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Circulating biomarkers AND nervous system disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473514/the-role-of-ve-cadherin-in-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-under-central-nervous-system-pathological-conditions
#1
Wenlu Li, Zhigang Chen, Ian Chin, Zhong Chen, Haibin Dai
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a layer between the blood circulation and neural tissue. It plays a pivotal role in maintaining the vulnerable extracellular microenvironment in the neuronal parenchyma. Neuroinflammatory events can result in BBB dysregulation by disturbing adherens junctions (AJs) and tight junctions (TJs). VE-cadherin, as one of the most important components of the vascular system, is specifically responsible for the assembly of AJs and BBB architecture. Here, we present a review, which highlights recently available insights into the relationship between the neuroinflammation and BBB dysregulation...
February 22, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451858/cerebrospinal-fluid-micrornas-as-diagnostic-biomarkers-in-brain-tumors
#2
REVIEW
Alena Kopkova, Jiri Sana, Pavel Fadrus, Ondrej Slaby
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a body fluid that has many important functions and is in direct contact with the extracellular environment of the central nervous system (CNS). CSF serves as both the communication channel allowing the distribution of various substances among the CNS cells and the storage facility for the waste products these cells release. For these reasons, CSF is a potential source of diagnostic biomarkers of many CNS diseases, including brain tumors. Recent studies have revealed that CSF also contains circulating microRNAs (miRNAs), short non-coding RNAs that have been described as biomarkers in many cancers...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099035/molecular-characterization-of-peripheral-extracellular-vesicles-in-clinically-isolated-syndrome-preliminary-suggestions-from-a-pilot-study
#3
Nicoletta Nuzziello, Maria Blonda, Flavio Licciulli, Sabino Liuni, Antonella Amoruso, Alessio Valletti, Arianna Consiglio, Carlo Avolio, Maria Liguori
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), nanoparticles originated from different cell types, seem to be implicated in several cellular activities. In the Central Nervous System (CNS), glia and neurons secrete EVs and recent studies have demonstrated that the intercellular communication mediated by EVs has versatile functional impact in the cerebral homeostasis. This essential role may be due to their proteins and RNAs cargo that possibly modify the phenotypes of the targeted cells. Despite the increasing importance of EVs, little is known about their fluctuations in physiological as well as in pathological conditions...
September 18, 2017: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687495/extracellular-vesicles-novel-promising-delivery-systems-for-therapy-of-brain-diseases
#4
REVIEW
David Rufino-Ramos, Patrícia R Albuquerque, Vitor Carmona, Rita Perfeito, Rui Jorge Nobre, Luis Pereira de Almeida
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membrane vesicles virtually secreted by all cells, including brain cells. EVs are a major term that includes apoptotic bodies, microvesicles and exosomes. The release of EVs has been recognized as an important modulator in cross-talking between neurons, astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes, not only in central nervous system (CNS) physiology but also in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory disease states as well as in brain tumors, such as glioma. EVs are able to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB), spread to body fluids and reach distant tissues...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650992/galectin-8-as-an-immunosuppressor-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-and-a-target-of-human-early-prognostic-antibodies-in-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Evelyn Pardo, Claudia Cárcamo, Reinaldo Uribe-San Martín, Ethel Ciampi, Fabián Segovia-Miranda, Cristobal Curkovic-Peña, Fabián Montecino, Christopher Holmes, Juan Enrique Tichauer, Eric Acuña, Francisco Osorio-Barrios, Marjorie Castro, Priscilla Cortes, Claudia Oyanadel, David M Valenzuela, Rodrigo Pacheco, Rodrigo Naves, Andrea Soza, Alfonso González
Galectin-8 (Gal-8) is a member of a glycan-binding protein family that regulates the immune system, among other functions, and is a target of antibodies in autoimmune disorders. However, its role in multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), remains unknown. We study the consequences of Gal-8 silencing on lymphocyte subpopulations and the development of experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), to then assess the presence and clinical meaning of anti-Gal-8 antibodies in MS patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529342/circulating-tumor-cells-and-serum-levels-of-mmp-2-mmp-9-and-vegf-as-markers-of-the-metastatic-process-in-patients-with-high-risk-of-metastatic-progression
#6
Marketa Skerenova, Veronika Mikulova, Otakar Capoun, Tomas Zima, Petra Tesarova
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Metastases are a severe complication in cancer patients and biomarkers predicting their progression are still lacking for specific groups of patients. HER2 positive breast cancer (HER2 BC) patients on trastuzumab therapy are at risk of the development of unpredictable and often fatal central nervous system (CNS) metastases and castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients urgently need a marker of disease progression during therapy. Proposed metastatic markers: circulating tumor cells (CTC), serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), 9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were prospectively studied to confirm their utility in these two narrowly defined groups of cancer patients...
