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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092208/the-effects-of-mental-fatigue-on-cricket-relevant-performance-among-elite-players
#1
Daren Veness, Stephen David Patterson, Owen Jeffries, Mark Waldron
This study investigated the effects of a mentally fatiguing test on physical tasks among elite cricketers. In a cross-over design, 10 elite male cricket players from a professional club performed a cricket run-two test, a Batak Lite reaction time test and a Yo-Yo-Intermittent Recovery Level 1 (Yo-Yo-IR1) test, providing a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) after completing a 30-min Stroop test (mental fatigue condition) or 30-min control condition. Perceived fatigue was assessed before and after the two conditions and motivation was measured before testing...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090144/maximal-power-training-induced-different-improvement-in-throwing-velocity-and-muscle-strength-according-to-playing-positions-in-elite-male-handball-players
#2
M Cherif, H Chtourou, N Souissi, A Aouidet, K Chamari
This study was designed to assess the effect of strength and power training on throwing velocity and muscle strength in handball players according to their playing positions. Twenty-two male handball players were assigned to either an experimental group (n=11) or a control group (n=11) (age: 22.1 ± 3.0 years). They were asked to complete (i) the ball throwing velocity test and (ii) the one-repetition maximum (1-RM) tests for the half-back squat, the pull-over, the bench press, the developed neck, and the print exercises before and after 12 weeks of maximal power training...
December 2016: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090138/agility-training-in-young-elite-soccer-players-promising-results-compared-to-change-of-direction-drills
#3
A Chaalali, M Rouissi, M Chtara, A Owen, N L Bragazzi, W Moalla, A Chaouachi, M Amri, K Chamari
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different training programmes - change of direction (COD) vs. agility (AG) - on straight sprint (SS), COD and AG test performances in young elite soccer players. Thirty-two soccer players (age: 14.5±0.9 years; height: 171.2±5.1 cm; body mass: 56.4±7.1 kg, body fat: 10.3±2.3%) participated in a short-term (6 weeks) training study. Players were randomly assigned to two experimental groups - training with change of direction drills (COD-G, n=11) or using agility training (AG-G, n= 11) - and to a control group (CON-G, n=10)...
December 2016: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081555/new-zealand-rugby-health-study-motor-cortex-excitability-in-retired-elite-and-community-level-rugby-players
#4
Gwyn N Lewis, Patria A Hume, Verna Stavric, Scott R Brown, Denise Taylor
AIMS: Rugby union is a high contact sport in which players frequently experience brain injuries. Acute brain injury is associated with altered corticomotor function. However, it is uncertain if long-term exposure to rugby is associated with any alterations in corticomotor function. The aim of the study was to assess measures of corticomotor excitability and inhibition in retired rugby players in comparison to retired non-contact sport players. METHODS: The design was a cross-sectional study with three groups of retired athletes: elite rugby (n=23), community level rugby (n=28) and non-contact sport control (n=22)...
January 13, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081034/the-effects-of-the-removal-of-electronic-devices-for-48-hours-on-sleep-in-elite-judo-athletes
#5
Ian C Dunican, David T Martin, Shona L Halson, Reid Reale, Brian Dawson, John Caldwell, Maddison J Jones, Peter R Eastwood
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of the removal of electronic devices (i.e., smartphones, etc.) for 48 hours on sleep quality and next-day athletic and cognitive performance in elite Judo athletes. PARTICIPANTS: Over 6 days and nights, 23 eliteAustralian Judo athletes were monitored while attending a camp at the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS). In 14 athletes all electronic devices were removed on days 3 & 4 (i.e. for 48 hours: the 'device-restricted group') while 9 were permitted to use their devices throughout the camp (the 'control group')...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078817/birth-of-puppies-of-predetermined-sex-after-artificial-insemination-with-a-low-number-of-sex-sorted-frozen-thawed-spermatozoa-in-field-conditions
#6
Yun-Fang Wei, Fang-Liang Chen, Shu-Sheng Tang, Ai-Guo Mao, Li-Guang Li, Lu-Guang Cheng, Chao Chen, Fei-Xiang Li, Bin Wang, Tao Xu, Yue-Jun Zhang, Jing Li, Jiu-Sheng Wan
The aim of this study was to evaluate fertility and sex ratios after artificial insemination in dogs under field conditions. Semen was cryopreserved as unsorted (control) or was separated into X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm using a cell sorter. Sixty female dogs were inseminated with frozen-thawed spermatozoa of 100 × 10(6) unsorted (a dose in practice) and 4 × 10(6) sorted (X and Y group, respectively). A total of 20 dogs became pregnant and 126 puppies were born from the three groups. The percentage of parturition was similar for the X (5/20; 25...
