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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905090/marker-assisted-breeding-of-the-rice-restorer-line-wanhui-6725-for-disease-resistance-submergence-tolerance-and-aromatic-fragrance
#1
Yanchang Luo, Tingchen Ma, Aifang Zhang, Kar Hui Ong, Zefu Li, Jianbo Yang, Zhongchao Yin
BACKGROUND: Rice is a staple food crop in the world. With the increase in world population and economic development, farmers need to produce more rice in limited field. However, the rice production is frequently affected by biotic and abiotic stresses. The use of natural disease resistance and stress tolerance through genetic breeding is the most efficient and economical way to combat or acclimate to these stresses. In addition, rice with aromatic fragrance can significantly increase market value for its good grain quality...
December 2016: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899894/moderate-load-eccentric-exercise-a-distinct-novel-training-modality
#2
REVIEW
Hans Hoppeler
Over the last 20 years a number of studies have been published using progressive eccentric exercise protocols on motorized ergometers or similar devices that allow for controlled application of eccentric loads. Exercise protocols ramp eccentric loads over an initial 3 weeks period in order to prevent muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. Final training loads reach 400-500 W in rehabilitative settings and over 1200 W in elite athletes. Training is typically carried out three times per week for durations of 20-30 min...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897091/inducing-mutations-through-%C3%AE-irradiation-in-seeds-of-mucuna-pruriens-for-developing-high-l-dopa-yielding-genotypes
#3
Susheel Kumar Singh, Deepti Yadav, Raj Kishori Lal, Madan M Gupta, Sunita Singh Dhawan
PURPOSE: To develop elite genotypes in Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC with high L-DOPA (L-3, 4 dihydroxyphenylalanine) yields, with non-itching characteristics and better adaptability by applying γ-irradiation. Molecular and chemical analysis was performed for screening based on specific characteristics desired for developing suitable genotypes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Developed, mutant populations were analyzed for L-DOPA % in seeds through TLC (thin layer chromatography), and the results obtained were validated with the HPLC (High performance liquid chromatography)...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892686/tobacco-and-the-malays-ethnicity-health-and-the-political-economy-of-tobacco-in-malaysia
#4
Simon Barraclough, Martha Morrow
OBJECTIVES: To identify the historical nexus between Malaysia's largest and politically dominant ethnic group and the political economy of tobacco, and to consider the implications of this connection for tobacco control. DESIGN: Primary and secondary documentary sources in both English and Malay were analysed to illuminate key events and decisions, and the discourse of industry and government. Sources included: speeches by Malaysian political and industry actors; tobacco industry reports, press releases and websites; government documents; World Health Organization (WHO) tobacco control literature; and press reports...
November 28, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889869/left-ventricular-speckle-tracking-derived-cardiac-strain-and-cardiac-twist-mechanics-in-athletes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-controlled-studies
#5
REVIEW
Alexander Beaumont, Fergal Grace, Joanna Richards, John Hough, David Oxborough, Nicholas Sculthorpe
BACKGROUND: The athlete's heart is associated with physiological remodeling as a consequence of repetitive cardiac loading. The effect of exercise training on left ventricular (LV) cardiac strain and twist mechanics are equivocal, and no meta-analysis has been conducted to date. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to review the literature pertaining to the effect of different forms of athletic training on cardiac strain and twist mechanics and determine the influence of traditional and contemporary sporting classifications on cardiac strain and twist mechanics...
November 26, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882916/spirometry-improvement-after-muscular-exercise-in-elite-swimmers
#6
Alessandro Rubini, Alex Rizzato, Simone Fava, Nicola Olivato, Devanand Mangar, Enrico M Camporesi, Gerardo Bosco
BACKGROUND: An increased sympathetic activity during muscular effort is a well established physiological response, whose intensity is known to increase with the muscular load. Spirometry was described to improve as an effect of swimming training in healthy and asthmatic subjects, suggesting a decrease in airway resistance The aim was to investigate the possible effect of muscular exercise (swimming) on spirometry, in particular searching for possible differences because of different swimming times...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874264/photobiomodulation-in-human-muscle-tissue-an-advantage-in-sports-performance
#7
Cleber Ferraresi, Ying-Ying Huang, Michael R Hamblin
Photobiomodulation (PBM) describes the use of red or near-infrared (NIR) light to stimulate, heal, and regenerate damaged tissue. Both preconditioning (light delivered to muscles before exercise) and PBM applied after exercise can increase sports performance in athletes. This review covers the effects of PBM on human muscle tissue in clinical trials in volunteers related to sports performance and in athletes. The parameters used were categorized into those with positive effects or no effects on muscle performance and recovery...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872123/effect-of-external-ankle-support-on-ankle-and-knee-biomechanics-during-the-cutting-maneuver-in-basketball-players
#8
Nardia-Rose Klem, Catherine Y Wild, Sian A Williams, Leo Ng
BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of lower extremity injuries in female basketball players as well as a high proportion of athletes who wear ankle braces, there is a paucity of research pertaining to the effects of ankle bracing on ankle and knee biomechanics during basketball-specific tasks. PURPOSE: To compare the effects of a lace-up brace (ASO), a hinged brace (Active T2), and no ankle bracing (control) on ankle and knee joint kinematics and joint reaction forces in female basketball athletes during a cutting maneuver...
