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J D Kriesel, P J Bhetariya, B K Chan, T Wilson, K F Fischer
Background: Our group has used deep sequencing to identify viral RNA signatures in human brain specimens. We have previously used this method to detect HSV1, GBV-C, and measles virus sequence in brain tissue from deceased donors. Deep sequencing was performed on brain specimens from a cohort of patients who died with progressive forms of MS, revealing evidence of increased expression of some human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) domains. Objectives: Identify RNA sequences and new antigens involved in the pathogenesis of MS...
August 2017: Journal of Emerging Diseases and Virology
Delphine C Malherbe, Jason Mendy, Lo Vang, Philip T Barnette, Jason Reed, Samir K Lakhashe, Joshua Owuor, Johannes S Gach, Alfred W Legasse, Michael K Axthelm, Celia C LaBranche, David Montefiori, Donald N Forthal, Byung Park, James M Wilson, James H McLinden, Jinhua Xiang, Jack T Stapleton, Jonah B Sacha, Barton F Haynes, Hua-Xin Liao, Ruth M Ruprecht, Jonathan Smith, Marc Gurwith, Nancy L Haigwood, Jeff Alexander
HIV vaccine development is focused on designing immunogens and delivery methods that elicit protective immunity. We evaluated a combination of adenovirus (Ad) vectors expressing HIV 1086.C (clade C) envelope glycoprotein (Env), SIV Gag p55, and human pegivirus GBV-C E2 glycoprotein. We compared replicating simian (SAd7) with nonreplicating human (Ad4) adenovirus-vectored vaccines paired with recombinant proteins in a novel prime-boost regimen in rhesus macaques, with the goal of eliciting protective immunity against SHIV challenge...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Virology
Tung Gia Phan, Juana Del Valle Mendoza, Mohammadreza Sadeghi, Eda Altan, Xutao Deng, Eric Delwart
Serum samples collected from 88 Peruvians with unexplained fever were analyzed for viral sequences using metagenomics. Nucleic acids of anelloviruses, pegivirus A (GBV-C), HIV, Dengue virus, and Oropouche virus were detected. We also characterized from two sera the RNA genomes of new species of partitivirus and dicistrovirus belonging to viral families known to infect fungi or arthropod, respectively. Genomic DNA of a putative fungal cellular host could be PCR amplified from the partitivirus-containing serum sample...
February 2018: Virus Genes
James H McLinden, Nirjal Bhattarai, Jack T Stapleton, Qing Chang, Thomas M Kaufman, Suzanne L Cassel, Fayyaz S Sutterwala, Hillel Haim, Jon C Houtman, Jinhua Xiang
The Flavivirus genus within the Flaviviridae family is comprised of many important human pathogens including yellow fever virus (YFV), dengue virus (DENV), and Zika virus (ZKV), all of which are global public health concerns. Although the related flaviviruses hepatitis C virus and human pegivirus (formerly named GBV-C) interfere with T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling by novel RNA and protein-based mechanisms, the effect of other flaviviruses on TCR signaling is unknown. Here, we studied the effect of YFV, DENV, and ZKV on TCR signaling...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Bárbara Katharine Barbosa de Miranda, Keyla Santos Guedes de Sá, Andrea Nazaré Rangel da Silva, Rosimar Neris Martins Feitosa, Izaura Maria Vieira Cayres-Vallinoto, Ricardo Ishak, Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto
GB virus C (GBV-C) is a lymphotropic virus with a low level or non-existent replication in the liver. The interaction between HIV-1 and GBV-C apparently reduces the progression of HIV-1 infection to AIDS and improves the quality of life of HIV-1 infected individuals. A cross-sectional study was established to determine the possible effect of HIV-1/GBV-C coinfection on HIV-1 viral load and CD4(+) T lymphocyte counts. Samples from 313 HIV-1 infected persons from the Virus Laboratory of the Federal University of Pará as well as demographic and clinical information were obtained from medical records...
November 2017: Archives of Virology
Yolanda Pérez, Maria José Gómara, Eloísa Yuste, Patricia Gómez-Gutierrez, Juan Jesús Pérez, Isabel Haro
Previous studies support the hypothesis that the envelope GB virus C (GBV-C) E1 protein interferes the HIV-1 entry and that a peptide, derived from the region 139-156 of this protein, has been defined as a novel HIV-1 entry inhibitor. In this work, we firstly focus on the characterization of the structural features of this peptide, which are determinant for its anti-HIV-1 activity and secondly, on the study of its interaction with the proposed viral target (i.e., the HIV-1 fusion peptide). We report the structure of the peptide determined by NMR spectroscopy in dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles solved by using restrained molecular dynamics calculations...
