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Elite control

Kai Zhang, Jun Wei, Lin Wang
Purpose: To study the effect on HRV of archer athletes one day before competition after three different abdominal respiratory frequencies. Methods: Eight elite archers performed three different respiratory frequency tests, HRV were recorded in pre-, during, and post-frequency control in frequency 16 (F16 group, n = 8), 8 (F8 group, n = 8), and 5 (F5 group, n = 8) times per minute, and hoped to find a respiratory adjust way to reduce stress. RMSSD, RR_triangular index, TP, VLF, LF, HF and LF/HF were analyzed to describe the effect of respiratory frequency...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Xiujie Ma, Wei Sun, An Lu, Pei Ma, Chuanyin Jiang
The aim of this study was to investigate whether both suspension training (ST) and traditional training (TT) can improve Sanda athlete's strength quality of trunk muscles and to explore the effect of suspension training on Sanda athletes' trunk muscle power production. Twelve elite Sanda athletes from the Competitive Sports School of Shanghai University of Sport were randomly assigned to experimental group (EG) and control group (CG). EG and CG were regularly trained with suspension training and traditional strength training for 40 minutes three times per week...
December 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Ta-Cheng Hung, Yi-Hung Liao, Yung-Shen Tsai, Lisa Ferguson-Stegall, Chia-Hua Kuo, Chung-Yu Chen
Despite heat imposes considerable physiological stress to human body, hot water immersion remains as a popular relaxation modality for athletes. Here we examined the lingering effect of hot tub relaxation after training on performance-associated measures and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) in junior archers. Ten national level archers, aged 16.6 ± 0.3 years (M = 8, F = 2), participated in a randomized counter-balanced crossover study after baseline measurements. In particular, half participants were assigned to the hot water immersion (HOT) group, whereas another halves were assigned to the untreated control (CON) group...
March 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Heng Ye, Li Song, Huatao Chen, Babu Valliyodan, Liakat Ali, Tri Vuong, Chengjun Wu, John Orlowski, Blair Buckley, Pengyin Chen, J Grover Shannon, Henry T Nguyen
Natural genetic variations in waterlogging tolerance are controlled by multiple genes mapped as quantitative trait loci (QTL) in major crops, including soybean (Glycine max L.). In this research, two novel QTL associated with waterlogging tolerance were mapped from an elite/exotic soybean cross. The subsequent research was focused on a major QTL (qWT_Gm03) with the tolerant allele from the exotic parent. This QTL was isolated into near-isogenic backgrounds and its effects on waterlogging tolerance were validated in multiple environments...
March 8, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Ellen Moura Vale, Ricardo Souza Reis, Lucas Zanchetta Passamani, Claudete Santa-Catarina, Vanildo Silveira
Efficient protocols for somatic embryogenesis of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) have great potential for selecting elite hybrid genotypes. Addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG), a nonplasmolyzing osmotic agent, to a maturation medium increases the production of somatic embryos in C . papaya . To study the effects of PEG on somatic embryogenesis of C . papaya , we analyzed somatic embryo development and carbohydrate profile changes during maturation treatments with PEG (6%) or without PEG (control). PEG treatment (6%) increased the number of normal mature somatic embryos followed by somatic plantlet production...
March 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Jesús Rodríguez-Muñoz, Santiago Moreno
The disadvantages of the long-term administration of antiretroviral therapy as well as the huge number of affected persons have placed the cure of HIV as a primary goal of Public Health. HIV may persist in the organism by at least four mechanisms: a latently infected cellular reservoir, the persistent replication of HIV in spite of ART, anatomic sanctuaries, and the immune dysfunction. Several strategies directed against these mechanisms have been developed. With all this, a complete eradication of HIV has been achieved in a patient using the transplantation of haemopoietic stem cells that were resistant to HIV-infection, and there are examples of functional cure either spontaneously (elite controllers) or after antiretroviral therapy (post-treatment controllers)...
March 3, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Mark A Hearris, Kelly M Hammond, J Marc Fell, James P Morton
Since the introduction of the muscle biopsy technique in the late 1960s, our understanding of the regulation of muscle glycogen storage and metabolism has advanced considerably. Muscle glycogenolysis and rates of carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation are affected by factors such as exercise intensity, duration, training status and substrate availability. Such changes to the global exercise stimulus exert regulatory effects on key enzymes and transport proteins via both hormonal control and local allosteric regulation...
