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"Elite control"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338738/rapid-hiv-disease-progression-following-superinfection-in-an-hla-b-27-05-b-57-01-positive-transmission-recipient
#1
Jacqui Brener, Astrid Gall, Jacob Hurst, Rebecca Batorsky, Nora Lavandier, Fabian Chen, Anne Edwards, Chrissy Bolton, Reena Dsouza, Todd Allen, Oliver G Pybus, Paul Kellam, Philippa C Matthews, Philip J R Goulder
BACKGROUND: The factors determining differential HIV disease outcome among individuals expressing protective HLA alleles such as HLA-B*27:05 and HLA-B*57:01 remain unknown. We here analyse two HIV-infected subjects expressing both HLA-B*27:05 and HLA-B*57:01. One subject maintained low-to-undetectable viral loads for more than a decade of follow up. The other progressed to AIDS in < 3 years. RESULTS: The rapid progressor was the recipient within a known transmission pair, enabling virus sequences to be tracked from transmission...
January 16, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333092/role-of-apobec3h-in-the-viral-control-of-hiv-elite-controller-patients
#2
José M Benito, Julia Hillung, Clara Restrepo, José M Cuevas, Agathe León, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Rosario Palacios-Muñoz, Miguel Górgolas, Rafael Sanjuán, Norma Rallón
Background APOBEC3H (A3H) gene presents variation at 2 positions (rs139297 and rs79323350) leading to a non-functional protein. So far, there is no information on the role played by A3H in spontaneous control of HIV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the A3H polymorphisms distribution in a well-characterized group of Elite Controller (EC) subjects. Methods We analyzed the genotype distribution of two different SNPs (rs139297 and rs79323350) of A3H in 30 EC patients and compared with 11 non-controller (NC) HIV patients...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273355/what-is-the-most-important-for-elite-control-genetic-background-of-patient-genetic-background-of-partner-both-or-neither-description-of-complete-natural-history-within-a-couple-of-msm
#3
M Bendenoun, A Samri, V Avettand-Fènoël, S Cardinaud, B Descours, G Carcelain, M-C Mazeron, J-F Bergmann, A Urrutia, A Moris, C Rouzioux, F Simon, P Andre, M Pocard, X Dray, T Mourez, V Vieillard, B Autran, F Barin, P Sellier
BACKGROUND: We describe a homosexual man who strongly controlled HIV-1 for ten years despite lack of protective genetic background. METHODS: HIV-1 DNA was measured in blood and other tissues. Cell susceptibility was evaluated with various strains. HIV-1-specific (CD4 and CD8 activation markers and immune check points) and NK cells responses were assessed; KIRs haplotypes and HLA alleles were determined. FINDINGS: Two HIV-1 RNA copies/mL of plasma were detected in 2009, using an ultra-sensitive assay...
December 7, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212942/factors-leading-to-the-loss-of-natural-elite-control-of-hiv-1-infection
#4
María Pernas, Laura Tarancón-Diez, Esther Rodríguez-Gallego, Josep Gómez, Julia G Prado, Concepción Casado, Beatriz Dominguez-Molina, Isabel Olivares, Maite Coiras, Agathe León, Carmen Rodriguez, Jose Miguel Benito, Norma Rallón, Montserrat Plana, Onofre Martinez-Madrid, Marta Dapena, Jose Antonio Iribarren, Jorge Del Romero, Felipe García, José Alcamí, M Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández, Francisco Vidal, Manuel Leal, Cecilio Lopez-Galindez, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos
HIV-1 elite controllers (EC) maintain undetectable viral load (VL) in the absence of antiretroviral treatment. However, these subjects have heterogeneous clinical outcomes including a proportion loosing HIV-1 control over time. In this work we compared, in a longitudinal design, transient EC, analyzed before and after the loss of virological control, versus persistent EC. The aim was to identify factors leading to the loss of natural virological control of HIV-1-infection with a longitudinal retrospective study design...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210660/host-factors-predictors-in-long-term-nonprogressors-hiv-1-infected-with-distinct-viral-clades
#5
J S Santos, S M Almeida, G F Silveira, J Bordignon, S Lm Teixeira, Acm Lima, S M Raboni
BACKGROUND: HIV-1+ long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) maintain natural control of viral infection. This study sought to identify and characterize HIV- LTNPs series case, regarding the presence of possible host factors that may be associated with this status. METHODS: We evaluated the plasma levels of IP-10/IL-8 chemokines, HLA-B alleles, and IL28B rs12979860 polymorphism in 24 LTNPs who presented with infection by different clades of HIV-1. RESULTS: IL-8 chemokine was significantly higher in progressors than in LTNPs, but there was no difference between the LTNP subgroups...
