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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445615/status-epilepticus-in-dogs-and-cats-part-1-etiopathogenesis-epidemiology-and-diagnosis
#1
Susan Blades Golubovic, John H Rossmeisl
OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge of the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and consequences of status epilepticus (SE) in veterinary patients. DATA SOURCES: Human and veterinary literature, including clinical and laboratory research and reviews. ETIOPATHOGENESIS: Status epilepticus is a common emergency in dogs and cats, and may be the first manifestation of a seizure disorder. It results from the failure of termination of an isolated seizure...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443597/a-different-slc2a1-gene-mutation-in-glut-1-deficiency-syndrome-c-734a-c
#2
Rüya Çolak, Senem Alkan Özdemir, Ezgi Yangın Ergon, Mehtap Kağnıcı, Şebnem Çalkavur
BACKGROUND: Neonatal seizures can be the first symptom of the inborn errors of metabolism. Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS) is the result of impaired glucose transport into the brain. GLUT1DS patient presents with infantile seizures with resistant to traditional seizure medications, developmental delay, acquired microcephaly, spasticity and ataxia. CASE REPORT: Here, we report a rare case of Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome caused by a different pathogenic variant in a 10-day-old neonate who presented with intractable seizures and respiratory arrest...
April 13, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443260/growth-without-growth-hormone-in-combined-pituitary-hormone-deficiency-caused-by-pituitary-stalk-interruption-syndrome
#3
Sang Soo Lee, A-Leum Han, Moon Bae Ahn, Shin Hee Kim, Won Kyoung Cho, Kyoung Soon Cho, So Hyun Park, Min Ho Jung, Byung-Kyu Suh
Growth hormone (GH) is an essential element for normal growth. However, reports of normal growth without GH have been made in patients who have undergone brain surgery for craniopharyngioma. Normal growth without GH can be explained by hyperinsulinemia, hyperprolactinemia, elevated leptin levels, and GH variants; however, its exact mechanism has not been elucidated yet. We diagnosed a female patient aged 13 with combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) caused by pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS)...
March 2017: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443064/loss-of-vagal-sensitivity-to-cholecystokinin-in-rats-born-with-intrauterine-growth-retardation-and-consequence-on-food-intake
#4
Marième Ndjim, Camille Poinsignon, Patricia Parnet, Gwenola Le Dréan
Perinatal malnutrition is associated with low birth weight and an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Modification of food intake (FI) regulation was observed in adult rats born with intrauterine growth retardation induced by maternal dietary protein restriction during gestation and maintained restricted until weaning. Gastrointestinal peptides and particularly cholecystokinin (CCK) play a major role in short-term regulation of FI by relaying digestive signals to the hindbrain via the vagal afferent nerve (VAN)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443016/genetics-of-aggression-in-alzheimer-s-disease-ad
#5
Walter J Lukiw, Evgeny I Rogaev
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a terminal, age-related neurological syndrome exhibiting progressive cognitive and memory decline, however AD patients in addition exhibit ancillary neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) and these include aggression. In this communication we provide recent evidence for the mis-regulation of a small family of genes expressed in the human hippocampus that appear to be significantly involved in expression patterns common to both AD and aggression. DNA array- and mRNA transcriptome-based gene expression analysis and candidate gene association and/or genome-wide association studies (CGAS, GWAS) of aggressive attributes in humans have revealed a surprisingly small subset of six brain genes that are also strongly associated with altered gene expression patterns in AD...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443011/the-lateral-occipito-temporal-cortex-is-involved-in-the-mental-manipulation-of-body-part-imagery
#6
