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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527212/apolipoprotein-e4-gender-body-mass-index-inflammation-insulin-resistance-and-air-pollution-interactions-recipe-for-alzheimer-s-disease-development-in-mexico-city-young-females
#1
Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Suzanne M de la Monte
Given the epidemiological trends of increasing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and growing evidence that exposure and lifestyle factors contribute to AD risk and pathogenesis, attention should be paid to variables such as air pollution, in order to reduce rates of cognitive decline and dementia. Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above the US EPA standards is associated with AD risk. Mexico City children experienced pre- and postnatal high exposures to PM2.5, O3, combustion-derived iron-rich nanoparticles, metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and endotoxins...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527084/neurobiology-of-chronicization
#2
Gian Camillo Manzoni, Marco Russo, Arens Taga, Paola Torelli
In the past few years, research on chronicization of headache has focussed primarily on migraine, even though there are other types of primary headache that over time can turn into chronic forms. Only a minority of migraine sufferers will develop a chronic condition, with attacks that are likely to vary in their clinical features. As a result, in chronic migraine the specific diagnostic criteria for this headache type do not always exhibit the typical features of migraine. Among the factors that play a major role in favouring chronicization are a high frequency of migraine attacks since the beginning, overuse of symptomatic medication and onset of depression or arterial hypertension...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527061/ketogenic-diet-in-migraine-rationale-findings-and-perspectives
#3
Piero Barbanti, Luisa Fofi, Cinzia Aurilia, Gabriella Egeo, Massimiliano Caprio
Ketogenic diet (KD) is an established treatment for refractory pediatric epilepsy and a promising therapy for diverse neurological diseases. Clinical data on KD in migraine-obtained from 150 patients investigated in case reports and prospective studies-suggest that KD may be a rapid onset effective prophylaxis for episodic and chronic migraine. KD would contribute to restore brain excitability and metabolism and to counteract neuroinflammation in migraine, although its precise mechanism is still unclear. Randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm the usefulness of KD in migraine and to investigate its optimal duration, repeatability, feasibility in normal weight subjects, efficacy in pediatric population and association to conventional migraine prophylaxis...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527041/mechanisms-of-acupuncture-therapy-for-cerebral-ischemia-an-evidence-based-review-of-clinical-and-animal-studies-on-cerebral-ischemia
#4
REVIEW
Wen Zhu, Yang Ye, Yi Liu, Xue-Rui Wang, Guang-Xia Shi, Shuai Zhang, Cun-Zhi Liu
Ischemic stroke is a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide. As a part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), acupuncture has been shown to be effective in promoting recovery after stroke. In this article, we review the clinical and experimental studies that demonstrated the mechanisms of acupuncture treatment for cerebral ischemia. Clinical studies indicated that acupuncture activated relevant brain regions, modulated cerebral blood flow and related molecules in stroke patients. Evidence from laboratory indicated that acupuncture regulates cerebral blood flow and metabolism after the interrupt of blood supply...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526620/evidence-for-cortical-structural-plasticity-in-humans-after-a-day-of-waking-and-sleep-deprivation
#5
Torbjørn Elvsåshagen, Nathalia Zak, Linn B Norbom, Per Ø Pedersen, Sophia H Quraishi, Atle Bjørnerud, Dag Alnæs, Nhat Trung Doan, Ulrik F Malt, Inge R Groote, Lars T Westlye
Sleep is an evolutionarily conserved process required for human health and functioning. Insufficient sleep causes impairments across cognitive domains, and sleep deprivation can have rapid antidepressive effects in mood disorders. However, the neurobiological effects of waking and sleep are not well understood. Recently, animal studies indicated that waking and sleep are associated with substantial cortical structural plasticity. Here, we hypothesized that structural plasticity can be observed after a day of waking and sleep deprivation in the human cerebral cortex...
May 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526436/intracranial-il-17a-overexpression-decreases-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-by-upregulation-of-abca1-in-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Junling Yang, Jinghong Kou, Robert Lalonde, Ken-Ichiro Fukuchi
Neuroinflammation is a pervasive feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and characterized by activated microglia, increased proinflammatory cytokines and/or infiltrating immune cells. T helper 17 (Th17) cells are found in AD brain parenchyma and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is identified around deposits of aggregated amyloid β protein (Aβ). However, the role of IL-17A in AD pathogenesis remains elusive. We overexpressed IL-17A in an AD mouse model via recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (rAAV5)-mediated intracranial gene delivery...
May 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526281/effects-of-maternal-immune-activation-on-brain-arginine-metabolism-of-postnatal-day-2-rat-offspring
#7
Jiaxian Zhang, Yu Jing, Hu Zhang, David K Bilkey, Ping Liu
l-Arginine is a versatile semi-essential amino acid with a number of bioactive metabolites, and altered arginine metabolism has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Earlier research has demonstrated that maternal immune activation (MIA; a risk factor for schizophrenia) alters arginine metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of the adult offspring. The present study investigated how MIA affected the levels of l-arginine and its downstream metabolites in the whole forebrain, frontal cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of male and female rat offspring at the age of postnatal day 2...
