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Circulating biomarkers AND nervous system disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440247/circulating-biomarkers-in-glaucoma-age-related-macular-degeneration-and-diabetic-retinopathy
#1
Madhu Nath, Nabanita Halder, Thirumurthy Velpandian
Biomarkers to predict the altering physiological conditions over the period leading toward the ocular disorders are of major importance in therapeutics. Isolation and validation of the biomarkers specific to ocular diseases are a challenging task. Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease of the eye where the correlation of biomarkers in circulating fluid may be made specific for the eye. However, conditions such as wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (DR), circulating biomarkers might be having some degree of overlap with other conditions like cancer where a common factor such as angiogenesis is involved...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399903/overexpression-of-syndecan-1-muc-1-and-putative-stem-cell-markers-in-breast-cancer-leptomeningeal-metastasis-a-cerebrospinal-fluid-flow-cytometry-study
#2
Iole Cordone, Serena Masi, Valentina Summa, Mariantonia Carosi, Antonello Vidiri, Alessandra Fabi, Alessia Pasquale, Laura Conti, Immacolata Rosito, Carmine Maria Carapella, Veronica Villani, Andrea Pace
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a mosaic of tumor cell subpopulations, where only a minority is responsible for disease recurrence and cancer invasiveness. We focused on one of the most aggressive circulating tumor cells (CTCs) which, from the primitive tumor, spreads to the central nervous system (CNS), evaluating the expression of prognostic and putative cancer stem cell markers in breast cancer (BC) leptomeningeal metastasis (LM). METHODS: Flow cytometry immunophenotypic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples (4...
April 11, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360260/multiparametric-imaging-of-organ-system-interfaces
#3
Katrien Vandoorne, Matthias Nahrendorf
Cardiovascular diseases are a consequence of genetic and environmental risk factors that together generate arterial wall and cardiac pathologies. Blood vessels connect multiple systems throughout the entire body and allow organs to interact via circulating messengers. These same interactions facilitate nervous and metabolic system's influence on cardiovascular health. Multiparametric imaging offers the opportunity to study these interfacing systems' distinct processes, to quantify their interactions, and to explore how these contribute to cardiovascular disease...
April 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225487/comparing-serum-microrna-levels-of-acute-herpes-zoster-patients-with-those-of-postherpetic-neuralgia-patients
#4
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ying Huang, Xihan Li, Gaojian Tao, Tong Zhu, Jian Lin
Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is commonly defined as pain persisting for at least 3 months after acute herpes zoster (AHZ) rash presentation. About one-tenth of all acute herpes zoster patients develop PHN. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are promising biomarkers for infectious diseases; however, there has been no relationship established between circulating miRNAs and PHN to date; the aim of the present investigation was to elucidate this relationship.We compared serum levels of miRNA in PHN and AHZ patients...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181066/plasma-levels-of-mir-137-and-mir-124-are-associated-with-parkinson-s-disease-but-not-with-parkinson-s-disease-with-depression
#5
Na Li, Xudong Pan, Jingli Zhang, Aijun Ma, Shaonan Yang, Juanjuan Ma, Anmu Xie
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Recently, it was reported that miR-137, miR-124, and miR-184 were widely expressed in the central nervous system and were vital to neuronal regulation. In this study, we detected the circulating levels of miR-137, miR-124, and miR-184 in PD patients, and explored the potential role of miR-124, miR-137, and miR-184 in the diagnosis of PD. We further described the relationship between these miRNAs and PD with depression (PD-Dep)...
February 8, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918431/evaluation-of-microrna-expression-in-patients-with-herpes-zoster
#6
Xihan Li, Ying Huang, Yucheng Zhang, Na He
Reactivated varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which lies latent in the dorsal root ganglions and cranial nerves before its reactivation, is capable of causing herpes zoster (HZ), but the specific mechanism of virus reactivation and latency remains unknown. It was proposed that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in body fluids could potentially indicate infection. However, the connection between herpes zoster and circulating miRNAs has not been demonstrated. In this study, 41 HZ patients without superinfection were selected...