Mitsuru Kikuchi, Tetsuya Takahashi, Tetsu Hirosawa, Yumi Oboshi, Etsuji Yoshikawa, Yoshio Minabe, Yasuomi Ouchi
The lateral occipito-temporal cortex (LOTC), including the extrastriate body area, is known to be involved in the perception of body parts. Although still controversial, recent studies have demonstrated the role of the LOTC in higher-level body-related cognition in humans. This study consisted of two experiments (E1 and E2). The first (E1) was an exploratory experiment to find the neural correlate of the mental manipulation of body part imagery, in which brain cerebral glucose metabolic rates and the performance of mental rotation of the hand were measured in 100 subjects who exhibited a range of symptoms of cognitive decline...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442765/the-gpr139-reference-agonists-1a-and-7c-and-tryptophan-and-phenylalanine-share-a-common-binding-site
#7
Anne Cathrine Nøhr, Willem Jespers, Mohamed A Shehata, Leonard Floryan, Vignir Isberg, Kirsten Bayer Andersen, Johan Åqvist, Hugo Gutiérrez-de-Terán, Hans Bräuner-Osborne, David E Gloriam
GPR139 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor expressed in the brain, in particular in the habenula, hypothalamus and striatum. It has therefore been suggested that GPR139 is a possible target for metabolic disorders and Parkinson's disease. Several surrogate agonist series have been published for GPR139. Two series published by Shi et al. and Dvorak et al. included agonists 1a and 7c respectively, with potencies in the ten-nanomolar range. Furthermore, Isberg et al. and Liu et al. have previously shown that tryptophan (Trp) and phenylalanine (Phe) can activate GPR139 in the hundred-micromolar range...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442580/ethanol-reversal-of-tolerance-to-the-antinociceptive-effects-of-oxycodone-and-hydrocodone
#8
Joanna C Jacob, Justin L Poklis, Hamid I Akbarali, Graeme Henderson, William L Dewey
This study compared the development of tolerance and its reversal by ethanol of two orally-bioavailable prescription opioids, oxycodone and hydrocodone, to that of morphine. Oxycodone (s.c) was significantly more potent in the mouse tail withdrawal assay than either morphine or hydrocodone. Oxycodone was also significantly more potent in this assay than hydrocodone when administered orally. Tolerance was seen following chronic subcutaneous administration of each of the three drugs and by the chronic administration of oral oxycodone, but not following the chronic oral administration of hydrocodone...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442549/neuraminidases-3-and-4-regulate-neuronal-function-by-catabolizing-brain-gangliosides
#9
Xuefang Pan, Camila De Britto Pará De Aragão, Juan P Velasco-Martin, David A Priestman, Harry Y Wu, Kohta Takahashi, Kazunori Yamaguchi, Luisella Sturiale, Domenico Garozzo, Frances M Platt, Nathalie Lamarche-Vane, Carlos R Morales, Taeko Miyagi, Alexey V Pshezhetsky
Gangliosides (sialylated glycolipids) play an essential role in the CNS by regulating recognition and signaling in neurons. Metabolic blocks in processing and catabolism of gangliosides result in the development of severe neurologic disorders, including gangliosidoses manifesting with neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. We demonstrate that 2 mammalian enzymes, neuraminidases 3 and 4, play important roles in catabolic processing of brain gangliosides by cleaving terminal sialic acid residues in their glycan chains...
April 25, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441938/mitors-a-method-for-high-throughput-sensitive-and-accurate-detection-of-mitochondrial-dna-heteroplasmy
#10
Julien Marquis, Gregory Lefebvre, Yiannis A I Kourmpetis, Mohamed Kassam, Frédéric Ronga, Umberto De Marchi, Andreas Wiederkehr, Patrick Descombes
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to numerous pathological states, in particular related to metabolism, brain health and ageing. Nuclear encoded gene polymorphisms implicated in mitochondrial functions can be analyzed in the context of classical genome wide association studies. By contrast, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants are more challenging to identify and analyze for several reasons. First, contrary to the diploid nuclear genome, each cell carries several hundred copies of the circular mitochondrial genome...