January 11, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077649/tcr-clonotype-specific-differences-in-inhibitory-activity-of-hiv-1-cytotoxic-t-cell-clones-is-not-mediated-by-tcr-alone
#7
Nina C Flerin, Huabiao Chen, Tynisha D Glover, Pedro A Lamothe, Jian Hua Zheng, Justin W Fang, Zaza M Ndhlovu, Evan W Newell, Mark M Davis, Bruce D Walker, Harris Goldstein
: Functional analysis of T cell responses in HIV-infected individuals has indicated that virus-specific CD8(+) T cells with superior antiviral efficacy are well represented in HIV-1 controllers but are rare or absent in HIV-1 progessors. To define the role of individual TCR clonotypes in differential antiviral CD8(+) T cell function, we performed detailed functional and mass cytometric cluster analysis of multiple CD8(+) T cell clones recognizing the identical HLA-B*2705-restricted HIV-1 epitope KK10 (KRWIILGLNK)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076395/mapping-and-genetic-structure-analysis-of-the-anthracnose-resistance-locus-co-1hy-in-the-common-bean-phaseolus-vulgaris-l
#8
Mingli Chen, Jing Wu, Lanfen Wang, Nitin Mantri, Xiaoyan Zhang, Zhendong Zhu, Shumin Wang
Anthracnose is a destructive disease of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The Andean cultivar Hongyundou has been demonstrated to possess strong resistance to anthracnose race 81. To study the genetics of this resistance, the Hongyundou cultivar was crossed with a susceptible genotype Jingdou. Segregation of resistance for race 81 was assessed in the F2 population and F2:3 lines under controlled conditions. Results indicate that Hongyundou carries a single dominant gene for anthracnose resistance. An allele test by crossing Hongyundou with another resistant cultivar revealed that the resistance gene is in the Co-1 locus (therefore named Co-1HY)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069446/rich2-is-implicated-in-viraemic-control-of-hiv-1-in-black-south-african-individuals
#9
Maria Paximadis, Refilwe N Ngqobe, Richard E Chaisson, Neil A Martinson, Caroline T Tiemessen
An intronic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in RICH2 (rs2072255; 255(i)), in complete linkage disequilibrium (LD) with an exonic SNP (rs2072254; 254(e)), has been identified in a genome wide association study to be associated with progression to AIDS in Caucasian individuals. RICH2 links tetherin to the cortical actin network and the RICH2/tetherin interaction has been shown to be important for the downstream activation of NF-κβ and the consequential promotion of proinflammatory responses. We investigated the role of these two SNPs in natural control of HIV-1 in black South Africans including healthy controls (HCs; N=102) and antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected controllers (HICs; N=52) and progressors (N=74)...
January 6, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065583/left-ventricular-contraction-pattern-in-chronic-aortic-regurgitation-and-preserved-ejection-fraction-simultaneous-stress-strain-analysis-by-three-dimensional-echocardiography
#10
Kaspar Broch, Stefano F de Marchi, Richard Massey, Jonny Hisdal, Svend Aakhus, Lars Gullestad, Stig Urheim
BACKGROUND: The role of speckle-tracking echocardiography in the assessment of chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) is not established. Load dependency may encumber the interpretation of strain measurements in the chronically overloaded left ventricle. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of left ventricular (LV) contraction patterns in asymptomatic patients with moderate to severe AR and preserved ejection fractions. METHODS: In this prospective, cross-sectional study, 31 patients with moderate to severe AR, 15 elite endurance athletes, and 17 healthy control subjects were examined using three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065448/left-ventricular-dyssynchrony-and-2d-and-3d-global-longitudinal-strain-for-differentiating-physiological-and-pathological-left-ventricular-hypertrophy
#11
Julien Ternacle, Camille Bremont, Thomas d'Humieres, Laureline Faivre, Huy Long Doan, Romain Gallet, Leopold Oliver, Jean-Luc Dubois-Randé, Pascal Lim
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in athletes can be challenging. AIMS: To ascertain parameters that differentiate patients with HCM from athletes with moderate left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH 13-15mm). METHODS: We retrospectively included 100 men: 50 elite rugby players (25 with moderate LVH and 25 with no LVH), 25 patients with HCM and moderate LVH and 25 controls. LV dyssynchrony was defined as the standard deviation of time to peak 2D longitudinal strain (16-segment model) and global strain components were computed from two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) speckle tracking...