December 2, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863260/applications-of-dna-based-liquid-biopsy-for-central-nervous-system-neoplasms
#7
REVIEW
Joanna Wang, Chetan Bettegowda
The management of central nervous system malignancies remains reliant on histopathological analysis and neuroimaging, despite their complex genetic profile. The intratumoral heterogeneity displayed by these tumors necessitates a more sophisticated method of tumor analysis and monitoring, with the ability to assess tumors over space and time. Circulating biomarkers, including circulating tumor cells, circulating tumor DNA, and extracellular vesicles, hold promise as a type of real-time liquid biopsy able to provide dynamic information not only regarding tumor burden to monitor disease progression and treatment response, but also regarding genetic profile to enable changes in management to match a constantly evolving tumor...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799738/alemtuzumab-in-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis-patient-selection-and-special-considerations
#8
REVIEW
Jan Dörr, Karl Baum
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is among the most common chronic inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. Although not curable, the constantly increasing armamentarium of disease-modifying drugs now allows control of disease activity in many patients. The humanized monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab is a powerful drug licensed for the treatment of MS. Upon binding to the CD52 surface protein on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, B cells, and monocytes, circulating CD52(+) cells are eliminated via antibody- and complement-mediated lysis, and a less autoreactive adaptive immune system is reconstituted...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634889/broadband-infrared-spectroscopy-for-non-contact-measurement-of-neurological-disease-biomarkers-in-cerebrospinal-fluid
#9
Michael Horosh, Haim Feldman, Avi Yablonovich, Michael A Firer, David Abookasis
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear and colorless biological fluid which circulates within brain ventricles (cavities), the spinal cord's central canal, the space between the brain and the spinal cord, as well as their protective coverings, the meninges. Cerebrospinal fluid contains different constituents, such as albumin and lactate, whose levels are used clinically as biomarkers of neurodegenerative disorders. In current clinical practice, analysis of CSF content for the diagnosis of central nervous system disorders requires an invasive procedure known as lumbar puncture or spinal tap...
March 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393339/circulating-micrornas-as-biomarkers-for-rituximab-therapy-in-neuromyelitis-optica-nmo
#10
Adi Vaknin-Dembinsky, Hanna Charbit, Livnat Brill, Oded Abramsky, Devorah Gur-Wahnon, Iddo Z Ben-Dov, Iris Lavon
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The main immunological feature of the disease is the presence of autoantibodies to Aquaporin 4 (AQP4+), identified in about 82 % of cases. Currently, there are no reliable biomarkers for monitoring treatment response in patients with NMO. In an effort to identify biomarkers, we analyzed microRNAs (miRNAs) in the blood of rituximab-treated NMO patients before and after therapy. METHODS: Total RNA extracted from whole blood of nine rituximab-responsive NMO patients before and 6 months following treatment was subjected to small RNAseq analysis...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381476/a-minimally-invasive-blood-derived-biomarker-of-oligodendrocyte-cell-loss-in-multiple-sclerosis
#11
John A Olsen, Lauren A Kenna, Regine C Tipon, Michael G Spelios, Mark M Stecker, Eitan M Akirav
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Minimally invasive biomarkers of MS are required for disease diagnosis and treatment. Differentially methylated circulating-free DNA (cfDNA) is a useful biomarker for disease diagnosis and prognosis, and may offer to be a viable approach for understanding MS. Here, methylation-specific primers and quantitative real-time PCR were used to study methylation patterns of the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) gene, which is expressed primarily in myelin-producing oligodendrocytes (ODCs)...
August 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347748/circulating-long-noncoding-rnas-as-novel-biomarkers-of-human-diseases
#12
Xiaoying Jiang, Ronghui Lei, Qilan Ning
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a kind of noncoding RNAs which are longer than ˜200 nucleotides, lacking of protein-encoding capacity and are implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Recently, it was demonstrated that lncRNAs could be released into the circulation and be stable in blood. Circulating lncRNAs have been reported to have potential in distinguishing patients from healthy individuals. Therefore, the detection of circulating lncRNAs may be valuable for improving the diagnosis and prognosis of various diseases...
July 2016: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27276031/stable-isotope-dilution-assays-for-clinical-analyses-of-folates-and-other-one-carbon-metabolites-application-to-folate-deficiency-studies
#13
Markus Kopp, Rosalie Morisset, Peter Koehler, Michael Rychlik
Folate deficiency is generally accepted as a potential direct or indirect risk factor for diseases including spina bifida, coronary heart diseases, malfunctions of the central nervous system, and cancer. The direct inclusion of folates in the methylation cycle, including the remethylation of homocysteine and regeneration of S-adenosylmethionine, underlines the importance of these vitamins and other components of one-carbon metabolism. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop a multiple stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) for the respective analytes in plasma and tissue samples to allow for a closer look at the interaction between a severe folate deficiency and local folate status, as well as further interactions with circulating S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, and homocysteine...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27180342/circulating-micrornas-as-a-novel-class-of-potential-diagnostic-biomarkers-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Tatyana M Kichukova, Nikolay T Popov, Hristo Y Ivanov, Tihomir I Vachev
Neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are a huge burden on society, impairing the health of those affected, as well as their ability to learn and work. Biomarkers that reflect the dysregulations linked to neuropsychiatric diseases may potentially assist the diagnosis of these disorders. Most of these biomarkers are found in the brain tissue, which is not easily accessible. This is the challenge for the search of novel biomarkers that are present in various body fluids, including serum or plasma...