April 26, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441648/the-epigenetic-regulation-of-gata4-dependent-brain-natriuretic-peptide-expression-during-alcohol-withdrawal
#11
Alexander Glahn, Mathias Rhein, Annemarie Heberlein, Marc Muschler, Johannes Kornhuber, Helge Frieling, Stefan Bleich, Thomas Hillemacher
OBJECTIVE: Natriuretic peptides participate in the collection of metabolic effects during alcohol withdrawal. Having witnessed modulation of other natriuretic peptides in alcohol-dependent patients during alcohol withdrawal, we were interested in the relation of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) methylation with protein expression and craving in this longitudinal study. METHODS: Ninety-nine male patients were compared to 101 healthy controls concerning epigenetic regulation and protein expression during detoxification treatment...
April 26, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440626/alteration-of-diastereoisomeric-and-enantiomeric-profiles-of-hexabromocyclododecanes-hbcds-in-adult-chicken-tissues-eggs-and-hatchling-chickens
#12
Xiaobo Zheng, Lin Qiao, Run-XIa Sun, Xiaojun Luo, Jing Zheng, Qilai Xie, Yuxin Sun, Bi Xian Mai
The concentrations and enantiomer fractions (EFs) of α-, β-, and γ-hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were measured in chicken diet sources (soil and chicken feed), home-raised adult chicken (Gallus domesticus) tissues, eggs during incubation, and hatchling chicken tissues. HBCD concentrations were nd-0.69 ng/g dry weight (dw) and 25.6-48.4 ng/g dw in chicken feed and soil, respectively. HBCDs were detected in all adult chicken tissues except the brain, at median levels of 13.1-44.0 ng/g lipid weight (lw). The proportions of α-HBCD in total HBCDs increased from 51% in soil to more than 87% in adult chicken tissues...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440493/the-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-2-pathway-in-neurological-diseases-a-potential-therapeutic-target-review
#13
Jing Sun, Guangxian Nan
Signaling pathways are critical modulators of a variety of physiological and pathological processes, and the abnormal activation of some signaling pathways can contribute to disease progression in various conditions. As a result, signaling pathways have emerged as an important tool through which the occurrence and development of diseases can be studied, which may then lead to the development of novel drugs. Accumulating evidence supports a key role for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling in the embryonic development of the central nervous system (CNS) and in the regulation of adult brain function...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440446/temporal-and-spatial-changes-of-monocarboxylate-transporter-4-expression-in-the-hippocampal-ca1-region-following-transient-forebrain-ischemia-in-the-mongolian-gerbil
#14
Dae Young Yoo, Joon Ha Park, Kwon Young Lee, Hyun Jung Kwon, Hyo Young Jung, Jong Whi Kim, Dae Won Kim, Jung Hoon Choi, Seung Myung Moon, Yeo Sung Yoon, Moo-Ho Won, In Koo Hwang
Transient forebrain ischemia depletes glucose and oxygen levels in the brain. In this pathological condition, lactate serves an important role in cellular metabolism as the end product of glycolysis. The present study investigated the expression of monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) in lactate metabolism in the hippocampal CA1 region following induction of transient forebrain ischemia. MCT4 immunoreactivity was detected in CA1 pyramidal cells of the sham-operated group. Animals from the ischemic group exhibited a transient decrease in MCT4 immunoreactivity in the CA1 region between 30 min and 3 h following ischemia compared with the sham‑operated group...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439753/abating-mercury-exposure-in-young-children-should-include-thimerosal-free-vaccines
#15
REVIEW
José G Dórea
Pediatric immunization is essential to prevent, control and eradicate children`s infectious diseases. Newborns and infants in less developed countries have a concentrated schedule of Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs); pregnant mothers are also immunized with TCVs. Metabolic changes during early development are demonstrably an important risk factor for ethylmercury (EtHg) effects on neurodevelopment, while exposure to Thimerosal sensitizes susceptible individuals to life-long contact dermatitis. Concerns regarding toxicity of Hg have moved rich nations to withdraw it from medicines and, in particular, Thimerosal from pediatric vaccines; it has been more than 20 years since rich countries started using Thimerosal-free vaccines...
