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Hitoshi Ono, Yasunari Kojima, Hiroshi Harada, Yoshikazu Abe, Takuro Endo, Mamoru Kobayashi
1. The pharmacokinetic and metabolite profiles of mizagliflozin, a novel selective sodium glucose co-transporter 1 inhibitor designed to act only in the intestine, were investigated in rats. 2. Mizagliflozin administrated intravenously (0.3 mg/kg) and orally (3 mg/kg) declined with a short half-life (0.23 and 1.14 h, respectively). The absolute bioavailability was only 0.02%. Following intravenous administration of [14 C]mizagliflozin (0.3 mg/kg), radioactivity in plasma was also rapidly declined. Up to 24 h after oral administration of [14 C]mizagliflozin (1 mg/kg), radioactivity was recovered in the faeces (98...
March 20, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Zhi-Hui Zou, Dong Liu, Hong-Dong Li, Dan-Ping Zhu, Yu He, Ting Hou, Jia-Lin Yu
BACKGROUND: To explore the influences of prenatal antibiotic exposure, the intensity of prenatal and postnatal antibiotic exposure on gut microbiota of preterm infants and whether gut microbiota and drug resistant strains in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) over a defined period are related. METHODS: Among 28 preterm infants, there were two groups, the PAT (prenatal antibiotic therapy) group (12 cases), and the PAF (prenatal antibiotic free) group (12 cases)...
March 19, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Helga Medić, Ivona Djurkin Kušec, Jelka Pleadin, Lidija Kozačinski, Bela Njari, Brigita Hengl, Goran Kušec
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of frozen storage duration (3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 months) on physical, chemical and microbial properties of pork in three cuts (loin, ham, and belly rib). During frozen storage, significant alterations in physical and chemical parameters were observed through the increase of the total exudate, pH and lightness (L*), and a decrease of shear force and yellowness (b*). Water content in ham samples decreased, while protein content increased. The lipid oxidation (TBA) values in loin and ham samples increased for up to fifteen months of frozen storage, after which they decreased...
March 9, 2018: Meat Science
Andrea Trnková, Kateřina Šancová, Martina Zapletalová, Jitka Kašparovská, Kateřina Dadáková, Ludmila Křížová, Jan Lochman, Sylvie Hadrová, Ivana Ihnatová, Tomáš Kašparovský
The aim of this study was to determine the degradation of dietary isoflavones in rumen fluid under 2 feeding regimens. The experiments were performed in vitro using a rumen fluid buffer system. The rumen fluid was taken from cows fed either a hay diet or a concentrate-rich diet (the diet consisted of 34.6% maize silage, 17.6% haylage, 12.8% alfalfa hay, and 35.0% supplemental mixture on a dry matter basis). As a source of isoflavones, 40% soybean extract (Biomedica, Prague, Czech Republic) at levels of 5, 25, 50, and 75 mg per 40 mL of rumen fluid was used...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Prabin Lamichhane, Anna Pietrzyk, Conor Feehily, Paul D Cotter, David T Mannion, Kieran N Kilcawley, Alan L Kelly, Jeremiah J Sheehan
Centrifugation is a common milk pretreatment method for removal of Clostridium spores which, on germination, can produce high levels of butyric acid and gas, resulting in rancid, gassy cheese. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of centrifugation of milk, as well as incorporation of high heat-treated centrifugate into cheese milk, on the microbial and volatile profile of Maasdam cheese. To facilitate this, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing in combination with a selective media-based approach were used to study the microbial composition of cheese during maturation, and volatile organic compounds within the cheese matrix were analyzed by HPLC and solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Hanwen Tian, Junming Miao, Fumei Zhang, Feng Xiong, Feimei Zhu, Jinyu Li, Xiaoying Wang, Shanzhe Chen, Junli Chen, Ning Huang, Yi Wang
The urinary tract is vulnerable to frequent challenges from environmental microflora. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) makes a major contribution to urinary tract infection (UTI). Previous studies have characterized positive roles of non-histone nuclear protein HMGN2 in lung epithelial innate immune response. In the study presented here, we found HMGN2 expression was up-regulated in UPEC J96-infected urothelium. Surprisingly, over-expression of HMGN2 promoted disruption of BECs 5637 cells' intercellular junctions by down-regulating tight junction (TJs) components' expression and physical structure under J96 infection...
