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Sanjay Mohan Gupta, Kamal Kumar, Sanjai Kumar Dwivedi, Madhu Bala
Background & methods We investigated the in vitro antioxidant and antifungal activity by agar disc diffusion assay of leaf extract of some stinging plants namely, Urtica dioica L., Tragia involucrate L., Carduus nutans L. and Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC., against pathogenic fungi causing infections/diseases. Results M. pruriens (Disc 4), T. involucrate (Disc 2), U. dioica (Disc 1) showed significant antifungal activity against all tested pathogens, while C. nutans (Disc 3) showed intermediate activity against only Chaetomium globosum (Cg)...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
Johannes Laengle, Judith Stift, Agnes Bilecz, Brigitte Wolf, Andrea Beer, Balazs Hegedus, Stefan Stremitzer, Patrick Starlinger, Dietmar Tamandl, Dietmar Pils, Michael Bergmann
Preclinical models indicate that DNA damage induces type I interferon (IFN), which is crucial for the induction of an anti-tumor immune response. In human cancers, however, the association between DNA damage and an immunogenic cell death (ICD), including the release and sensing of danger signals, the subsequent ER stress response and a functional IFN system, is less clear. Methods: Neoadjuvant-treated colorectal liver metastases (CLM) patients, undergoing liver resection in with a curative intent, were retrospectively enrolled in this study (n=33)...
2018: Theranostics
Dorothea Groß, Marc Childs, Jean-Marie Piaton
Background: Eye drops containing 0.1% hyaluronic acid (HA) and 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) applied one drop three times a day per affected eye were compared in patients with moderate keratitis or keratoconjunctivitis related to dry eye disease (DED). Patients and methods: This was a prospective, randomized, multicenter, Phase IIIB noninferiority study, with a single-masked phase in parallel mode with two groups over 84 days. The primary efficacy outcome was change in ocular surface (OS) staining between day 0 (D0) and day 35 (D35)...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
Marina Martin, Aoi Hiroyasu, R Marena Guzman, Steven A Roberts, Alan G Goodman
The vertebrate protein STING, an intracellular sensor of cyclic dinucleotides, is critical to the innate immune response and the induction of type I interferon during pathogenic infection. Here, we show that a STING ortholog (dmSTING) exists in Drosophila, which, similar to vertebrate STING, associates with cyclic dinucleotides to initiate an innate immune response. Following infection with Listeria monocytogenes, dmSTING activates an innate immune response via activation of the NF-κB transcription factor Relish, part of the immune deficiency (IMD) pathway...
June 19, 2018: Cell Reports
Andreas Schilder, Walter Magerl, Thomas Klein, Rolf-Detlef Treede
Introduction/Objectives: Verbal descriptors are an important pain assessment parameter. The purpose of this study was to explore the ability to discriminate deep muscle pain and overlying fascia pain according to verbal descriptors and compare the pattern with skin stimulation (from previously published data). Methods: In 16 healthy human subjects, electrical stimulation was chosen to excite a broad spectrum of nociceptive primary afferents innervating the respective tissues...
May 2018: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
Kang Chen, Qiang Fu, Siping Liang, Yiting Liu, Wenting Qu, Yongjian Wu, Xinger Wu, Lei Wei, Yi Wang, Yujuan Xiong, Weijia Wang, Minhao Wu
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is the leading cause of bacterial keratitis, especially in those who wear contact lens and who are immunocompromised. Once the invading pathogens are recognized by pattern recognition receptors expressed on the innate immune cells, the innate immune response is stimulated to exert host defense function, which is the first line to fight against PA infection. As a converging point of cytosolic DNA sense signaling, stimulator of interferon genes (STING) was reported to participate in host-pathogen interaction...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Kate Womersley, Claudine Domoney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: BMJ sexual & reproductive health
Xiaojuan Chen, Qian Zhao, Xie Qing, Yaling Xing, Zhongbin Chen
IFNβ innate immune plays an essential role in antiviral immune. Previous reports suggested that many important regulatory proteins in innate immune pathway may be modified by ubiquitin and that many de-ubiquitination (DUB) proteins may affect immunity. Monocyte chemotactic protein-inducing protein 1 (MCPIP1), one of the CCCH Zn finger-containing proteins, was reported to have DUB function, but its effect on IFNβ innate immune was not fully understood. In this study, we uncovered a novel mechanism that may explain how MCPIP1 efficiently inhibits IFNβ innate immune...
