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Jason T Blackard, Gang Ma, Jeffrey A Welge, Lynn E Taylor, Kenneth H Mayer, Robert S Klein, David D Celentano, Jack D Sobel, Denise J Jamieson, Caroline C King
A beneficial impact of the Human Pegivirus (HPgV) - formerly called GB virus C (GBV-C) - on HIV disease progression has been reported previously. One possible mechanism by which HPgV inhibits HIV replication is an alteration of the cytokine/chemokine milieu. Their expression has not been specifically evaluated in women despite their influence on disease progression and the possibility of gender-based differences in expression. Moreover, the impact of HPgV genotype on cytokine/chemokine expression is unknown...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
Matthew Frankel, Kenn Forberg, Kelly E Coller, Michael G Berg, John Hackett, Gavin Cloherty, George J Dawson
Human Pegivirus 2 (HPgV-2) was recently identified in the bloodstream of HCV-infected and multiply transfused individuals. Initial reports show HPgV-2 circulates at a low prevalence in HCV co-infected individuals, necessitating testing of large cohorts of samples to identify infected persons. The identification of additional HPgV-2 cases was facilitated by the development of a high throughput and reliable molecular reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay intended for use on the automated Abbott m2000 system with a capability of extracting and testing 96 samples at once...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Carolyne N Ngoi, Juliana Siqueira, Linlin Li, Xutao Deng, Peter Mugo, Susan M Graham, Matt A Price, Eduard J Sanders, Eric Delwart
Viral nucleic acids present in the plasma of 498 Kenyan adults with unexplained fever were characterized by metagenomics analysis of 51 sample pools. The highest to lowest fraction of plasma pools was positive for parvovirus B19 (75 %), pegivirus C (GBV-C) (67 %), alpha anellovirus (59 %), gamma anellovirus (55 %), beta anellovirus (41 %), dengue virus genotype 2 (DENV-2) (16 %), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (6 %), human herpesvirus 6 (6 %), HBV (4 %), rotavirus (4 %), hepatitis B virus (4 %), rhinovirus C (2 %), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV; 2 %) and Kadipiro virus (2 %)...
December 2016: Journal of General Virology
Ene-Ly Jõgeda, Kristi Huik, Merit Pauskar, Eveli Kallas, Tõnis Karki, Don Des Jarlais, Anneli Uusküla, Irja Lutsar, Radko Avi
We aimed to determine the rate of GBV-C viremia, seropositivity, and genotypes among people who inject drugs (PWID) and healthy volunteers in Estonia and to evaluate associations between GBV-C and sociodemographic factors, intravenous drug use, co-infections. The study included 345 Caucasian PWID and 118 healthy volunteers. The presence of GBV-C RNA (viremia) was determined by reverse transcriptase-nested PCR in 5' long terminal repeat. PCR products were sequenced and genotyped by phylogenetic analysis. GBV-C seropositivity was determined by ELISA...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Muhammad Sheraz, Mazhar Kanak, Mahmudul Hasan, Roshan Bhattarai, Kuhanandha Mahalingam, Leanna A Sealey, Rashshana R Blackwood, Zhabiz Golkar, Ewen McLean, Omar Bagasra
INTRODUCTION: Coinfection with certain members of the Flaviviridae, such as Dengue Virus (DV), West Nile Virus (WNV) Yellow Fever Virus (YFV) and most importantly, GBV-C have been documented to reduce HIV-1 viral load in vivo. Numerous studies strongly support the notion that persistent coinfection with non-pathogenic virus prolongs survival in HIV-1 infected individuals. Coinfected individuals show higher CD4+ cell counts, lower HIV-1 RNA viral loads and live three times longer than clinically matched HIV-1 monoinfected patients...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Haoming Wu, Abinash Padhi, Junqiang Xu, Xiaoyan Gong, Po Tien
The non-pathogenic Human Pegivirus (HPgV, formerly GBV-C/HGV), the most prevalent RNA virus worldwide, is known to be associated with reduced morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals. Although previous studies documented its ubiquity and important role in HIV-infected individuals, little is known about the underlying genetic mechanisms that maintain high genetic diversity of HPgV within the HIV-infected individuals. To assess the within-host genetic diversity of HPgV and forces that maintain such diversity within the co-infected hosts, we performed phylogenetic analyses taking into account 229 HPgV partial E1-E2 clonal sequences representing 15 male and 8 female co-infected HIV patients from Hubei province of central China...
2016: PloS One
Afiono Agung Prasetyo, Ruben Dharmawan, Irvan Raharjo, Hudiyono
CONTEXT: Data regarding the distribution of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-E alleles and their association with blood-borne pathogen infections/co-infections are limited for many populations, including Indonesia. AIMS: The aim of this study was to analyze the association between HLA-E allelic variants and infection with blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV), torque teno virus (TTV), GB virus C (GBV-C), and Toxoplasma gondii (T...