December 6, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196729/peripheral-t-follicular-helper-cells-make-a-difference-in-hiv-reservoir-size-between-elite-controllers-and-patients-on-successful-cart
#6
Marcial García, Miguel Górgolas, Alfonso Cabello, Vicente Estrada, José Manuel Ligos, Manuel Fernández-Guerrero, Carlos Barros, Juan Carlos López-Bernaldo, Francisco Javier De La Hera, María Montoya, José Miguel Benito, Norma Rallón
HIV latency is the main barrier to HIV eradication. Peripheral T follicular helper (pTfh) cells have a prominent role in HIV persistence. Herein, we analyzed the HIV reservoir size within memory CD4+ T-cell subsets in patients with HIV replication control. Twenty HIV-infected patients with suppressed HIV replication were included, with 10 elite controllers (EC) and 10 treated (TX) individuals. The HIV reservoir size was analyzed in resting memory CD4+ T-cells (Trm), pTfh, and non-pTfh cells using an ultrasensitive digital-droplet-PCR assay...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135490/the-microbiome-and-hiv-persistence-implications-for-viral-remission-and-cure
#7
Wei Li A Koay, Lilly V Siems, Deborah Persaud
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article discusses the interaction between HIV infection, the gut microbiome, inflammation and immune activation, and HIV reservoirs, along with interventions to target the microbiome and their implications for HIV remission and cure. RECENT FINDINGS: Most studies show that HIV-infected adults have a gut microbiome associated with decreased bacterial richness and diversity, and associated systemic inflammation and immune activation. A unique set of individuals, elite controllers, who spontaneously control HIV replication, have a similar microbiome to HIV-uninfected individuals...
January 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122683/high-cxcl10-ip-10-levels-are-a-hallmark-in-the-clinical-evolution-of-the-hiv-infection
#8
Jacqueline María Valverde-Villegas, Rúbia Marília de Medeiros, Joel Henrique Ellwanger, Breno Riegel Santos, Marineide Gonçalves de Melo, Sabrina Esteves de Matos Almeida, José Artur Bogo Chies
The aim of this study was to investigate the modulation of plasma CXCL10, CCL20, CCL22, CCL2, CCL17 and CCL24 levels in HIV-positive patients grouped according to extreme phenotypes of progression to AIDS, and at different stages of HIV infection. HIV-positive individuals with extreme phenotypes of AIDS progression (n=58) at different clinical stages (chronic individuals, both pre-HAART and under-HAART) and HIV-negative controls (n=20) were evaluated. Additionally, HIV-positive individuals that initiated HAART with >350CD4(+)T-cells/mm(3) were compared with those who initiated treatment with <350CD4(+)T-cells/mm(3)...
November 6, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103633/cd8-cd28-cd127locd39-regulatory-t-cell-expansion-a%C3%A2-new-possible-pathogenic-mechanism-for-hiv-infection
#9
Daniela Fenoglio, Chiara Dentone, Alessio Signori, Antonio Di Biagio, Alessia Parodi, Francesca Kalli, Giorgia Nasi, Monica Curto, Giovanni Cenderello, Pasqualina De Leo, Valentina Bartolacci, Giancarlo Orofino, Laura Ambra Nicolini, Lucia Taramasso, Edoardo Fiorillo, Valeria Orrù, Paolo Traverso, Bianca Bruzzone, Federico Ivaldi, Eugenio Mantia, Michele Guerra, Simone Negrini, Mauro Giacomini, Sanjay Bhagani, Gilberto Filaci
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated immunodeficiency is related to loss of CD4+ T cells. This mechanism does not explain certain manifestations of HIV disease, such as immunodeficiency events in patients with greater than 500 CD4+ T cells/μL. CD8+CD28-CD127loCD39+ T cells are regulatory T (Treg) lymphocytes that are highly concentrated within the tumor microenvironment and never analyzed in the circulation of HIV-infected patients. OBJECTIVES: We sought to analyze the frequency of CD8+CD28-CD127loCD39+ Treg cells in the circulation of HIV-infected patients...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031156/hiv-misdiagnosis-a-root-cause-analysis-leading-to-improvements-in-hiv-diagnosis-and-patient-care
#10
Raynell Lang, Carmen Charlton, Brenda Beckthold, Kiana Kadivar, Stephanie Lavoie, Debbie Caswell, Paul N Levett, Greg B Horsman, John Kim, M John Gill
BACKGROUND: Standard diagnostic testing for HIV infection has traditionally relied on a high sensitivity HIV antibody screening test using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) followed by a high specificity antibody confirmatory test such as a Western Blot. Recently several of the screening assays have been enhanced with an ability to identify p24 antigen thereby narrowing the diagnostic window. OBJECTIVES: To explore the implications of enhanced HIV screening methods that may be leading to HIV misdiagnoses...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021373/a-specialist-macaque-mhc-class-i-molecule-with-hla-b-27-like-peptide-binding-characteristics