September 2017: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507011/influence-of-diet-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
M José Bagur, M Antonia Murcia, Antonia M Jiménez-Monreal, Josep A Tur, M Mar Bibiloni, Gonzalo L Alonso, Magdalena Martínez-Tomé
Nutrition is considered to be a possible factor in the pathogenesis of the neurological disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Nutrition intervention studies suggest that diet may be considered as a complementary treatment to control the progression of the disease; a systematic review of the literature on the influence of diet on MS was therefore conducted. The literature search was conducted by using Medlars Online International Literature (MEDLINE) via PubMed and Scopus. Forty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria...
May 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450902/role-of-neural-barriers-in-the-pathogenesis-and-outcome-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-meningitis
#8
Ofer Prager, Alon Friedman, Yaffa Mizrachi Nebenzahl
Bacterial meningitis is an inflammatory disease of the meninges of the central nervous system (CNS). Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae are the major bacterial pathogens causing meningitis with S. pneumoniae being responsible for two thirds of meningitis cases in the developed world. To reach the CNS following nasopharyngeal colonization and bacteraemia, the bacteria traverse from the circulation across the blood brain barrier (BBB) and choroid plexus...
March 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440247/circulating-biomarkers-in-glaucoma-age-related-macular-degeneration-and-diabetic-retinopathy
#9
REVIEW
Madhu Nath, Nabanita Halder, Thirumurthy Velpandian
Biomarkers to predict the altering physiological conditions over the period leading toward the ocular disorders are of major importance in therapeutics. Isolation and validation of the biomarkers specific to ocular diseases are a challenging task. Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease of the eye where the correlation of biomarkers in circulating fluid may be made specific for the eye. However, conditions such as wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (DR), circulating biomarkers might be having some degree of overlap with other conditions like cancer where a common factor such as angiogenesis is involved...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399903/overexpression-of-syndecan-1-muc-1-and-putative-stem-cell-markers-in-breast-cancer-leptomeningeal-metastasis-a-cerebrospinal-fluid-flow-cytometry-study
#10
Iole Cordone, Serena Masi, Valentina Summa, Mariantonia Carosi, Antonello Vidiri, Alessandra Fabi, Alessia Pasquale, Laura Conti, Immacolata Rosito, Carmine Maria Carapella, Veronica Villani, Andrea Pace
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a mosaic of tumor cell subpopulations, where only a minority is responsible for disease recurrence and cancer invasiveness. We focused on one of the most aggressive circulating tumor cells (CTCs) which, from the primitive tumor, spreads to the central nervous system (CNS), evaluating the expression of prognostic and putative cancer stem cell markers in breast cancer (BC) leptomeningeal metastasis (LM). METHODS: Flow cytometry immunophenotypic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples (4...
April 11, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360260/multiparametric-imaging-of-organ-system-interfaces
#11
REVIEW
Katrien Vandoorne, Matthias Nahrendorf
Cardiovascular diseases are a consequence of genetic and environmental risk factors that together generate arterial wall and cardiac pathologies. Blood vessels connect multiple systems throughout the entire body and allow organs to interact via circulating messengers. These same interactions facilitate nervous and metabolic system's influence on cardiovascular health. Multiparametric imaging offers the opportunity to study these interfacing systems' distinct processes, to quantify their interactions, and to explore how these contribute to cardiovascular disease...
April 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225487/comparing-serum-microrna-levels-of-acute-herpes-zoster-patients-with-those-of-postherpetic-neuralgia-patients
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ying Huang, Xihan Li, Gaojian Tao, Tong Zhu, Jian Lin
Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is commonly defined as pain persisting for at least 3 months after acute herpes zoster (AHZ) rash presentation. About one-tenth of all acute herpes zoster patients develop PHN. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are promising biomarkers for infectious diseases; however, there has been no relationship established between circulating miRNAs and PHN to date; the aim of the present investigation was to elucidate this relationship.We compared serum levels of miRNA in PHN and AHZ patients...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181066/plasma-levels-of-mir-137-and-mir-124-are-associated-with-parkinson-s-disease-but-not-with-parkinson-s-disease-with-depression
#13
Na Li, Xudong Pan, Jingli Zhang, Aijun Ma, Shaonan Yang, Juanjuan Ma, Anmu Xie
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Recently, it was reported that miR-137, miR-124, and miR-184 were widely expressed in the central nervous system and were vital to neuronal regulation. In this study, we detected the circulating levels of miR-137, miR-124, and miR-184 in PD patients, and explored the potential role of miR-124, miR-137, and miR-184 in the diagnosis of PD. We further described the relationship between these miRNAs and PD with depression (PD-Dep)...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918431/evaluation-of-microrna-expression-in-patients-with-herpes-zoster
#14
Xihan Li, Ying Huang, Yucheng Zhang, Na He
Reactivated varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which lies latent in the dorsal root ganglions and cranial nerves before its reactivation, is capable of causing herpes zoster (HZ), but the specific mechanism of virus reactivation and latency remains unknown. It was proposed that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in body fluids could potentially indicate infection. However, the connection between herpes zoster and circulating miRNAs has not been demonstrated. In this study, 41 HZ patients without superinfection were selected...
