of these complex trichomes and the process of their biomineralization, since both are very poorly understood. METHODS: The development of stinging trichomes on various parts of the plants and the process of mineralization were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX)...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273161/the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-rnf185-facilitates-the-cgas-mediated-innate-immune-response
#15
Qiang Wang, Liyuan Huang, Ze Hong, Zhongshi Lv, Zhaomin Mao, Yijun Tang, Xiufang Kong, Senlin Li, Ye Cui, Heng Liu, Lele Zhang, Xiaojie Zhang, Lindi Jiang, Chen Wang, Qin Zhou
The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), upon cytosolic DNA stimulation, catalyzes the formation of the second messenger 2'3'-cGAMP, which then binds to stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and activates downstream signaling. It remains to be elucidated how the cGAS enzymatic activity is modulated dynamically. Here, we reported that the ER ubiquitin ligase RNF185 interacted with cGAS during HSV-1 infection. Ectopic-expression or knockdown of RNF185 respectively enhanced or impaired the IRF3-responsive gene expression...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270251/decontamination-work-and-the-long-term-increase-in-hospital-visits-for-hymenoptera-stings-following-the-fukushima-nuclear-disaster
#16
Akihiko Ozaki, Takeru Yokota, Shuhei Nomura, Masaharu Tsubokura, Claire Leppold, Tetsuya Tanimoto, Toru Miura, Kana Yamamoto, Toyoaki Sawano, Manabu Tsukada, Masahiro Kami, Yukio Kanazawa, Hiromichi Ohira
OBJECTIVE: Animals, including arthropods, are one health threat that can be affected by disasters. This institution-based study aimed to assess trends in Hymenoptera stings following the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of patients with hymenopteran stings who visited Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital, located 23 km from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, from March 2005 to March 2016. Patient and sting characteristics of post-disaster patients were examined, and the annual incidence of hospital visits for hymenopteran stings was compared with the pre-disaster baseline, calculating an incidence rate ratio (IRR) for each year...
March 8, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266704/the-efficacy-of-australian-essential-oils-for-the-treatment-of-head-lice-infestation-in-children-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Kerryn A Greive, Tanya M Barnes
BACKGROUND: The increase in resistance of head lice to neurotoxic pediculicides and public concern over their safety has led to an increase in alternative treatments, many of which are poorly researched or even untested. METHODS: A multicentre, randomised, assessor-blind, parallel-group trial (Trial 1) was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of a head lice treatment containing Australian eucalyptus oil and Leptospermum petersonii (EO/LP solution; applied thrice with 7-day intervals between applications) with a neurotoxic treatment containing pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide (P/PB mousse; applied twice with a 7-day interval) in children...
March 7, 2017: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265471/public-medical-preparedness-at-the-swiss-wrestling-and-alpine-games-2013-descriptive-analysis-of-1-533-patients-treated-at-the-largest-3-day-sporting-event-in-switzerland
#18
Simone Hostettler-Blunier, Nora Müller, Tobias Haltmeier, Andreas Hosner, Heinz Bähler, Frank Neff, Daniel Baumberger, Aristomenis Exadaktylos, Beat Schnüriger
Introduction. Medical preparedness at mass gatherings is challenging, as little is known about the optimal planning. Most studies and case reports are based on mass casualty incidents, so the results cannot be extrapolated to mass gatherings. Aim of this study was to evaluate the preclinical medical structure and the frequency of specific injuries and medical emergencies during the event. Methods. Retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database. Three on-site medical assistance points were set up, completed by mobile teams, and coordinated by an on-site operational management team...
2017: Emergency Medicine International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264130/a-new-matrix-therapy-agent-for-faster-corneal-healing-and-less-ocular-discomfort-following-epi-off-accelerated-corneal-cross-linking-in-progressive-keratoconus
#19
Koray Gumus, Marta Gomes Guerra, Sara Homem de Melo Marques, Sarper Karaküçük, Denis Barritault
PURPOSE: To investigate the hypothesis that a new matrix therapy agent (ReGeneraTing Agent, [RGTA]) would speed up the corneal reepithelialization, improve stromal healing, and reduce ocular symptoms after epi-off corneal cross-linking (CXL). METHODS: Sixty eyes of 60 patients with progressive keratoconus were enrolled in the study. Epi-off accelerated CXL was performed in all patients. Sixty eyes were randomized into two groups according to use of RGTA eye drops prior to contact lens fitting at the end...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258523/analysis-of-pelagia-noctiluca-proteome-reveals-a-red-fluorescent-protein-a-zinc-metalloproteinase-and-a-peroxiredoxin
#20
Bárbara Frazão, Alexandre Campos, Hugo Osório, Benjamin Thomas, Sérgio Leandro, Alexandre Teixeira, Vitor Vasconcelos, Agostinho Antunes
Pelagia noctiluca is the most venomous jellyfish in the Mediterranean Sea where it forms dense blooms. Although there is several published research on this species, until now none of the works has been focused on a complete protein profile of the all body constituents of this organism. Here, we have performed a detailed proteomics characterization of the major protein components expressed by P. noctiluca. With that aim, we have considered the study of jellyfish proteins involved in defense, body constituents and metabolism, and furthered explore the significance and potential application of such bioactive molecules...
March 3, 2017: Protein Journal
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