#11
Natasja G de Groot, Corrine M C Heijmans, Arnoud H de Ru, George M C Janssen, Jan W Drijfhout, Nel Otting, Christelle Vangenot, Gaby G M Doxiadis, Frits Koning, Peter A van Veelen, Ronald E Bontrop
In different macaque species, the MHC A2*05 gene is present in abundance, and its gene products are characterized by low cell-surface expression and a highly conserved peptide-binding cleft. We have characterized the peptide-binding motif of Mamu-A2*05:01, and elucidated the binding capacity for virus-derived peptides. The macaque A2*05 allotype prefers the basic amino acid arginine at the second position of the peptide, and hydrophobic and polar amino acids at the C-terminal end. These preferences are shared with HLA-B*27 and Mamu-B*008, molecules shown to be involved in elite control in human HIV type 1 and macaque SIV infections, respectively...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938888/unique-binding-modes-for-the-broad-neutralizing-activity-of-single-chain-variable-fragments-scfv-targeting-cd4-induced-epitopes
#12
Kazuki Tanaka, Takeo Kuwata, Muntasir Alam, Gilad Kaplan, Shokichi Takahama, Kristel Paola Ramirez Valdez, Anna Roitburd-Berman, Jonathan M Gershoni, Shuzo Matsushita
BACKGROUND: The CD4-induced (CD4i) epitopes in gp120 includes the co-receptor binding site, which are formed and exposed after interaction with CD4. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the CD4i epitopes exhibit limited neutralizing activity because of restricted access to their epitopes. However, small fragment counterparts such as single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) have been reported to neutralize a broad range of viruses compared with the full-size IgG molecule. To identify the CD4i epitope site responsible for this broad neutralization we constructed three scFvs of anti-CD4i mAbs from a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected elite controller, and investigated the neutralization coverage and precise binding site in the CD4i epitopes...
September 22, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899396/transcriptomic-meta-analysis-identifies-gene-expression-characteristics-in-various-samples-of-hiv-infected-patients-with-nonprogressive-disease
#13
Le-Le Zhang, Zi-Ning Zhang, Xian Wu, Yong-Jun Jiang, Ya-Jing Fu, Hong Shang
BACKGROUND: A small proportion of HIV-infected patients remain clinically and/or immunologically stable for years, including elite controllers (ECs) who have undetectable viremia (<50 copies/ml) and long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) who maintain normal CD4(+) T cell counts for prolonged periods (>10 years). However, the mechanism of nonprogression needs to be further resolved. In this study, a transcriptome meta-analysis was performed on nonprogressor and progressor microarray data to identify differential transcriptome pathways and potential biomarkers...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899104/therapeutic-vaccine-against-hiv-viral-variability-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-epitopes-and-genetics-of-patients
#14
Herve Fleury, Camille Tumiotto, Pantxika Bellecave, Patricia Recordon-Pinson
The scientific and medical community is seeking to cure HIV. Several pathways have been or are being explored including therapeutic vaccination. Viroimmunological studies on primary infection as well as on elite controllers have demonstrated the importance of the cytotoxic CD8 response and have mainly oriented research on vaccine constructs toward this type of response. The results of these trials are clearly not commensurate with the hope placed in them. Might there be one or more uncontrolled variables? The genetics of patients need to be taken into consideration, especially their human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) alleles...
October 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888341/hla-based-selection-of-epitopes-offers-a-potential-window-of-opportunity-for-vaccine-design-against-hiv
#15
REVIEW
Jagadish Chandrabose Sundaramurthi, Manickam Ashokkumar, Soumya Swaminathan, Luke Elizabeth Hanna
The pace of progression to AIDS after HIV infection varies from individual to individual. While some individuals develop AIDS quickly, others are protected from the onset of disease for more than a decade (elite controllers and long term non-progressors). The mechanisms of protection are not yet clearly understood, though various factors including host genetics, immune components and virus attenuation have been elucidated partly. The influence of HLA alleles on HIV-1 infection and disease outcome has been studied extensively...