June 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Qiang Ding, Jenna M Gaska, Florian Douam, Lei Wei, David Kim, Metodi Balev, Brigitte Heller, Alexander Ploss
The limited host tropism of numerous viruses causing disease in humans remains incompletely understood. One example is Zika virus (ZIKV), an RNA virus that has reemerged in recent years. Here, we demonstrate that ZIKV efficiently infects fibroblasts from humans, great apes, New and Old World monkeys, but not rodents. ZIKV infection in human-but not murine-cells impairs responses to agonists of the cGMP-AMP synthase/stimulator of IFN genes (cGAS/STING) signaling pathway, suggesting that viral mechanisms to evade antiviral defenses are less effective in rodent cells...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
C S Madsen, B Johnsen, A Fuglsang-Frederiksen, T S Jensen, N B Finnerup
Background/aims Brief noxious heat stimuli activate Aδ and C fibers, and contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) can be recorded from the scalp. Under standard conditions, late responses related to AS fibers can be recorded. This study examines C-fiber responses to contact heat stimuli. Methods A preferential A-fiber blockade by compression to the superficial radial nerve was applied in 22 healthy subjects. Quality and intensity of heat evoked pain (NRS, 0-10), and CHEPs were examined at baseline, during nerve compression, and during further nerve compression with topical capsaicin (5%)...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Stefano Pucci, Fedra Ciccarelli, Tiziana De Pasquale, Ilenia Illuminati, Simona D'Alò
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Julie M Diamond, Claire Vanpouille-Box, Sheila Spada, Nils-Petter Rudqvist, Jessica Chapman, Beatrix Ueberheide, Karsten A Pilones, Yasmeen Sarfraz, Silvia C Formenti, Sandra Demaria
Radiotherapy (RT) used at immunogenic doses leads to accumulation of cytosolic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in cancer cells, which activates type I IFN (IFN-I) via the cGAS/STING pathway. Cancer cell-derived IFN-I is required to recruit BATF3-dependent dendritic cells (DCs) to poorly immunogenic tumors and trigger antitumor T-cell responses in combination with immune checkpoint blockade. We have previously demonstrated that the exonuclease TREX1 regulates radiation immunogenicity by degrading cytosolic dsDNA...
June 15, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
Amina Sifi, Sonia Adi-Bessalem, Fatima Laraba-Djebari
Antivenom treatment has been largely used against scorpion stings. Despite their efficacy, the use of mammalian antivenoms may cause adverse effects due to the immune system activation. IgYs from hyperimmunized laying hens against venoms could be a promising alternative to equine IgGs due to the various benefits that these antibodies can provide. Here we report the preparation of specific IgYs by immunizing laying hens with Aah (Androctonus australis hector) scorpion venom. IgYs were isolated from egg yolks by water dilution and salt precipitation methods; they were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, western blot and ELISA...