March 17, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Xiqi Li, Cesar A Arias, Samuel L Aitken, Jessica Galloway Peña, Diana Panesso, Michael Chang, Lorena Diaz, Rafael Rios, Yazan Numan, Sammi Ghaoui, Sruti DebRoy, Micah M Bhatti, Dawn E Simmons, Isaam Raad, Ray Hachem, Stephanie A Folan, Pranoti Sahasarabhojane, Awdhesh Kalia, Samuel A Shelburne
Background: Pathobionts, bacteria that are typically human commensals but can cause disease, contribute significantly to antimicrobial resistance. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a prototypical pathobiont as it is a ubiquitous human commensal but also a leading cause of healthcare-associated bacteremia. We sought to determine the etiology of a recent increase in invasive S. epidermidis isolates resistant to linezolid. Methods: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on 176 S...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Shoichiro Taniuchi, Kazuhiko Soejima, Yasuko Hatano, Masaya Takahashi, Hirotaka Minami
The incidence of atopic diseases, including atopic dermatitis (AD), food allergies, allergic rhinitis, and asthma, has increased in recent decades, and currently affects approximately 20% of the population. Atopic march is the development of AD in infancy and subsequent food allergies, allergic rhinitis, and asthma in later childhood. Patients with infantile eczema may develop typical symptoms of AD, allergic rhinitis, and asthma at certain ages. Some patients' symptoms persist for several years, whereas others may have resolution with aging...
2018: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
Nicole Y Lee, Omer Ibrahim, Shilpi Khetarpal, Mariya Gaber, Spiros Jamas, Ioannis Gryllos, Jeffrey S Dover
Keratosis pilaris (KP) is a common skin finding that presents as follicular hyperkeratotic papules on the proximal extremities in patients with a propensity for atopy. Although often asymptomatic, the stippled appearance is cosmetically disturbing to patients and difficult to treat as current therapies are limited in availability and efficacy. Nitric oxide (NO) has been found to be essential in basic systemic and cutaneous physiologic function, specifically in terms of its anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties, which evolutionarily was maintained by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Rebekah C Kennedy, Russell R Fling, Michael S Robeson, Arnold M Saxton, Liesel G Schneider, John L Darcy, David A Bemis, Ling Zhao, Jiangang Chen
Widely used as an antimicrobial in antibacterial bar soaps, triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC) is effective against Gram-positive bacteria but shows little efficacy against Gram-negative strains, potentially altering the composition of indigenous microflora within and on the human body. To date, the consequence of continuous or previous nonprescription antimicrobial exposure from compounds in personal care products on commensal microflora is still elusive. Previous research has shown that TCC exposure during gestation and lactation induced dysbiosis of gut microbial communities among exposed dams and neonates...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xiao Hui Xu, Yinghui Guo, Hongwei Sun, Fan Li, Shuke Yang, Rui Gao, Xingbo Lu
Transgenic maize hybrids that express the Aspergillus niger phyA2 gene could significantly improve phosphorus bioavailability to poultry and livestock. However, little information has been reported about the effects of phytase transgenic maize on the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée). This study provides valuable information about the physiological, biochemical and gut microflora functional diversity changes of ACBs fed phytase transgenic maize. The weights, survival rates, in vivo protein contents, activities of two detoxification enzymes and three antioxidant enzymes of ACBs fed phytase transgenic maize exhibited no significant differences to those fed non-transgenic maize...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
A Almståhl, C Finizia, A Carlén, B Fagerberg-Mohlin, T Alstad
OBJECTIVE: To analyse mucosal and major salivary secretion rates, caries and plaque microflora in connection with treatment for cancer in the head and neck region. METHODS: Thirty-three patients were included and the number of teeth, filled surfaces and caries lesions registered. The labial and buccal gland secretion and stimulated whole salivary secretion rates were determined. Supragingival plaque microflora was analysed using cultivation technique. Data were collected pretreatment, during treatment and 6 months, 1 year and 2 years post-treatment...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
Maria Aponte, Francesca Ungaro, Ivana d'Angelo, Carmen De Caro, Roberto Russo, Giuseppe Blaiotta, Fabrizio Dal Piaz, Antonio Calignano, Agnese Miro
This study reports novel food-grade granules for co-delivery of L. plantarum 299v and a standardized extract of Olea europaea leaves (Phenolea®) as oral carrier of probiotics and hydroxytyrosol. Different granule formulations containing either L. plantarum 299v (Lac), or the olive leave extract (Phe) or their combination (Lac-Phe) have been successfully produced through wet granulation employing excipients generally regarded as safe as granulating/binding agents. L. plantarum cells withstood the manufacturing process and were stable upon storage at 4°C for more than 6 months...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Haiying Cai, Ting Zhang, Qi Zhang, Jie Luo, Chenggang Cai, Jianwei Mao
Chinese sweet rice wine (CSRW) is a popular alcoholic drink in China. To investigate the effect of the microbial composition in CSRW starters on the final quality of the alcoholic drink, high-throughput sequencing on the fungal internal transcribed spacer II and bacterial 16S rRNA gene of the microflora in 8 starter samples was performed. The sequencing data analysis showed that 10 genera of yeasts and mold, and 11 genera of bacteria were identified. Fungal diversity analyses showed the significant variances in the fungal compositions among the starter samples...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Marta Kierzkowska, Piotr Pędzisz, Ireneusz Babiak, Jakub Janowicz, Mateusz Kulig, Anna Majewska, Anna Sawicka-Grzelak, Grażyna Młynarczyk
Most Clostridium species are part of saprophytic microflora in humans and animals; however, some are well-known human pathogens. We presented the challenges in identifying the Clostridium species isolated from a patient with an infected open dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fourth digit of the right hand. The clinical materials were intraoperative samples collected from a patient diagnosed with an injury-related infection, with soft tissue loss and tendon sheath involvement. The available biochemical, molecular, and genetic techniques were used in identifying the isolated bacteria...