January 3, 2017: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060015/ifn-%C3%AE-augments-nk-mediated-antibody-dependent-cellular-cytotoxicity-adcc-of-hiv-1-infected-autologous-cd4-t-cells-regardless-of-mhc-i-downregulation
#12
Costin Tomescu, Pablo Tebas, Luis J Montaner
DESIGN: We have previously shown that IFN-α stimulation augments direct NK cell lysis of autologous CD4 primary T cells infected with certain HIV-1 isolates based upon MHC-I downregulation capacity. Here, we investigated if Antibody Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (ADCC) could trigger lysis of HIV-1 isolates that were resistant to direct NK lysis and if IFN-α pre-stimulation of NK cells could further enhance ADCC. METHODS: Using broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against gp120 (VRC01 or PGV04) or plasma from HIV-1 infected subjects (ART-suppressed or Elite Controller) to trigger ADCC, we measured NK cell chromium release cytotoxicity against HIV-1 infected autologous CD4 primary T cells and NK cell CD107a degranulation against gp120-coated CD4 T cells...
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056792/elucidation-of-the-molecular-responses-of-a-cucumber-segment-substitution-line-carrying-pm5-1-and-its-recurrent-parent-triggered-by-powdery-mildew-by-comparative-transcriptome-profiling
#13
Qiang Xu, Xuewen Xu, Yang Shi, Xiaohua Qi, Xuehao Chen
BACKGROUND: Powdery mildew (PM) is one of the most severe fungal diseases of cucurbits, but the molecular mechanisms underlying PM resistance in cucumber remain elusive. In this study, we developed a PM resistant segment substitution line SSL508-28 that carried a segment on chromosome five representing the Pm5.1 locus from PM resistant donor Jin5-508 using marker-assisted backcrossing of an elite PM susceptible cucumber inbred line D8. RESULTS: Whole-genome resequencing of SSL508-28, Jin5-508 and D8 was performed to identify the exact boundaries of the breakpoints for this introgression because of the low density of available single sequence repeat markers...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056721/controlling-new-knowledge-genomic-science-governance-and-the-politics-of-bioinformatics
#14
Brian Salter, Charlotte Salter
The rise of bioinformatics is a direct response to the political difficulties faced by genomics in its quest to be a new biomedical innovation, and the value of bioinformatics lies in its role as the bridge between the promise of genomics and its realization in the form of health benefits. Western scientific elites are able to use their close relationship with the state to control and facilitate the emergence of new domains compatible with the existing distribution of epistemic power - all within the embrace of public trust...