August 25, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Muhammad Shoaib Arif, James Hunter, Ana Rachel Léda, Jean Paulo Lopes Zukurov, Sadia Samer, Michelle Camargo, Juliana Galinskas, Esper Georges Kallás, Shirley Vasconcelos Komninakis, Luiz Mario Janini, Maria Cecilia Sucupira, Ricardo Sobhie Diaz
HIV-1 entry into target cells influences several aspects of HIV-1 pathogenesis, including viral tropism, HIV-1 transmission and disease progression, and response to entry inhibitors. The evolution from CCR5- to CXCR4-using strains in a given human host is still unpredictable. Here we analyzed timing and predictors for coreceptor evolution among recently HIV-1-infected individuals. Proviral DNA was longitudinally evaluated in 66 individuals using Geno2pheno[coreceptor] Demographics, viral load, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts, CCR5Δ32 polymorphisms, GB virus C (GBV-C) coinfection, and HLA profiles were also evaluated...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
Jason T Blackard, Gang Ma, Jeffrey A Welge, Lynn E Taylor, Kenneth H Mayer, Robert S Klein, David D Celentano, Jack D Sobel, Denise J Jamieson, Caroline C King
A beneficial impact of the Human Pegivirus (HPgV)-formerly called GB virus C (GBV-C)-on HIV disease progression has been reported previously. One possible mechanism by which HPgV inhibits HIV replication is an alteration of the cytokine/chemokine milieu. Their expression has not been specifically evaluated in women despite their influence on disease progression and the possibility of gender-based differences in expression. Moreover, the impact of HPgV genotype on cytokine/chemokine expression is unknown. Sera levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IFNγ, TNFα, IP-10, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and TGF-β1 were quantified in 150 HIV-positive women based on HPgV RNA status...
November 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
Matthew Frankel, Kenn Forberg, Kelly E Coller, Michael G Berg, John Hackett, Gavin Cloherty, George J Dawson
Human Pegivirus 2 (HPgV-2) was recently identified in the bloodstream of HCV-infected and multiply transfused individuals. Initial reports show HPgV-2 circulates at a low prevalence in HCV co-infected individuals, necessitating testing of large cohorts of samples to identify infected persons. The identification of additional HPgV-2 cases was facilitated by the development of a high throughput and reliable molecular reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay intended for use on the automated Abbott m2000 system with a capability of extracting and testing 96 samples at once...
March 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
Carolyne N Ngoi, Juliana Siqueira, Linlin Li, Xutao Deng, Peter Mugo, Susan M Graham, Matt A Price, Eduard J Sanders, Eric Delwart
Viral nucleic acids present in the plasma of 498 Kenyan adults with unexplained fever were characterized by metagenomics analysis of 51 sample pools. The highest to lowest fraction of plasma pools was positive for parvovirus B19 (75 %), pegivirus C (GBV-C) (67 %), alpha anellovirus (59 %), gamma anellovirus (55 %), beta anellovirus (41 %), dengue virus genotype 2 (DENV-2) (16 %), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (6 %), human herpesvirus 6 (6 %), HBV (4 %), rotavirus (4 %), hepatitis B virus (4 %), rhinovirus C (2 %), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV; 2 %) and Kadipiro virus (2 %)...
December 2016: Journal of General Virology
Ene-Ly Jõgeda, Kristi Huik, Merit Pauskar, Eveli Kallas, Tõnis Karki, Don Des Jarlais, Anneli Uusküla, Irja Lutsar, Radko Avi
We aimed to determine the rate of GBV-C viremia, seropositivity, and genotypes among people who inject drugs (PWID) and healthy volunteers in Estonia and to evaluate associations between GBV-C and sociodemographic factors, intravenous drug use, co-infections. The study included 345 Caucasian PWID and 118 healthy volunteers. The presence of GBV-C RNA (viremia) was determined by reverse transcriptase-nested PCR in 5' long terminal repeat. PCR products were sequenced and genotyped by phylogenetic analysis. GBV-C seropositivity was determined by ELISA...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
Muhammad Sheraz, Mazhar Kanak, Mahmudul Hasan, Roshan Bhattarai, Kuhanandha Mahalingam, Leanna A Sealey, Rashshana R Blackwood, Zhabiz Golkar, Ewen McLean, Omar Bagasra
INTRODUCTION: Coinfection with certain members of the Flaviviridae, such as Dengue Virus (DV), West Nile Virus (WNV) Yellow Fever Virus (YFV) and most importantly, GBV-C have been documented to reduce HIV-1 viral load in vivo. Numerous studies strongly support the notion that persistent coinfection with non-pathogenic virus prolongs survival in HIV-1 infected individuals. Coinfected individuals show higher CD4+ cell counts, lower HIV-1 RNA viral loads and live three times longer than clinically matched HIV-1 monoinfected patients...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Haoming Wu, Abinash Padhi, Junqiang Xu, Xiaoyan Gong, Po Tien
The non-pathogenic Human Pegivirus (HPgV, formerly GBV-C/HGV), the most prevalent RNA virus worldwide, is known to be associated with reduced morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals. Although previous studies documented its ubiquity and important role in HIV-infected individuals, little is known about the underlying genetic mechanisms that maintain high genetic diversity of HPgV within the HIV-infected individuals. To assess the within-host genetic diversity of HPgV and forces that maintain such diversity within the co-infected hosts, we performed phylogenetic analyses taking into account 229 HPgV partial E1-E2 clonal sequences representing 15 male and 8 female co-infected HIV patients from Hubei province of central China...