March 2, 2018: Nutrients
Ali Emami, Asghar Tofighi, Siamak Asri-Rezaei, Behnaz Bazargani-Gilani
Strenuous physical exercise and hyperthermia may paradoxically induce oxidative stress and adverse effects on myocardial function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 14-d coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation and pre-cooling on serum creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), cardiac Troponin I (cTnI), myoglobin (Mb), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and CoQ10 concentration in elite swimmers. In total, thirty-six healthy males (mean age 17 (sd 1) years) were randomly selected and divided into four groups of supplementation, supplementation with pre-cooling, pre-cooling and control...
February 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Megan M Chang, Danielle Allery Nail, Toni Kazic, Susan J Simmons, Ann E Stapleton
Crop improvement must accelerate to feed an increasing human population in the face of environmental changes. Including anticipated climatic changes with genetic architecture in breeding programs could better optimize improvement strategies. Combinations of drought and nitrogen limitation already occur world-wide. We therefore analyzed the genetic architecture underlying the response of Zea mays to combinations of water and nitrogen stresses. Recombinant inbreds were subjected to nine combinations of the two stresses using an optimized response surface design, and their growth was measured...
March 1, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Isabelle Poizot-Martin, Hélène Laroche, Carla E Cano, Corinne Nicolino-Brunet, Olivia Zaegel-Faucher, Sylvie Bregigeon, Catherine Tamalet, Françoise Dignat-George
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: AIDS
José M Benito, María C Ortiz, Agathe León, Luis A Sarabia, José M Ligos, María Montoya, Marcial Garcia, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Rosario Palacios, Alfonso Cabello, Clara Restrepo, Carmen Rodriguez, Jorge Del Romero, Manuel Leal, María A Muñoz-Fernández, José Alcamí, Felipe García, Miguel Górgolas, Norma Rallón
BACKGROUND: Despite long-lasting HIV replication control, a significant proportion of elite controller (EC) patients may experience CD4 T-cell loss. Discovering perturbations in immunological parameters could help our understanding of the mechanisms that may be operating in those patients experiencing loss of immunological control. METHODS: A case-control study was performed to evaluate if alterations in different T-cell homeostatic parameters can predict CD4 T-cell loss in ECs by comparing data from EC patients showing significant CD4 decline (cases) and EC patients showing stable CD4 counts (controls)...
February 28, 2018: BMC Medicine
Walter Hemelryck, Josselin Calistri, Virginie Papadopoulou, Sigrid Theunissen, Christian Dugardeyn, Costantino Balestra
Background: World Rugby Union laws are constantly evolving towards stringent injury-prevention, particularly for contested scrums, since front row players are most at risk of cervical spine injuries. Recently, some countries have also introduced tailored training programs and minimum performance requirements for playing in the front row. Nevertheless, these approaches lack an objective assessment of each cervical muscle that would provide protective support. Objective: Since front row players are the most at risk for cervical spine injuries due to the specific type of contact during scrums, the purpose of this study was to ascertain whether significant differences exist in neck muscle size and range of motion between front row players and players of other positions, across playing categories...
February 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Shannon O'Donnell, Steve Bird, Gregory Jacobson, Matthew Driller
Stress hormone and sleep differences in a competition versus training setting are yet to be evaluated in elite female team-sport athletes. The aim of the current study was to evaluate salivary cortisol and perceptual stress markers during competition and training and to determine the subsequent effects on sleep indices in elite female athletes. Ten elite female netball athletes (mean ± SD; age: 23 ± 6 years) had their sleep monitored on three occasions; following one netball competition match (MATCH), one netball match simulation session (TRAIN), and one rest day (CONTROL)...