September 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862291/trans-activation-response-element-rna-is-detectable-in-the-plasma-of-a-subset-of-aviremic-hiv-1-infected-patients
#16
Anžej Hladnik, Jana Ferdin, Katja Goričar, G Steven Deeks, M Boris Peterlin, Ana Plemenitaš, Dolžan Vita, Lenassi Metka
Determining the HIV-1 reservoir size in infected individuals is of great importance for improvement of their treatment. Plasma trans-activation response element (TAR) RNA has been suggested as one of the possible biomarkers. TAR RNA is produced during non-processive transcription in HIV-1 productively infected and latent T cells. Here, plasma samples and paired exosome samples of 55 subjects from the observational SCOPE cohort were analysed for the presence of TAR RNA. First, a PCR-based assay was optimized, which provided 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity in differentiating HIV-1 infected non-controllers from uninfected individuals...
September 2017: Acta Chimica Slovenica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830571/anti-herv-k-hml-2-capsid-antibody-responses-in-hiv-elite-controllers
#17
Miguel de Mulder, Devi SenGupta, Steven G Deeks, Jeffrey N Martin, Christopher D Pilcher, Frederick M Hecht, Jonah B Sacha, Douglas F Nixon, Henri-Alexandre Michaud
BACKGROUND: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) comprise approximately 8% of the human genome and while the majority are transcriptionally silent, the most recently integrated HERV, HERV-K (HML-2), remains active. During HIV infection, HERV-K (HML-2) specific mRNA transcripts and viral proteins can be detected. In this study, we aimed to understand the antibody response against HERV-K (HML-2) Gag in the context of HIV-1 infection. RESULTS: We developed an ELISA assay using either recombinant protein or 164 redundant "15mer" HERV-K (HML-2) Gag peptides to test sera for antibody reactivity...
August 22, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748664/long-term-efficient-control-of-siv-infection-in-macaques-is-associated-with-an-intact-intestinal-barrier
#18
Maria Daskalaki, Berit Neumann, Antonina Klippert, Kerstin Mätz-Rensing, Franz-Josef Kaup, Christiane Stahl-Hennig
Hallmarks of SIV infection are early depletion of gut CD4 T cells and diminished intestinal integrity. Comprehensive studies on colon biopsies of SIV-infected macaques efficiently controlling infection revealed that in contrast to viremic and failing controllers, elite controllers show preserved CD4 T cells, and low viral load, apoptosis, and inflammation.
August 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740260/richer-gut-microbiota-with-distinct-metabolic-profile-in-hiv-infected-elite-controllers
#19
Jan Vesterbacka, Javier Rivera, Kajsa Noyan, Mariona Parera, Ujjwal Neogi, Malu Calle, Roger Paredes, Anders Sönnerborg, Marc Noguera-Julian, Piotr Nowak
Gut microbiota dysbiosis features progressive HIV infection and is a potential target for intervention. Herein, we explored the microbiome of 16 elite controllers (EC), 32 antiretroviral therapy naive progressors and 16 HIV negative controls. We found that the number of observed genera and richness indices in fecal microbiota were significantly higher in EC versus naive. Genera Succinivibrio, Sutterella, Rhizobium, Delftia, Anaerofilum and Oscillospira were more abundant in EC, whereas Blautia and Anaerostipes were depleted...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720421/assessment-of-the-hiv-1-reservoir-in-cd4-regulatory-t-cells-by-a-droplet-digital-pcr-based-approach
#20
Gábor Artúr Dunay, Anastasia Solomatina, Silke Kummer, Anja Hüfner, Julia Katharina Bialek, Johanna Maria Eberhard, Eva Tolosa, Joachim Hauber, Julian Schulze Zur Wiesch
The relative contribution of regulatory T cells (Treg) as reservoir of HIV-1 in patients on chronic antiretroviral therapy is unclear to date. The aim of the current study was to assess the total HIV DNA burden and replication competent viral reservoir in Treg in comparison to central and effector memory cells (Tcm and Tem). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from 10 HIV patients treated with antiretroviral therapy. Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) was used to quantify total HIV DNA loads in FACS-sorted CD4+ Treg (CD25+CD127lo) as compared to Tcm (CD45RO+CCR7+) and Tem (CD45RO+CCR7-)...
July 16, 2017: Virus Research
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