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Circulating biomarkers AND nervous system disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918431/evaluation-of-microrna-expression-in-patients-with-herpes-zoster
#1
Xihan Li, Ying Huang, Yucheng Zhang, Na He
Reactivated varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which lies latent in the dorsal root ganglions and cranial nerves before its reactivation, is capable of causing herpes zoster (HZ), but the specific mechanism of virus reactivation and latency remains unknown. It was proposed that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in body fluids could potentially indicate infection. However, the connection between herpes zoster and circulating miRNAs has not been demonstrated. In this study, 41 HZ patients without superinfection were selected...
December 2, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863260/applications-of-dna-based-liquid-biopsy-for-central-nervous-system-neoplasms
#2
REVIEW
Joanna Wang, Chetan Bettegowda
The management of central nervous system malignancies remains reliant on histopathological analysis and neuroimaging, despite their complex genetic profile. The intratumoral heterogeneity displayed by these tumors necessitates a more sophisticated method of tumor analysis and monitoring, with the ability to assess tumors over space and time. Circulating biomarkers, including circulating tumor cells, circulating tumor DNA, and extracellular vesicles, hold promise as a type of real-time liquid biopsy able to provide dynamic information not only regarding tumor burden to monitor disease progression and treatment response, but also regarding genetic profile to enable changes in management to match a constantly evolving tumor...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799738/alemtuzumab-in-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis-patient-selection-and-special-considerations
#3
REVIEW
Jan Dörr, Karl Baum
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is among the most common chronic inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. Although not curable, the constantly increasing armamentarium of disease-modifying drugs now allows control of disease activity in many patients. The humanized monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab is a powerful drug licensed for the treatment of MS. Upon binding to the CD52 surface protein on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, B cells, and monocytes, circulating CD52(+) cells are eliminated via antibody- and complement-mediated lysis, and a less autoreactive adaptive immune system is reconstituted...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634889/broadband-infrared-spectroscopy-for-non-contact-measurement-of-neurological-disease-biomarkers-in-cerebrospinal-fluid
#4
Michael Horosh, Haim Feldman, Avi Yablonovich, Michael A Firer, David Abookasis
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear and colorless biological fluid which circulates within brain ventricles (cavities), the spinal cord's central canal, the space between the brain and the spinal cord, as well as their protective coverings, the meninges. Cerebrospinal fluid contains different constituents, such as albumin and lactate, whose levels are used clinically as biomarkers of neurodegenerative disorders. In current clinical practice, analysis of CSF content for the diagnosis of central nervous system disorders requires an invasive procedure known as lumbar puncture or spinal tap...
September 15, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393339/circulating-micrornas-as-biomarkers-for-rituximab-therapy-in-neuromyelitis-optica-nmo
#5
Adi Vaknin-Dembinsky, Hanna Charbit, Livnat Brill, Oded Abramsky, Devorah Gur-Wahnon, Iddo Z Ben-Dov, Iris Lavon
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The main immunological feature of the disease is the presence of autoantibodies to Aquaporin 4 (AQP4+), identified in about 82 % of cases. Currently, there are no reliable biomarkers for monitoring treatment response in patients with NMO. In an effort to identify biomarkers, we analyzed microRNAs (miRNAs) in the blood of rituximab-treated NMO patients before and after therapy. METHODS: Total RNA extracted from whole blood of nine rituximab-responsive NMO patients before and 6 months following treatment was subjected to small RNAseq analysis...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381476/a-minimally-invasive-blood-derived-biomarker-of-oligodendrocyte-cell-loss-in-multiple-sclerosis
#6
John A Olsen, Lauren A Kenna, Regine C Tipon, Michael G Spelios, Mark M Stecker, Eitan M Akirav
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Minimally invasive biomarkers of MS are required for disease diagnosis and treatment. Differentially methylated circulating-free DNA (cfDNA) is a useful biomarker for disease diagnosis and prognosis, and may offer to be a viable approach for understanding MS. Here, methylation-specific primers and quantitative real-time PCR were used to study methylation patterns of the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) gene, which is expressed primarily in myelin-producing oligodendrocytes (ODCs)...
August 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347748/circulating-long-noncoding-rnas-as-novel-biomarkers-of-human-diseases
#7
Xiaoying Jiang, Ronghui Lei, Qilan Ning
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a kind of noncoding RNAs which are longer than ˜200 nucleotides, lacking of protein-encoding capacity and are implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Recently, it was demonstrated that lncRNAs could be released into the circulation and be stable in blood. Circulating lncRNAs have been reported to have potential in distinguishing patients from healthy individuals. Therefore, the detection of circulating lncRNAs may be valuable for improving the diagnosis and prognosis of various diseases...
