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Circulating biomarkers AND neural disorders

M R Kapolowicz, L T Thompson
Tinnitus is a devastating auditory disorder impacting a growing number of people each year. The aims of the current experiment were to assess neuronal mechanisms involved in the initial plasticity after traumatic noise exposure that could contribute to the emergence of tinnitus and to test a potential pharmacological treatment to alter this early neural plasticity. Specifically, this study addressed rapid effects of acute noise trauma on amygdalo-hippocampal circuitry, characterizing biomarkers of both excitation and inhibition in these limbic regions, and compared them to expression of these same markers in primary auditory cortex shortly after acute noise trauma...
October 1, 2016: Hearing Research
Ferdinand Jagot, Nathalie Davoust
New evidence has highlighted that miRNA production and trafficking can be dysregulated in both autoimmmune and neurological disorders. Multiple sclerosis (MS) in particular is an autoimmune pathology leading to neurodegeneration. Profiling studies performed on cells derived from MS patients have described a dysregulated network of miRNAs in both immune and neural cells. Interestingly, new evidence has emerged showing that circulating miRNAs are also dysregulated in MS body fluids, including plasma/serum and cerebrospinal fluid...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Dervla O'Malley
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder which is characterised by symptoms such as bloating, altered bowel habit and visceral pain. It's generally accepted that miscommunication between the brain and gut underlies the changes in motility, absorpto-secretory function and pain sensitivity associated with IBS. However, partly due to the lack of disease-defining biomarkers, understanding the aetiology of this complex and multifactorial disease remains elusive. Anecdotally, IBS patients have noted that periods of stress can result in symptom flares and many patients exhibit co-morbid stress-related mood disorders such as anxiety and depression...
June 28, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
A J Skilleter, C S Weickert, A Vercammen, R Lenroot, T W Weickert
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important regulator of synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity underlying learning. However, a relationship between circulating BDNF levels and brain activity during learning has not been demonstrated in humans. Reduced brain BDNF levels are found in schizophrenia and functional neuroimaging studies of probabilistic association learning in schizophrenia have demonstrated reduced activity in a neural network that includes the prefrontal and parietal cortices and the caudate nucleus...
March 2015: Psychological Medicine
Yogesh Dwivedi
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a major public health concern. Despite tremendous advances, the pathogenic mechanisms associated with MDD are still unclear. Moreover, a significant number of MDD subjects do not respond to the currently available medication. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that control gene expression by modulating translation, messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation, or stability of mRNA targets. The role of miRNAs in disease pathophysiology is emerging rapidly. Recent studies demonstrating the involvement of miRNAs in several aspects of neural plasticity, neurogenesis, and stress response, and more direct studies in human postmortem brain provide strong evidence that miRNAs can not only play a critical role in MDD pathogenesis, but can also open up new avenues for the development of therapeutic targets...
March 2014: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Paula Goines, Judy Van de Water
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The following is a review of the most recent research concerning the potential role of immune system dysfunction in autism. This body of literature has expanded dramatically over the past few years as researchers continue to identify immune anomalies in individuals with autism. RECENT FINDINGS: The most exciting of these recent findings is the discovery of autoantibodies targeting brain proteins in both children with autism and their mothers. In particular, circulating maternal autoantibodies directed toward fetal brain proteins are highly specific for autism...
April 2010: Current Opinion in Neurology
John A Detre, Jiongjiong Wang, Ze Wang, Hengyi Rao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Arterial spin labeling (ASL) provides an endogenous and completely noninvasive tracer for the quantification of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although the measurement of CBF has obvious utility in cerebrovascular disorders, because CBF is closely coupled to neural metabolism, ASL perfusion MRI has a broad range of potential applications as a biomarker of regional brain function in basic and clinical neuroscience. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the past few years, ASL technology has improved considerably and the utility of ASL perfusion MRI as a diagnostic and research tool has been demonstrated...
August 2009: Current Opinion in Neurology
Mary L Phillips, Eduard Vieta
Bipolar disorder is one of the most debilitating and common illnesses worldwide. Individuals with bipolar disorder frequently present to clinical services when depressed but are often misdiagnosed with unipolar depression, leading to inadequate treatment and poor outcome. Increased accuracy in diagnosing bipolar disorder, especially during depression, is therefore a key long-term goal to improve the mental health of individuals with the disorder. The attainment of this goal can be facilitated by identifying biomarkers reflecting pathophysiologic processes in bipolar disorder, namely impaired emotion regulation, impaired attention, and distractibility, which persist during depression and remission and are not common to unipolar depression...
July 2007: Schizophrenia Bulletin
St├ęphane Boghossian, Naohiko Ueno, Michael G Dube, Pushpa Kalra, Satya Kalra
Leptin, a product of the ob gene, is a pleiotropic signal implicated in regulation of multiple physiological functions in the periphery and centrally, including hypothalamic integration of energy homeostasis. Recessive mutations of ob gene result in early onset of hyperphagia, morbid obesity, metabolic disorders, early mortality and shortened life-span. Intracerebroventricular injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus vector (rAAV) encoding the leptin gene in adult obese ob/ob mice enhanced leptin transgene expression only in the hypothalamus, normalized food intake, body weight and more than doubled the life-span as compared to control cohorts and extended it to near that of normal wild type mice...
October 2007: Neurobiology of Aging
Heather A Skynner, Doran P Amos, Fraser Murray, Kamran Salim, Michael R Knowles, Ignacio Munoz-Sanjuan, Luis M Camargo, Timothy P Bonnert, Paul C Guest
Some patients with Major Depression and other neurological afflictions display hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. HPA hyperactivity may be due to impaired feedback inhibition and manifested as increased levels of circulating cortisol. Subcutaneous implants of corticosterone pellets were used to mimic this situation in mice to gain insight into any effects on brain function by comparative proteomic analysis using two-dimensional Differential In-Gel Electrophoresis. A total of 150 different protein spots were altered by corticosterone treatment in the hypothalamus, hippocampus and cerebral cortex...
August 2, 2006: Brain Research
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