February 26, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
T Álvarez-Yates, O García-García
The aim of this study was to determine de acute effect of an 8-weeks specific hamstring flexibility training on junior canoeist during the competition season. Sixteen canoeists participated, divided into 3 groups: 5 in Experimental Group 1 (EG1), 5 in Experimental Group 2 (EG2) and 6 in a Control Group (CG). The EG1 underwent a supervised program consisted by Simple Static Stretching, Dynamic Static Stretching and P.N.F. while the EG2 performed a program without P.N.F. and no supervision. Two measurements were performed to analyze the effect on the knee joint ROM and trunk flexion; neuromuscular and contractile properties in Biceps Femoris (BF) and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles; maximum power and average speed in lower limbs...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Kyle R Sochacki, Robert A Jack, Richard Nauert, Shari R Liberman, Patrick C McCulloch, David M Lintner, Joshua D Harris
BACKGROUND: Acute ruptures of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the thumb are common injuries in sports. Surgical repair of complete tears has yielded excellent results in elite athletes. METHODS: National Football League (NFL) players who underwent thumb UCL surgery and matched controls were identified. Demographic and performance data were collected. Performance scores were calculated using a standardized scoring system. Return to sport (RTS) in the NFL was defined as playing in at least 1 NFL game after thumb UCL surgery...
February 1, 2018: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
Christopher M Jones, David P Beason, Jeffrey R Dugas
Background: Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries have increased significantly in recent years, and reconstruction has become the preferred treatment for UCL injury over ligament repair. In a recent study, UCL repair with internal bracing demonstrated significantly greater resistance to gap formation in biomechanical tests, even at low cycles of valgus loading. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare the fatigue and failure mechanics of traditional UCL reconstruction with UCL repair and internal bracing...
February 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Ana Flávia Pina, Vanessa Terezinha Gubert de Matos, Camila Mareti Bonin, Márcia Maria Ferrairo Janini Dal Fabbro, Inês Aparecida Tozetti
The HIV-1 initial viral infection may present diverse clinical and laboratory course and lead to rapid, intermediate, or long-term progression. Among the group of non-progressors, the elite controllers are those who control the infection most effectively, in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this paper, the TH1, TH2 and TH17 cytokines profiles are described, as well as clinical and laboratory aspects of an HIV-infected patient with undetectable viral load without ART. Production of IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-17 was detected; in contrast, no IL-2 or IL-4 was identified...
February 21, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Abdulaziz R Al-Harbi, Abdulrasoul M Al-Omran, Khadiga Alharbi
Water scarcity is a major limiting factor for crop productivity in arid and semi-arid areas. Grafting elite commercial cultivars onto selected vigorous rootstocks is considered as a useful strategy to alleviate the impact of environmental stresses. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of using grafting to improve fruit yield and quality of cucumber under water stress conditions. Alosama F1 cucumber cultivar ( Cucumis sativus L.) was grafted onto Affyne ( Cucumis sativus L.) and Shintoza A90 ( Cucurbitamaxima × C...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Magdalena Spólnicka, Ewelina Pośpiech, Jakub Grzegorz Adamczyk, Ana Freire-Aradas, Beata Pepłońska, Renata Zbieć-Piekarska, Żanetta Makowska, Anna Pięta, Maria Victoria Lareu, Christopher Phillips, Rafał Płoski, Cezary Żekanowski, Wojciech Branicki
Recent progress in epigenomics has led to the development of prediction systems that enable accurate age estimation from DNA methylation data. Our objective was to track responses to intense physical exercise of individual age-correlated DNA methylation markers and to infer their potential impact on the aging processes. The study showed accelerated DNA hypermethylation for two CpG sites in TRIM59 and KLF14 . Both markers predicted the investigated elite athletes to be several years older than controls and this effect was more substantial in subjects involved in power sports...
February 15, 2018: Aging
Amelia J Carr, Avish P Sharma, Megan L Ross, Marijke Welvaert, Gary J Slater, Louise M Burke
Although short (up to 3 days) exposure to major shifts in macronutrient intake appears to alter acid-base status, the effects of sustained (>1 week) interventions in elite athletes has not been determined. Using a non-randomized, parallel design, we examined the effect of adaptations to 21 days of a ketogenic low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) or periodized carbohydrate (PCHO) diet on pre- and post-exercise blood pH, and concentrations of bicarbonate (HCO₃- ) and lactate (La- ) in comparison to a high carbohydrate (HCHO) control...
February 18, 2018: Nutrients
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