December 2, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863260/applications-of-dna-based-liquid-biopsy-for-central-nervous-system-neoplasms
#15
REVIEW
Joanna Wang, Chetan Bettegowda
The management of central nervous system malignancies remains reliant on histopathological analysis and neuroimaging, despite their complex genetic profile. The intratumoral heterogeneity displayed by these tumors necessitates a more sophisticated method of tumor analysis and monitoring, with the ability to assess tumors over space and time. Circulating biomarkers, including circulating tumor cells, circulating tumor DNA, and extracellular vesicles, hold promise as a type of real-time liquid biopsy able to provide dynamic information not only regarding tumor burden to monitor disease progression and treatment response, but also regarding genetic profile to enable changes in management to match a constantly evolving tumor...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799738/alemtuzumab-in-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis-patient-selection-and-special-considerations
#16
REVIEW
Jan Dörr, Karl Baum
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is among the most common chronic inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. Although not curable, the constantly increasing armamentarium of disease-modifying drugs now allows control of disease activity in many patients. The humanized monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab is a powerful drug licensed for the treatment of MS. Upon binding to the CD52 surface protein on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, B cells, and monocytes, circulating CD52(+) cells are eliminated via antibody- and complement-mediated lysis, and a less autoreactive adaptive immune system is reconstituted...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634889/broadband-infrared-spectroscopy-for-non-contact-measurement-of-neurological-disease-biomarkers-in-cerebrospinal-fluid
#17
Michael Horosh, Haim Feldman, Avi Yablonovich, Michael A Firer, David Abookasis
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear and colorless biological fluid which circulates within brain ventricles (cavities), the spinal cord's central canal, the space between the brain and the spinal cord, as well as their protective coverings, the meninges. Cerebrospinal fluid contains different constituents, such as albumin and lactate, whose levels are used clinically as biomarkers of neurodegenerative disorders. In current clinical practice, analysis of CSF content for the diagnosis of central nervous system disorders requires an invasive procedure known as lumbar puncture or spinal tap...
March 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393339/circulating-micrornas-as-biomarkers-for-rituximab-therapy-in-neuromyelitis-optica-nmo
#18
Adi Vaknin-Dembinsky, Hanna Charbit, Livnat Brill, Oded Abramsky, Devorah Gur-Wahnon, Iddo Z Ben-Dov, Iris Lavon
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The main immunological feature of the disease is the presence of autoantibodies to Aquaporin 4 (AQP4+), identified in about 82 % of cases. Currently, there are no reliable biomarkers for monitoring treatment response in patients with NMO. In an effort to identify biomarkers, we analyzed microRNAs (miRNAs) in the blood of rituximab-treated NMO patients before and after therapy. METHODS: Total RNA extracted from whole blood of nine rituximab-responsive NMO patients before and 6 months following treatment was subjected to small RNAseq analysis...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381476/a-minimally-invasive-blood-derived-biomarker-of-oligodendrocyte-cell-loss-in-multiple-sclerosis
#19
John A Olsen, Lauren A Kenna, Regine C Tipon, Michael G Spelios, Mark M Stecker, Eitan M Akirav
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Minimally invasive biomarkers of MS are required for disease diagnosis and treatment. Differentially methylated circulating-free DNA (cfDNA) is a useful biomarker for disease diagnosis and prognosis, and may offer to be a viable approach for understanding MS. Here, methylation-specific primers and quantitative real-time PCR were used to study methylation patterns of the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) gene, which is expressed primarily in myelin-producing oligodendrocytes (ODCs)...
August 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347748/circulating-long-noncoding-rnas-as-novel-biomarkers-of-human-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Xiaoying Jiang, Ronghui Lei, Qilan Ning
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a kind of noncoding RNAs which are longer than ˜200 nucleotides, lacking of protein-encoding capacity and are implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Recently, it was demonstrated that lncRNAs could be released into the circulation and be stable in blood. Circulating lncRNAs have been reported to have potential in distinguishing patients from healthy individuals. Therefore, the detection of circulating lncRNAs may be valuable for improving the diagnosis and prognosis of various diseases...
July 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
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