April 2016: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
Kelly E Coller, Michael G Berg, Matthew Frankel, Kenn Forberg, Rita Surani, Charles Y Chiu, John Hackett, George J Dawson
A novel blood-borne human pegivirus (HPgV), HPgV-2, was recently identified in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals and individuals who had received multiple transfusions. Robust serological assays capable of detecting antibodies in HPgV-2-infected individuals are needed to establish global seroprevalence rates and potential disease associations. The two objectives of this study were to determine the utility of mammalian cell-expressed HPgV-2 E2 glycoprotein or bacterium-expressed nonstructural protein 4AB (NS4AB) in detecting past or present infections and to compare the total prevalence (antibody and RNA positive) of HPgV-2 with that of the other human pegivirus, HPgV-1 (GB virus C [GBV-C])...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Jason T Blackard, Gang Ma, Clarissa Polen, Juwen C DuBois, Jonathon Gast, Caleb M Radens, Richard K Sterling, Kenneth E Sherman
GB virus C (GBV-C) is a non-pathogenic flavivirus that may play a role in modulating HIV disease. Multiple genotypes of GBV-C that have been identified to date that may differentially regulate HIV; however, the number of complete GBV-C sequences published to date is very limited. We sequenced full-length GBV-C genomes from four individuals with HIV/HCV co-infection in the United States. Intergenotypic recombination was evident in two of these individuals. Evaluation of additional full-length GBV-C genomes would facilitate the creation of full-length, replication-competent molecular clones of GBV-C to evaluate the phenotypic diversity of GBV-C genotypes and provide important molecular data on this understudied virus...
July 2016: Journal of General Virology
M J Gómara, V Sánchez-Merino, A Paús, A Merino-Mansilla, J M Gatell, E Yuste, I Haro
BACKGROUND: A slower progression of AIDS and increased survival in GBV-C positive individuals, compared with GBV-C negative individuals has been demonstrated; while the loss of GBV-C viremia was closely associated with a rise in mortality and increased progression of AIDS. Following on from the previous reported studies that support the thesis that GBV-C E2 interferes with HIV-1 entry, in this work we try to determine the role of the GBV-C E1 protein in HIV-1 inhibition. METHODS: The present work involves the construction of several overlapping peptide libraries scanning the GBV-C E1 protein and the evaluation of their anti-HIV activity...
June 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Chenliang Wang, Christine L Timmons, Qiujia Shao, Ballington L Kinlock, Tiffany M Turner, Aikichi Iwamoto, Hui Zhang, Huanliang Liu, Bindong Liu
GB virus type C (GBV-C) glycoprotein E2 protein disrupts HIV-1 assembly and release by inhibiting Gag plasma membrane targeting, however the mechanism by which the GBV-C E2 inhibits Gag trafficking remains unclear. In the present study, we identified ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) contributed to the inhibitory effect of GBV-C E2 on HIV-1 Gag membrane targeting. Expression of GBV-C E2 decreased ARF1 expression in a proteasomal degradation-dependent manner. The restoration of ARF1 expression rescued the HIV-1 Gag processing and membrane targeting defect imposed by GBV-C E2...
December 22, 2015: Oncotarget
Michael G Berg, Deanna Lee, Kelly Coller, Matthew Frankel, Andrew Aronsohn, Kevin Cheng, Kenn Forberg, Marilee Marcinkus, Samia N Naccache, George Dawson, Catherine Brennan, Donald M Jensen, John Hackett, Charles Y Chiu
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human pegivirus (HPgV), formerly GBV-C, are the only known human viruses in the Hepacivirus and Pegivirus genera, respectively, of the family Flaviviridae. We present the discovery of a second pegivirus, provisionally designated human pegivirus 2 (HPgV-2), by next-generation sequencing of plasma from an HCV-infected patient with multiple bloodborne exposures who died from sepsis of unknown etiology. HPgV-2 is highly divergent, situated on a deep phylogenetic branch in a clade that includes rodent and bat pegiviruses, with which it shares <32% amino acid identity...
December 2015: PLoS Pathogens
Ka-Cheung Luk, Michael G Berg, Samia N Naccache, Beniwende Kabre, Scot Federman, Dora Mbanya, Lazare Kaptué, Charles Y Chiu, Catherine A Brennan, John Hackett
Given the dynamic changes in HIV-1 complexity and diversity, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the potential to revolutionize strategies for effective HIV global surveillance. In this study, we explore the utility of metagenomic NGS to characterize divergent strains of HIV-1 and to simultaneously screen for other co-infecting viruses. Thirty-five HIV-1-infected Cameroonian blood donor specimens with viral loads of >4.4 log10 copies/ml were selected to include a diverse representation of group M strains...
2015: PloS One
Linlin Li, Xutao Deng, Antonio Charlys Da Costa, Roberta Bruhn, Steven G Deeks, Eric Delwart
BACKGROUND: Abnormally high levels of T-cell activation can persist in HIV-infected subjects despite effective anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and has been associated with negative health outcomes. The nature of the antigenic drivers or other causes of this residual T-cell activation remain uncertain. Anelloviruses are universally acquired soon after birth, resulting in persistent viremia, and considered part of the commensal human virome. Reduced immunocompetence results in increased anellovirus levels...