November 21, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860233/the-heat-shock-protein-chaperone-network-and-multiple-stress-resistance
#9
REVIEW
Pierre Jacob, Heribert Hirt, Abdelhafid Bendahmane
Crop yield has been greatly enhanced during the last century. However, most elite cultivars are adapted to temperate climates and are not well suited to more stressful conditions. In the context of climate change, stress resistance is a major concern. To overcome these difficulties, scientists may help breeders by providing genetic markers associated with stress resistance. However, multi-stress resistance cannot be obtained from the simple addition of single stress resistance traits. In the field, stresses are unpredictable and several may occur at once...
November 10, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855701/left-ventricular-remodeling-and-the-athlete-s-heart-irrespective-of-quality-load-training
#10
Giorgio Galanti, Laura Stefani, Gabriele Mascherini, Valentina Di Tante, Loira Toncelli
BACKGROUND: Regular physical exercise determines a progressive increase of the cardiac mass known as adaptive hypertrophy. Up to now, two morphological echocardiographic heart patterns of athletes have been described by Morganroth in 1975: predominant augmentation of wall thickness, and major cavity size in chamber dimensions in the case of prevalent static or dynamic components. The aim of the study was to follow up the impact of physical training on heart morphology and function in a group of elite soccer and rugby players for at least five years...
November 17, 2016: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849461/differences-in-military-obstacle-course-performance-between-three-energy-storing-and-shock-adapting-prosthetic-feet-in-high-functioning-transtibial-amputees-a-double-blind-randomized-control-trial
#11
M Jason Highsmith, Jason T Kahle, Rebecca M Miro, Derek J Lura, Stephanie L Carey, Matthew M Wernke, Seok Hun Kim, William S Quillen
BACKGROUND: Approximately 683 persons engaged in military service experienced transtibial amputation (TTA) related to recent war in Iraq and Afghanistan. Military TTAs function at a level beyond basic ambulation. No empirical data demonstrate which higher functioning prosthetic feet maximize injured service personnel's ability to continue performing at a level commensurate with return to duty. This study's purpose was to determine which of three high-functioning, energy-storing prosthetic feet maximize performance and preference in a field obstacle course (OC) and to quantify physical performance differences between TTAs and high-functioning nonamputees...
November 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843442/changes-in-follicular-cd4-t-helper-cells-as-a-marker-for-evaluating-disease-progression-in-the-competition-between-hiv-and-host-immunity
#12
REVIEW
Xiaolei Wang, Widade Ziani, Huanbin Xu
Follicular CD4+ T helper (TFH) cells interact with B cells in follicular germinal centers and play a prominent role in promoting effective humoral immune responses to pathogens, providing help for B cell development and antibody affinity maturation. Recent studies indicate TFH cells are expanded in HIV/SIV chronic infection, or depleted in terminal stages of disease, yet relatively maintained in elite controllers when compared with uninfected controls. A better understanding of the mechanisms behind these immunologic abnormalities may lead to more effective vaccination and therapeutic strategies...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833629/development-of-marker-free-insect-resistant-indica-rice-by-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-mediated-co-transformation
#13
Fei Ling, Fei Zhou, Hao Chen, Yongjun Lin
Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation is an efficient strategy to generate marker-free transgenic plants. In this study, the vectors pMF-2A(∗) containing a synthetic cry2A(∗) gene driven by maize ubiquitin promoter and pCAMBIA1301 harboring hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt) were introduced into Minghui86 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica), an elite indica restorer line. Two independent transformants containing both the cry2A(∗) gene and hpt gene were regenerated. Several homozygous marker-free transgenic progenies were derived from family 2AH2, and three of them were selected for further insect bioassay in the laboratory and field...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830159/no-association-between-return-to-play-after-injury-and-increased-rate-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury-in-men-s-professional-soccer
#14
Matilda Lundblad, Markus Waldén, Martin Hägglund, Jan Ekstrand, Christoffer Thomeé, Jón Karlsson
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that previous injury, not necessarily anatomically related, is an important injury risk factor. However, it is not known whether a player runs an increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury after returning to play from other injury types. PURPOSE: To analyze whether professional soccer players are more susceptible to ACL injury after returning to play from any previous injury. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3...