January 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054256/salivary-alpha-amylase-not-chromogranin-a-reflects-sympathetic-activity-exercise-responses-in-elite-male-wheelchair-athletes-with-or-without-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Christof A Leicht, Thomas A W Paulson, Victoria L Goosey-Tolfrey, Nicolette C Bishop
BACKGROUND: Salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and chromogranin A (sCgA) have both been suggested as non-invasive markers for sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. A complete cervical spinal cord injury leading to tetraplegia is accompanied with sympathetic dysfunction; the aim of this study was to establish the exercise response of these markers in this in vivo model. METHODS: Twenty-six elite male wheelchair athletes (C6-C7 tetraplegia: N = 8, T6-L1 paraplegia: N = 10 and non-spinal cord injured controls: N = 8) performed treadmill exercise to exhaustion...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053103/cytokines-elevated-in-hiv-elite-controllers-reduce-hiv-replication-in-vitro-and-modulate-hiv-restriction-factor-expression
#16
Evan S Jacobs, Sheila M Keating, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, Stuart L Gibb, John W Heitman, Heather C Inglis, Jeffrey N Martin, Jinbing Zhang, Zhanna Kaidarova, Xutao Deng, Shiquan Wu, Kathryn Anastos, Howard Crystal, Maria C Villacres, Mary Young, Ruth M Greenblatt, Alan L Landay, Stephen J Gange, Steven G Deeks, Elizabeth T Golub, Satish K Pillai, Philip J Norris
: A subset of HIV infected individuals termed elite controllers (ECs) maintain CD4+ T cell counts and control viral replication in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Systemic cytokine responses may differentiate ECs from subjects with uncontrolled viral replication or those who require ART to suppress viral replication. We measured 87 cytokines in four groups of women: 73 EC, 42 with pharmacologically suppressed viremia (ART), 42 with uncontrolled viral replication (noncontrollers, NC), and 48 HIV uninfected (NEG) subjects...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039100/utility-of-systematic-isolation-of-immune-cell-subsets-from-hiv-infected-individuals-for-mirna-profiling
#17
Manel E Bargalló, Alberto C Guardo, Maria J Maleno, Laia Miralles, Lander Egaña-Gorroño, Tuixent Escribà, Felipe García, Jose M Gatell, Mireia Arnedo, Montserrat Plana
INTRODUCTION: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are frequently used for genomic analyses, but several factors can affect the yield and integrity of nucleic acids, including the methods of cell collection and isolation. The goal of this work was to analyze the utility of systematic isolation of different immune cell subsets by immunomagnetic separation and the RNA integrity after isolated cells from samples of HIV-infected patients. METHODS: PBMC from Healthy Controls (HC, n=15), Elite Controllers (EC, n=15), Viremic Controllers (VC, n=15), Viremic Progressors (VP, n=15) and HIV-infected patients on therapy (ART, n=15) were isolated by Ficoll-Paque density gradient centrifugation...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031772/the-chronotype-of-elite-athletes
#18
Michele Lastella, Gregory D Roach, Shona L Halson, Charli Sargent
The aims of this study were (i) to compare the chronotype distribution of elite athletes to a young adult population and (ii) to determine if there was a tendency for athletes to select and/or participate in sports which suited their chronotype. A total of 114 elite athletes from five sports (cricket, cycling, hockey, soccer and triathlon) participated in this study. The participants' chronotype, sleepiness, sleep satisfaction and sleep quality were determined using the Horne and Östberg Morningness and Eveningness questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and questions concerning their sleep satisfaction and quality...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025858/the-new-rich-and-their-unplanned-births-stratified-reproduction-under-china-s-birth-planning-policy
#19
Lihong Shi
This article explores the creation and ramifications of a stratified reproductive system under China's state control over reproduction. Within this system, an emerging group of "new rich" are able to circumvent birth regulations and have "unplanned births" because of their financial capabilities and social networks. While China's birth-planning policy is meant to be enforced equally for all couples, the unequal access to wealth and bureaucratic power as a result of China's widening social polarization has created disparate reproductive rights and experiences...
December 26, 2016: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018192/differences-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-between-young-adult-endurance-athletes-and-healthy-controls
#20
David A Raichlen, Pradyumna K Bharadwaj, Megan C Fitzhugh, Kari A Haws, Gabrielle-Ann Torre, Theodore P Trouard, Gene E Alexander
Expertise and training in fine motor skills has been associated with changes in brain structure, function, and connectivity. Fewer studies have explored the neural effects of athletic activities that do not seem to rely on precise fine motor control (e.g., distance running). Here, we compared resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of adult male collegiate distance runners (n = 11; age = 21.3 ± 2.5) and a group of healthy age-matched non-athlete male controls (n = 11; age = 20.6 ± 1.1), to test the hypothesis that expertise in sustained aerobic motor behaviors affects resting state functional connectivity in young adults...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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