April 24, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439746/plasma-phosphatidylethanolamine-and-triacylglycerol-fatty-acid-concentrations-are-altered-in-major-depressive-disorder-patients-with-seasonal-pattern
#16
Yurika Otoki, Marie Hennebelle, Anthony J Levitt, Kiyotaka Nakagawa, Walter Swardfager, Ameer Y Taha
Disturbances in peripheral and brain lipid metabolism, including the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been reported in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, these changes have yet to be confirmed in MDD with seasonal pattern (MDD-s), a subtype of recurrent MDD. The present exploratory study quantified plasma plasmalogen and diacyl-phospholipid species, and fatty acids within total phospholipids, cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols and free fatty acids in non-medicated MDD-s participants (n = 9) during euthymia in summer or fall, and during depression in winter in order to screen for potential high sensitivity lipid biomarkers...
April 24, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439520/relationship-between-relative-cerebral-blood-flow-relative-cerebral-blood-volume-and-relative-cerebral-metabolic-rate-of-oxygen-in-the-preterm-neonatal-brain
#17
Mina Nourhashemi, Guy Kongolo, Mahdi Mahmoudzadeh, Sabrina Goudjil, Fabrice Wallois
The mechanisms responsible for coupling between relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and relative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen ([Formula: see text]), an important function of the microcirculation in preterm infants, remain unclear. Identification of a causal relationship between rCBF-rCBV and [Formula: see text] in preterms may, therefore, help to elucidate the principles of cortical hemodynamics during development. We simultaneously recorded rCBF and rCBV and estimated [Formula: see text] by two independent acquisition systems: diffuse correlation spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively, in 10 preterms aged between 28 and 35 weeks of gestational age...
April 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439468/a-link-between-central-kynurenine-metabolism-and-bone-strength-in-rats-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
Bartlomiej Kalaska, Krystyna Pawlak, Ewa Oksztulska-Kolanek, Tomasz Domaniewski, Beata Znorko, Malgorzata Karbowska, Aleksandra Citkowska, Joanna Rogalska, Alicja Roszczenko, Malgorzata M Brzoska, Dariusz Pawlak
BACKGROUND: Disturbances in mineral and bone metabolism represent one of the most complex complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Serotonin, a monoamine synthesized from tryptophan, may play a potential role in bone metabolism. Brain-derived serotonin exerts a positive effect on the bone structure by limiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. Tryptophan is the precursor not only to the serotonin but also and primarily to kynurenine metabolites. The ultimate aim of the present study was to determine the association between central kynurenine metabolism and biomechanical as well as geometrical properties of bone in the experimental model of the early stage of CKD...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439409/serial-deletion-reveals-structural-basis-and-stability-for-the-core-enzyme-activity-of-human-glutaminase-1-isoforms-relevance-to-excitotoxic-neurodegeneration
#19
Yuju Li, Justin Peer, Runze Zhao, Yinghua Xu, Beiqing Wu, Yi Wang, Changhai Tian, Yunlong Huang, Jialin Zheng
BACKGROUND: Glutaminase 1 is a phosphate-activated metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the first step of glutaminolysis, which converts glutamine into glutamate. Glutamate is the major neurotransmitter of excitatory synapses, executing important physiological functions in the central nervous system. There are two isoforms of glutaminase 1, KGA and GAC, both of which are generated through alternative splicing from the same gene. KGA and GAC both transcribe 1-14 exons in the N-terminal, but each has its unique C-terminal in the coding sequence...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439255/assessing-the-functional-role-of-leptin-in-energy-homeostasis-and-the-stress-response-in-vertebrates
#20
REVIEW
Courtney A Deck, Jamie L Honeycutt, Eugene Cheung, Hannah M Reynolds, Russell J Borski
Leptin is a pleiotropic hormone that plays a critical role in regulating appetite, energy metabolism, growth, stress, and immune function across vertebrate groups. In mammals, it has been classically described as an adipostat, relaying information regarding energy status to the brain. While retaining poor sequence conservation with mammalian leptins, teleostean leptins elicit a number of similar regulatory properties, although current evidence suggests that it does not function as an adipostat in this group of vertebrates...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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