July 2015: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27179617/long-term-epigenetic-alterations-in-a-rat-model-of-gulf-war-illness
#15
Lisa M Pierce, Wendy E Kurata, Karen W Matsumoto, Margaret E Clark, Douglas M Farmer
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic, multisymptom illness that affects 25% of the 700,000 US veterans deployed to the Persian Gulf during the 1990-1991 Gulf War. Central nervous system impairments are among the most common symptoms reported, including memory dysfunction and depression. After 25 years, the diagnosis remains elusive, useful treatments are lacking, and the cause is poorly understood, although exposures to pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and pesticides are consistently identified to be among the strongest risk factors...
July 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27092176/mini-review-circular-rnas-as-potential-clinical-biomarkers-for-disorders-in-the-central-nervous-system
#16
REVIEW
Dan Lu, An-Ding Xu
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a type of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), produced in eukaryotic cells during post-transcriptional processes. They are more stable than linear RNAs, and possess spatio-temporal properties. CircRNAs do not distribute equally in the neuronal compartments in the brain, but largely enriched in the synapses. These ncRNA species can be used as potential clinical biomarkers in complex disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), which is supported by recent findings. For example, ciRS-7 was found to be a natural microRNAs sponge for miRNA-7 and regulate Parkinson's disease/Alzheimer's disease-related genes; circPAIP2 is an intron-retaining circRNA which upregulates memory-related parental genes PAIP2 to affect memory development through PABP reactivation...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27047250/mir-15b-and-mir-21-as-circulating-biomarkers-for-diagnosis-of-glioma
#17
Pietro Ivo D'Urso, Oscar Fernando D'Urso, Cosimo Damiano Gianfreda, Valeria Mezzolla, Carlo Storelli, Santo Marsigliante
Malignant gliomas are lethal primary intracranial tumors. To date, little information on the role of deregulated genes in gliomas have been identified. As the involvement of miRNAs in the carcinogenesis is well known, we carried out a pilot study to identify, as potential biomarkers, differentially expressed microRNAs in blood samples of patients affected by glioma. We studied the miRNAs' expression, by means of microarray and Real-Time PCR, in 30 blood samples from glioma patients and in 82 blood samples of patients suffering from: (a) various neurological disorders (n=30), (b) primary B-lymphoma of the Central Nervous System (PCNSL, n=36) and (c) secondary brain metastases (n=16)...
October 2015: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26996728/cellular-response-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-to-injury-potential-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets-for-brain-regeneration
#18
REVIEW
M M Tenreiro, R Ferreira, L Bernardino, M A Brito
Endothelial cells are the main component of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a vital structure for maintaining brain homeostasis that is seriously disrupted in various neurological pathologies. Therefore, vascular-targeted therapies may bring advantages for the prevention and treatment of brain disorders. In this sense, novel methods to identify and evaluate endothelial damage have been developed and include the detection of circulating endothelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells, endothelial microparticles and exosomes...
July 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26993504/extracellular-vesicles-in-brain-tumor-progression
#19
REVIEW
Esterina D'Asti, Shilpa Chennakrishnaiah, Tae Hoon Lee, Janusz Rak
Brain tumors can be viewed as multicellular 'ecosystems' with increasingly recognized cellular complexity and systemic impact. While the emerging diversity of malignant disease entities affecting brain tissues is often described in reference to their signature alterations within the cellular genome and epigenome, arguably these cell-intrinsic changes can be regarded as hardwired adaptations to a variety of cell-extrinsic microenvironmental circumstances. Conversely, oncogenic events influence the microenvironment through their impact on the cellular secretome, including emission of membranous structures known as extracellular vesicles (EVs)...
April 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26856944/cholesterol-and-markers-of-cholesterol-turnover-in-multiple-sclerosis-relationship-with-disease-outcomes
#20
REVIEW
Simon Zhornitsky, Kyla A McKay, Luanne M Metz, Charlotte E Teunissen, Manu Rangachari
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic central nervous system disease that is associated with progressive loss of myelin and subsequent axonal degeneration. Cholesterol is an essential component of mammalian cellular and myelin membranes. In this systematic review, we examined the relationship between levels of cholesterol and markers of cholesterol turnover in circulation and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and disease outcomes in adults with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) or confirmed MS. Studies suggest that elevated levels of circulating low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), total cholesterol, and particularly, apolipoprotein B and oxidized LDL are associated with adverse clinical and MRI outcomes in MS...
January 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
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