November 2015: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Vivian Iida Avelino-Silva, Karina Takesaki Miyaji, Augusto Mathias, Dayane Alves Costa, Juliana Zanatta de Carvalho Dias, Sheila Barbosa Lima, Marisol Simoes, Marcos S Freire, Helio H Caiaffa-Filho, Marisa A Hong, Marta H Lopes, Ana M Sartori, Esper G Kallas
BACKGROUND: Yellow fever vaccine (YFV) induces weaker immune responses in HIV-infected individuals. However, little is known about YFV responses among antiretroviral-treated patients and potential immunological predictors of YFV response in this population. METHODS: We enrolled 34 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated HIV-infected and 58 HIV-uninfected adults who received a single YFV dose to evaluate antibody levels and predictors of immunity, focusing on CD4(+) T-cell count, CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio, and Human Pegivirus (GBV-C) viremia...
February 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Alex Junior Souza de Souza, Andreza Pinheiro Malheiros, Erika Rocha Paraense de Sousa, Alba Cristina Negrão Moreira, Andrea Lima Silva, André Antônio Corrêa das Chagas, Pedro Eduardo Bonfim Freitas, Bernard Salame Gemaque, Heriberto Ferreira de Figueiredo, Lilian Rose Marques de Sá, Paloma Daguer Ewerton dos Santos, Manoel do Carmo Pereira Soares
The human Pegivirus (HPgV, also known as GBV-C virus or hepatitis G virus) is a lymphotropic RNA-virus phylogenetically related to the Hepatitis C virus, which infects approximately 5% of the world's human population. Recently, two novel, presumably hepatotropic, pegiviruses, designated as equine Pegivirus (EPgV) and Theiler's Disease Associated Virus (TDAV), were discovered in horses with clinical and laboratory evidence of hepatic disease. To verify the occurrence of pegiviruses infection in horses from Pará State, northern Brazil, serum samples from 114 horses located in four cities (Acará, Belém, Dom Eliseu and Ananindeua) were submitted for the molecular analysis of EPgV by nested RT-PCR...
December 2015: Acta Tropica
Afiono Agung Prasetyo, Ratna Sariyatun, Reviono, Yulia Sari, Hudiyono, Sri Haryati, Zainal Arifin Adnan, Hartono, Seiji Kageyama
BACKGROUND: Data regarding the influence of the APOBEC3B deletion on infectious diseases remain limited and shown discrepancies. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the APOBEC3B deletion polymorphism status and its association with prevalence of co-infection with blood-borne pathogens in Indonesian HIV-infected individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 597 HIV-positive blood samples were tested for the hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), Torque Teno virus (TTV), GB virus-C (GBV-C), and Toxoplasma gondii...
September 2015: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Ernest T Chivero, Nirjal Bhattarai, James H McLinden, Jinhua Xiang, Jack T Stapleton
Human Pegivirus (HPgV, formally GB virus C) infects lymphocytes and NK cells in vivo, and infection is associated with reduced T cell and NK cell activation in HIV-infected individuals. The mechanism by which HPgV inhibits NK cell activation has not been assessed. Following IL-12 stimulation, IFNγ expression was lower in HIV-HPgV co-infected subjects compared to HIV mono-infected subjects (p=0.02). In addition, HPgV positive human sera, extracellular vesicles containing E2 protein, recombinant E2 protein and synthetic E2 peptides containing a predicted Tyk2 interacting motif inhibited NK cell IL-12-mediated IFNγ release...
November 2015: Virology
J Miñones, M Muñoz, J Miñones Trillo, I Haro, M A Busquets, M A Alsina
Mixed monolayers of E2(279-298), a synthetic peptide belonging to the structural protein E2 of the GB virus C (GBV-C), formerly know as hepatitis G virus (HGV), and the phospholipids dipalmitoylphosphatidyl choline (DPPC) and dimiristoylphosphatidyl choline (DMPC),which differ in acyl chains length, were obtained at the A/W interface (monolayers of extension) in order to provide new insights on E2/phospholipids interaction. Analysis of the surface pressure-area isotherms, Brewster angle microscopy images, relative thickness, and mean areas per molecule has allowed us to establish the conditions under which the mixed components of the monolayer are miscible or immiscible and know how the level of the E2/phospholipid interaction varies with the composition of the mixed films, the surface pressure, and the hydrocarbon chains length of the phospholipids...
September 22, 2015: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Z Liu, Y Zhang, F Wei, M Xu, D Mou, T Zhang, W Li, D Chen, H Wu
Hepatitis G virus or GB virus C (GBV-C) is a human virus of the Flaviviridae family that is structurally and epidemiologically closest to hepatitis C virus, but replicates primarily in lymphocytes. Co-infection with GBV-C has been reported to confer beneficial outcomes in some HIV-positive patients. Up to now, however, studies on GBV-C infection in the central nervous system (CNS) of HIV-infected patient have rarely been reported. Herein, we report on a 32-year-old HIV-1-infected patient with cerebral toxoplasmosis and fungal encephalitis...
January 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
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