March 9, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Abimbola Allison, Edward Daniels, Shahid Chowdhury, Aliyar Fouladkhah
With recent improvements in the commercial feasibility of high pressure pasteurization units, the technology is gaining rapid acceptability across various sectors of food manufacturing, thus requiring extensive validation studies for effective adoption. Various times (1 min to 10 min) and intensity levels (0 MPa to 380 MPa) of elevated hydrostatic pressure were investigated for decontamination of mesophilic background microflora and inoculated Salmonella in orange juice. Results were analyzed by GLM procedure of SAS using Tukey- and Dunnett-adjusted ANOVA, additionally the Kmax and D-values were calculated using best-fitted (maximum R²) model obtained by GInaFit software...
March 9, 2018: Microorganisms
Snežana Maletić, Stela Murenji, Jasmina Agbaba, Srđan Rončević, Marijana Kragulj Isakovski, Jelena Molnar Jazić, Božo Dalmacija
Due to the anaerobic nature of aquatic sediments, the anaerobic treatment of sediments utilizing already present microflora represents an interesting treatment option. Contaminated sediment can contain a variety of organic contaminants, with easily degradable organics usually present in the higher amounts, along with traces of specific organic pollutants (total petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). This study applies a comprehensive approach to contaminated sediment treatment which covers all the organic contaminants present in the sediment...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Muthu Dharmasena, Xiuping Jiang
This study was to optimize the detection methods for Clostridium difficile from the animal manure-based composts. Both autoclaved and unautoclaved dairy composts were inoculated with a 12-h old suspension of a non-toxigenic C. difficile strain (ATCC 43593) and then plated on selected agar for vegetative cells and endospores. Six types of enrichment broths supplemented with taurocholate and L-cysteine were assessed for detecting a low level of artificially inoculated C. difficile (ca. 5 spores/g) from dairy composts...
March 5, 2018: Anaerobe
Chao Wang, Zhongyang Yu, Xiaochen Shi, Xudong Tang, Yang Wang, Xueyan Wang, Yanan An, Shulin Li, Yan Li, Xuefei Wang, Wenjing Luan, Zhaobin Chen, Mingyuan Liu, Lu Yu
Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, whose well-known antibacterial mechanism is inhibiting lipid synthesis. Autophagy, an innate immune response, is an intracellular process that delivers the cargo including pathogens to lysosomes for degradation. In this study, we first demonstrated that TCS induced autophagy in a dose-dependent manner in non-phagocytic cells (HeLa) and in macrophages (Raw264.7) and in vivo . The western blot results also revealed that TCS induced autophagy via the AMPK/ULK1 and JNK/ERK/p38 pathways independent of mTOR...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Hengchang Sun, Zhipeng Lin, Lu Zhao, Tingjin Chen, Mei Shang, Hongye Jiang, Zeli Tang, Xinyi Zhou, Mengchen Shi, Lina Zhou, Pengli Ren, Honglin Qu, Jinsi Lin, Xuerong Li, Jin Xu, Yan Huang, Xinbing Yu
BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis caused by Clonorchis sinensis has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. Effective prevention strategies are urgently needed to control this food-borne infectious disease. Previous studies indicated that paramyosin of C. sinensis (CsPmy) is a potential vaccine candidate. METHODS: We constructed a recombinant plasmid of PEB03-CotC-CsPmy, transformed it into Bacillus subtilis WB600 strain (B.s-CotC-CsPmy), and confirmed CsPmy expression on the spore surface by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and immunofluorescence assay...
March 7, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
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