June 11, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Kristin M Leiferman, Margot S Peters
Eosinophils are bone marrow-derived cells that infiltrate skin and mucous membrane in a broad spectrum of primary and reactive inflammatory diseases and malignancies. The eosinophil has potent proinflammatory activities, particularly, through the effects of its toxic granule proteins. In addition, eosinophils have prothrombotic and profibrotic activities. Eosinophil participation in the pathogenesis of certain diseases without identifiable intact eosinophil infiltration may not be recognized because eosinophil degranulation is poorly visualized on hematoxylin-and-eosin stained histopathology sections...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Ellen C Moore, Lillian Sun, Paul E Clavijo, Jay Friedman, Joe B Harford, Anthony D Saleh, Carter Van Waes, Esther H Chang, Clint T Allen
Loss or mutation of TP53 has been linked to alterations in anti-tumor immunity as well as dysregulation of cell cycle and apoptosis. We explored immunologic effects and mechanisms following restoration of wild-type human TP53 cDNA in murine oral cancer cells using the therapeutic nanocomplex scL-53. We demonstrated scL-53 induces dose-dependent expression of TP53 and induction of apoptosis and immunogenic cell death. We further demonstrated both TP53-dependent and independent induction of tumor cell immunogenicity through the use of blocking mAbs, nanocomplex loaded with DNA plasmid with or without TP53 cDNA, empty nanocomplex and siRNA knockdown techniques...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Long Yang, Leilei Wang, Harshada Ketkar, Jinzhu Ma, Guang Yang, Shuang Cui, Tingting Geng, Dana G Mordue, Toyoshi Fujimoto, Gong Cheng, Fuping You, Rongtuan Lin, Erol Fikrig, Penghua Wang
The ubiquitin regulatory X domain-containing proteins (UBXNs) are likely involved in diverse biological processes. Their physiological functions, however, remain largely unknown. Here we present physiological evidence that UBXN3B positively regulates stimulator-of-interferon genes (STING) signaling. We employ a tamoxifen-inducible Cre-LoxP approach to generate systemic Ubxn3b knockout in adult mice as the Ubxn3b-null mutation is embryonically lethal. Ubxn3b-/- , like Sting-/- mice, are highly susceptible to lethal herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection, which is correlated with deficient immune responses when compared to Ubxn3b+/+ littermates...
June 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Li Liu, Yantong Liu, Bocheng Xu, Chuyu Liu, Yanpeng Jia, Ting Liu, Chunju Fang, Wei Wang, Jun Ren, Zhiyao He, Ke Men, Xiao Liang, Min Luo, Bin Shao, Ye Mao, Henyi Xiao, Zhiyong Qian, Jia Geng, Birong Dong, Peng Mi, Yu Jiang, Yuquan Wei, Xiawei Wei
Rationale: Cationic nanocarriers present with well-known toxicities, including inflammatory toxicity, which limit their clinical application. How the cationic nanocarrier-induced inflammatory response is negatively regulated is unknown. Herein, we found that following a sublethal dose of cationic nanocarriers, the induced inflammatory response is characterized by early neutrophil infiltration and spontaneous resolution within 1 week. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were intravenously injected with a dosage of 1-100 mg/kg cationic DOTAP liposomes as well as other cationic materials...
2018: Theranostics
J Magarian Blander, Gaetan Barbet
Live attenuated vaccines elicit stronger protective immunity than dead vaccines. Distinct PAMPs designated as vita-PAMPs signify microbial viability to innate immune cells. Two vita-PAMPs have been characterized: cyclic-di-adenosine-monophosphate (c-di-AMP) and prokaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA). c-di-AMP produced by live Gram-positive bacteria elicits augmented production of STING-dependent type-I interferon, whereas prokaryotic mRNA from live bacteria is detected by TLR8 enabling discrimination of live from dead bacteria...
June 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Loránd Barthó, Zsolt Sándor, Timea Bencsik
Aqueous extract of the spines of the brown bullhead catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus Lesueur, 1819) caused contraction of the guinea-pig small intestine in vitro, a widely-used preparation in pharmacology. The action is dependent on extracellular Ca2+ , and probably takes place on the smooth muscle cells. Mouse gastrointestinal preparations were also contracted by the extract. Stings by the spines of this fish species causes a painful sensation in man. We tested the effect of an extract of spines in isolated organ experiments on innervated smooth muscle preparations...
June 2018: Acta Biologica Hungarica
Shi-Yun Chen, Peng Zhou, Ye Qin
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical efficacy and safety of bee-venom acupuncture therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: A total of 120 cases of RA patients were randomized into bee-sting acupuncture group (treatment) and western medicine group (control) in accordance with the random number table. The patients of the control group were treated by oral administration of Methotrexate (10 mg, once a week) and Celecoxlb (0.2 g, once a day), and those of the treatment group treated by 5 to 15 bee stings of Ashi -points or acupoints according to different conditions and corporeity, and with the bee-sting retained for about 5 min every time, once every other day...
April 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
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