2016: PloS One
Afiono Agung Prasetyo, Ruben Dharmawan, Irvan Raharjo, Hudiyono
CONTEXT: Data regarding the distribution of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-E alleles and their association with blood-borne pathogen infections/co-infections are limited for many populations, including Indonesia. AIMS: The aim of this study was to analyze the association between HLA-E allelic variants and infection with blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV), torque teno virus (TTV), GB virus C (GBV-C), and Toxoplasma gondii (T...
April 2016: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
Kelly E Coller, Michael G Berg, Matthew Frankel, Kenn Forberg, Rita Surani, Charles Y Chiu, John Hackett, George J Dawson
A novel blood-borne human pegivirus (HPgV), HPgV-2, was recently identified in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals and individuals who had received multiple transfusions. Robust serological assays capable of detecting antibodies in HPgV-2-infected individuals are needed to establish global seroprevalence rates and potential disease associations. The two objectives of this study were to determine the utility of mammalian cell-expressed HPgV-2 E2 glycoprotein or bacterium-expressed nonstructural protein 4AB (NS4AB) in detecting past or present infections and to compare the total prevalence (antibody and RNA positive) of HPgV-2 with that of the other human pegivirus, HPgV-1 (GB virus C [GBV-C])...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Jason T Blackard, Gang Ma, Clarissa Polen, Juwen C DuBois, Jonathon Gast, Caleb M Radens, Richard K Sterling, Kenneth E Sherman
GB virus C (GBV-C) is a non-pathogenic flavivirus that may play a role in modulating HIV disease. Multiple genotypes of GBV-C that have been identified to date that may differentially regulate HIV; however, the number of complete GBV-C sequences published to date is very limited. We sequenced full-length GBV-C genomes from four individuals with HIV/HCV co-infection in the United States. Intergenotypic recombination was evident in two of these individuals. Evaluation of additional full-length GBV-C genomes would facilitate the creation of full-length, replication-competent molecular clones of GBV-C to evaluate the phenotypic diversity of GBV-C genotypes and provide important molecular data on this understudied virus...
July 2016: Journal of General Virology
M J Gómara, V Sánchez-Merino, A Paús, A Merino-Mansilla, J M Gatell, E Yuste, I Haro
BACKGROUND: A slower progression of AIDS and increased survival in GBV-C positive individuals, compared with GBV-C negative individuals has been demonstrated; while the loss of GBV-C viremia was closely associated with a rise in mortality and increased progression of AIDS. Following on from the previous reported studies that support the thesis that GBV-C E2 interferes with HIV-1 entry, in this work we try to determine the role of the GBV-C E1 protein in HIV-1 inhibition. METHODS: The present work involves the construction of several overlapping peptide libraries scanning the GBV-C E1 protein and the evaluation of their anti-HIV activity...
June 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Chenliang Wang, Christine L Timmons, Qiujia Shao, Ballington L Kinlock, Tiffany M Turner, Aikichi Iwamoto, Hui Zhang, Huanliang Liu, Bindong Liu
GB virus type C (GBV-C) glycoprotein E2 protein disrupts HIV-1 assembly and release by inhibiting Gag plasma membrane targeting, however the mechanism by which the GBV-C E2 inhibits Gag trafficking remains unclear. In the present study, we identified ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) contributed to the inhibitory effect of GBV-C E2 on HIV-1 Gag membrane targeting. Expression of GBV-C E2 decreased ARF1 expression in a proteasomal degradation-dependent manner. The restoration of ARF1 expression rescued the HIV-1 Gag processing and membrane targeting defect imposed by GBV-C E2...
December 22, 2015: Oncotarget
Michael G Berg, Deanna Lee, Kelly Coller, Matthew Frankel, Andrew Aronsohn, Kevin Cheng, Kenn Forberg, Marilee Marcinkus, Samia N Naccache, George Dawson, Catherine Brennan, Donald M Jensen, John Hackett, Charles Y Chiu
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human pegivirus (HPgV), formerly GBV-C, are the only known human viruses in the Hepacivirus and Pegivirus genera, respectively, of the family Flaviviridae. We present the discovery of a second pegivirus, provisionally designated human pegivirus 2 (HPgV-2), by next-generation sequencing of plasma from an HCV-infected patient with multiple bloodborne exposures who died from sepsis of unknown etiology. HPgV-2 is highly divergent, situated on a deep phylogenetic branch in a clade that includes rodent and bat pegiviruses, with which it shares <32% amino acid identity...
December 2015: PLoS Pathogens
Ka-Cheung Luk, Michael G Berg, Samia N Naccache, Beniwende Kabre, Scot Federman, Dora Mbanya, Lazare Kaptué, Charles Y Chiu, Catherine A Brennan, John Hackett
Given the dynamic changes in HIV-1 complexity and diversity, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the potential to revolutionize strategies for effective HIV global surveillance. In this study, we explore the utility of metagenomic NGS to characterize divergent strains of HIV-1 and to simultaneously screen for other co-infecting viruses. Thirty-five HIV-1-infected Cameroonian blood donor specimens with viral loads of >4.4 log10 copies/ml were selected to include a diverse representation of group M strains...
2015: PloS One
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