July 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27276031/stable-isotope-dilution-assays-for-clinical-analyses-of-folates-and-other-one-carbon-metabolites-application-to-folate-deficiency-studies
#8
Markus Kopp, Rosalie Morisset, Peter Koehler, Michael Rychlik
Folate deficiency is generally accepted as a potential direct or indirect risk factor for diseases including spina bifida, coronary heart diseases, malfunctions of the central nervous system, and cancer. The direct inclusion of folates in the methylation cycle, including the remethylation of homocysteine and regeneration of S-adenosylmethionine, underlines the importance of these vitamins and other components of one-carbon metabolism. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop a multiple stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) for the respective analytes in plasma and tissue samples to allow for a closer look at the interaction between a severe folate deficiency and local folate status, as well as further interactions with circulating S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, and homocysteine...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27180342/circulating-micrornas-as-a-novel-class-of-potential-diagnostic-biomarkers-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Tatyana M Kichukova, Nikolay T Popov, Hristo Y Ivanov, Tihomir I Vachev
Neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are a huge burden on society, impairing the health of those affected, as well as their ability to learn and work. Biomarkers that reflect the dysregulations linked to neuropsychiatric diseases may potentially assist the diagnosis of these disorders. Most of these biomarkers are found in the brain tissue, which is not easily accessible. This is the challenge for the search of novel biomarkers that are present in various body fluids, including serum or plasma...
July 2015: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27179617/long-term-epigenetic-alterations-in-a-rat-model-of-gulf-war-illness
#10
Lisa M Pierce, Wendy E Kurata, Karen W Matsumoto, Margaret E Clark, Douglas M Farmer
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic, multisymptom illness that affects 25% of the 700,000 US veterans deployed to the Persian Gulf during the 1990-1991 Gulf War. Central nervous system impairments are among the most common symptoms reported, including memory dysfunction and depression. After 25 years, the diagnosis remains elusive, useful treatments are lacking, and the cause is poorly understood, although exposures to pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and pesticides are consistently identified to be among the strongest risk factors...
July 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27092176/mini-review-circular-rnas-as-potential-clinical-biomarkers-for-disorders-in-the-central-nervous-system
#11
REVIEW
Dan Lu, An-Ding Xu
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a type of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), produced in eukaryotic cells during post-transcriptional processes. They are more stable than linear RNAs, and possess spatio-temporal properties. CircRNAs do not distribute equally in the neuronal compartments in the brain, but largely enriched in the synapses. These ncRNA species can be used as potential clinical biomarkers in complex disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), which is supported by recent findings. For example, ciRS-7 was found to be a natural microRNAs sponge for miRNA-7 and regulate Parkinson's disease/Alzheimer's disease-related genes; circPAIP2 is an intron-retaining circRNA which upregulates memory-related parental genes PAIP2 to affect memory development through PABP reactivation...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27047250/mir-15b-and-mir-21-as-circulating-biomarkers-for-diagnosis-of-glioma
#12
Pietro Ivo D'Urso, Oscar Fernando D'Urso, Cosimo Damiano Gianfreda, Valeria Mezzolla, Carlo Storelli, Santo Marsigliante
Malignant gliomas are lethal primary intracranial tumors. To date, little information on the role of deregulated genes in gliomas have been identified. As the involvement of miRNAs in the carcinogenesis is well known, we carried out a pilot study to identify, as potential biomarkers, differentially expressed microRNAs in blood samples of patients affected by glioma. We studied the miRNAs' expression, by means of microarray and Real-Time PCR, in 30 blood samples from glioma patients and in 82 blood samples of patients suffering from: (a) various neurological disorders (n=30), (b) primary B-lymphoma of the Central Nervous System (PCNSL, n=36) and (c) secondary brain metastases (n=16)...
October 2015: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26996728/cellular-response-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-to-injury-potential-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets-for-brain-regeneration
#13
REVIEW
M M Tenreiro, R Ferreira, L Bernardino, M A Brito
Endothelial cells are the main component of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a vital structure for maintaining brain homeostasis that is seriously disrupted in various neurological pathologies. Therefore, vascular-targeted therapies may bring advantages for the prevention and treatment of brain disorders. In this sense, novel methods to identify and evaluate endothelial damage have been developed and include the detection of circulating endothelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells, endothelial microparticles and exosomes...
July 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26993504/extracellular-vesicles-in-brain-tumor-progression
#14
REVIEW
Esterina D'Asti, Shilpa Chennakrishnaiah, Tae Hoon Lee, Janusz Rak
Brain tumors can be viewed as multicellular 'ecosystems' with increasingly recognized cellular complexity and systemic impact. While the emerging diversity of malignant disease entities affecting brain tissues is often described in reference to their signature alterations within the cellular genome and epigenome, arguably these cell-intrinsic changes can be regarded as hardwired adaptations to a variety of cell-extrinsic microenvironmental circumstances. Conversely, oncogenic events influence the microenvironment through their impact on the cellular secretome, including emission of membranous structures known as extracellular vesicles (EVs)...