October 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824252/elite-female-basketball-players-body-weight-neuromuscular-training-and-performance-on-the-y-balance-test
#15
Roberto Benis, Matteo Bonato, Antonio La Torre
CONTEXT:   Neuromuscular training enhances unconscious motor responses by stimulating both the afferent signals and central mechanisms responsible for dynamic joint control. Dynamic joint-control training is a vital component of injury-prevention programs. OBJECTIVE:   To investigate the effects of body-weight neuromuscular training on Y-Balance Test (YBT) performance and postural control in female basketball players. DESIGN:   Randomized controlled clinical trial...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820726/%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-hmb-supplementation-effects-on-body-mass-and-performance-in-elite-male-rugby-union-players
#16
Nicholas D McIntosh, Thomas D Love, Jillian Haszard, Hamish Osborne, Katherine E Black
Pre-season is characterized by high training volumes with short recovery periods β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) has been postulated to assist with recovery. HMB has been shown to improve strength and body composition amongst untrained groups the benefits of HMB amongst trained populations are unclear due to the methodologies employed. This randomized control trail determined the effects of 11 weeks HMB supplementation on body mass and performance measures in 27 elite rugby players. HMB group (n=13) mean±SD age 20...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803631/assessment-of-technical-skills-in-young-soccer-goalkeepers-reliability-and-validity-of-two-goalkeeper-specific-tests
#17
Ricardo Rebelo-Gonçalves, António J Figueiredo, Manuel J Coelho-E-Silva, Antonio Tessitore
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of two new tests designed to examine goalkeeper-specific technique. Twenty-six goalkeepers (14.49 ± 2.52 years old) completed two trial sessions, each separated by one week, to evaluate the reproducibility of the Sprint-Keeper Test (S-Keeper) and the Lateral Shuffle-Keeper Test (LS-Keeper). Construct validity was assessed among forty goalkeepers (14.49 ± 1.71 years old) by competitive level (elite versus non-elite), after controlling for chronological age...
September 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803599/follow-up-of-patients-who-are-clinically-disease-free-after-primary-treatment-for-fallopian-tube-primary-peritoneal-or-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-a-program-in-evidence-based-care-guideline-adaptation
#18
T Le, E B Kennedy, J Dodge, L Elit
BACKGROUND: A need for follow-up recommendations for survivors of fallopian tube, primary peritoneal, or epithelial ovarian cancer after completion of primary treatment was identified by Cancer Care Ontario's Program in Evidence-Based Care. METHODS: We searched for existing guidelines, conducted a systematic review (medline, embase, and cdsr, January 2010 to March 2015), created draft recommendations, and completed a comprehensive review process. Outcomes included overall survival, quality of life, and patient preferences...
October 2016: Current Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795684/pyramiding-and-evaluation-of-both-a-foreign-bacillus-thuringiensis-and-a-lysine-rich-protein-gene-in-the-elite-indica-rice-9311
#19
Xin Liu, Cuicui Zhang, Xiaogang Li, Jumin Tu
Gene pyramiding is an efficient approach for the genetic improvement of multiple agronomic traits simultaneously. In this study, we pyramided two foreign genes, cry1Ac driven by the rice Actin I promoter, and lysine-rich protein (LRP), driven by the endosperm-specific GLUTELIN1 (GT1) promoter, into the elite indica cultivar 9311. These two genes were chosen in an attempt to enhance insect-resistance and Lysine (Lys) content. In the pyramided line, the foreign gene cry1Ac was efficiently expressed in the leaves and stems, and exhibited highly efficient resistance to striped stem borer (SSB, Chilo suppressalis Walker) in the laboratory and rice leaf folder (RLF, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee) in the field...
September 2016: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793805/superior-labrum-anterior-posterior-tears-in-the-national-football-league
#20
Caitlin C Chambers, T Sean Lynch, Daniel B Gibbs, Jason H Ghodasra, Shawn Sahota, Kristina Franke, Christina D Mack, Gordon W Nuber
BACKGROUND: Shoulder disorders are common in football players, with up to 50% of National Football League (NFL) recruits reporting a history of shoulder injuries. Superior labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP) tears are an entity with well-described detrimental effects on return to play in overhead-throwing athletes but with minimal data in contact athletes. PURPOSE: To identify the incidence, predisposing factors, and effect of SLAP tears in NFL athletes and prospects as well as the treatment patterns of NFL team physicians...
October 28, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
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