April 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26856944/cholesterol-and-markers-of-cholesterol-turnover-in-multiple-sclerosis-relationship-with-disease-outcomes
#15
REVIEW
Simon Zhornitsky, Kyla A McKay, Luanne M Metz, Charlotte E Teunissen, Manu Rangachari
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic central nervous system disease that is associated with progressive loss of myelin and subsequent axonal degeneration. Cholesterol is an essential component of mammalian cellular and myelin membranes. In this systematic review, we examined the relationship between levels of cholesterol and markers of cholesterol turnover in circulation and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and disease outcomes in adults with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) or confirmed MS. Studies suggest that elevated levels of circulating low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), total cholesterol, and particularly, apolipoprotein B and oxidized LDL are associated with adverse clinical and MRI outcomes in MS...
January 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26322014/current-understanding-of-circulating-tumor-cells-potential-value-in-malignancies-of-the-central-nervous-system
#16
REVIEW
Lukasz A Adamczyk, Hannah Williams, Aleksandra Frankow, Hayley Patricia Ellis, Harry R Haynes, Claire Perks, Jeff M P Holly, Kathreena M Kurian
Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood via so-called "liquid biopsies" carries enormous clinical potential in malignancies of the central nervous system (CNS) because of the potential to follow disease evolution with a blood test, without the need for repeat neurosurgical procedures with their inherent risk of patient morbidity. To date, studies in non-CNS malignancies, particularly in breast cancer, show increasing reproducibility of detection methods for these rare tumor cells in the circulation...
2015: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26265215/nanomolar-aluminum-induces-expression-of-the-inflammatory-systemic-biomarker-c-reactive-protein-crp-in-human-brain-microvessel-endothelial-cells-hbmecs
#17
Peter N Alexandrov, Theodore P A Kruck, Walter J Lukiw
C-reactive protein (CRP; also known as pentraxin 1, PTX1), a 224 amino acid soluble serum protein organized into a novel pentameric ring-shaped structure, is a highly sensitive pathogenic biomarker for systemic inflammation. High CRP levels are found in practically every known inflammatory state, and elevated CRP levels indicate an increased risk for several common age-related human degenerative disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). While the majority of CRP is synthesized in the liver for secretion into the systemic circulation, it has recently been discovered that an appreciable amount of CRP is synthesized in highly specialized endothelial cells that line the vasculature of the brain and central nervous system (CNS)...
November 2015: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26264608/inflammatory-neuropathies-pathology-molecular-markers-and-targets-for-specific-therapeutic-intervention
#18
REVIEW
Eroboghene E Ubogu
Inflammatory neuropathies encompass groups of heterogeneous disorders characterized by pathogenic immune-mediated hematogenous leukocyte infiltration of peripheral nerves, nerve roots or both, with resultant demyelination or axonal degeneration or both. Inflammatory neuropathies may be divided into three major disease categories: Guillain-Barré syndrome (particularly the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy variant), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy and nonsystemic vasculitic neuropathy (or peripheral nerve vasculitis)...
October 2015: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26250566/circulating-u2-small-nuclear-rna-fragments-as-a-novel-diagnostic-biomarker-for-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma
#19
Alexander Baraniskin, Elena Zaslavska, Stefanie Nöpel-Dünnebacke, Guido Ahle, Sabine Seidel, Uwe Schlegel, Wolff Schmiegel, Stephan Hahn, Roland Schroers
BACKGROUND: Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) are highly aggressive tumors. Chemotherapy has improved prognosis significantly; however, early diagnosis is crucial for effective treatment. Presently, the diagnosis of PCNSL depends on histopathology of tumor biopsies. We have previously demonstrated differential expression of microRNAs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with PCNSL. Based on promising findings about circulating U2 small nuclear RNA fragments (RNU2-1f) as novel blood-based biomarkers for pancreatic, colorectal, and lung cancer, we investigated RNU2-1f in the CSF of PCNSL patients...
March 2016: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26073484/blood-circulating-microparticle-species-in-relapsing-remitting-and-secondary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-a-case-control-cross-sectional-study-with-conventional-mri-and-advanced-iron-content-imaging-outcomes
#20
J S Alexander, R Chervenak, B Weinstock-Guttman, I Tsunoda, M Ramanathan, N Martinez, S Omura, F Sato, G V Chaitanya, A Minagar, J McGee, M H Jennings, C Monceaux, F Becker, U Cvek, M Trutschl, R Zivadinov
BACKGROUND: Although multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to represent an excessive and inappropriate immune response to several central nervous system (CNS) autoantigens, increasing evidence also suggests that MS may also be a neurovascular inflammatory disease, characterized by endothelial activation and shedding of cell membrane microdomains known as 'microparticles' into the circulation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships between these endothelial biomarkers and MS...
August 15, 2015: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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