May 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526279/an-emerging-role-for-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-schizophrenia
#8
REVIEW
Kyle H Flippo, Stefan Strack
Abnormal brain development has long been thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Impaired dendritic arborization, synaptogenesis, and long term potentiation and memory have been demonstrated in animal models of schizophrenia. In addition to aberrant nervous system development, altered brain metabolism and mitochondrial function has long been observed in schizophrenic patients. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the mitochondrial genome as well as impaired mitochondrial function have both been associated with increased risk for developing schizophrenia...
May 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525197/-treatment-resistant-depression-actuality-and-perspectives-in-2017
#9
REVIEW
N Lucas, P Hubain, G Loas, F Jurysta
Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects 3 to 17 % of adults. 15 to 30 % of patients with MDD suffer from treatment resistant depression (TRD). No international consensus defines TRD. The most common definition is " MDD that is not enough improved after two successive and different classes of antidepressant treatments in appropriate dose and duration ". The appropriate dose corresponds to maximal dose accepted by scientific reports and clinical recommendations, while the appropriate duration is around 6 weeks...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524223/-infantile-epileptic-encephalopathies-what-matters-is-genetics
#10
J J Garcia-Penas, M Jimenez-Legido
INTRODUCTION: Epileptic encephalopathies in infancy are defined as conditions where the sustained epileptic activity itself may contribute to the severe neurological and cognitive impairment. These epileptic encephalopathies include Ohtahara syndrome, early myoclonic epileptic encephalopathy, West syndrome, Dravet syndrome, and malignant migrating epilepsy in infancy. These syndromes result from identifiable primary causes, such as structural, neurodegenerative, metabolic, or genetic defects...
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524219/-epileptic-encephalopathies
#11
J Ramos-Lizana
According to the International League Against Epilepsy's (ILAE) Commission on Classification and Terminology, the term 'epileptic encephalopathy' reflects the notion that epileptic activity in itself can contribute to the genesis of severe cognitive or behavioural disabilities, beyond what could be expected from the pathology underlying the epilepsy. However, in many cases it is difficult to define the boundary between the relative contribution of the epileptic seizures and the underlying cause in the genesis of cognitive deficits...
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524122/-a-plasminogen-regulation-system-in-brain-tumors
#12
O I Kit, E M Frantsiyants, L S Kozlova, E E Rostorguev, I V Balyazin-Parfenov, Yu A Pogorelova
INTRODUCTION: Tumor progression and neovascularization during malignant processes are believed to be associated with plasminogen activators and the PAI-1 inhibitor, but their role and interactions in various types of brain tumors have been studied insufficiently. AIM: To conduct a comparative study of plasminogen regulation in optic nerve sheath meningiomas, glioblastomas, and brain metastases of breast cancer, as well as in perifocal tissues surrounding the tumors...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524120/proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-%C3%A2-h-mrs-study-of-early-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rabbits
#13
Yong Xiao, Yigang Fu, Yi Zhou, Jianguo Xia, Lina Wang, Chunhong Hu
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dynamic changes of cerebral metabolism and degree of trauma in rabbit models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) by using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS). MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty-five Chinese rabbits were randomly divided into control, mild, moderate, and severe TBI groups. ¹H-MRS was performed 1, 6, and 24 h after trauma. The concentrations of NAA, Cr, Cho, and Lac, and NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios in each group, were estimated...
May 19, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524074/neurotrauma-the-crosstalk-between-neurotrophins-and-inflammation-in-the-acutely-injured-brain
#14
REVIEW
Lindolfo da Silva Meirelles, Daniel Simon, Andrea Regner
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among young individuals worldwide. Understanding the pathophysiology of neurotrauma is crucial for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies. After the trauma occurs, immediate neurologic damage is produced by the traumatic forces; this primary injury triggers a secondary wave of biochemical cascades together with metabolic and cellular changes, called secondary neural injury. In the scenario of the acutely injured brain, the ongoing secondary injury results in ischemia and edema culminating in an uncontrollable increase in intracranial pressure...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523763/proton-mr-spectroscopy-of-lesion-evolution-in-multiple-sclerosis-steady-state-metabolism-and-its-relationship-to-conventional-imaging
#15
Ivan I Kirov, Shu Liu, Assaf Tal, William E Wu, Matthew S Davitz, James S Babb, Henry Rusinek, Joseph Herbert, Oded Gonen
Although MRI assessment of white matter lesions is essential for the clinical management of multiple sclerosis, the processes leading to the formation of lesions and underlying their subsequent MRI appearance are incompletely understood. We used proton MR spectroscopy to study the evolution of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho), and myo-inositol (mI) in pre-lesional tissue, persistent and transient new lesions, as well as in chronic lesions, and related the results to quantitative MRI measures of T1-hypointensity and T2-volume...
May 19, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523114/design-of-phthalazinone-amide-histamine-h1-receptor-antagonists-for-use-in-rhinitis
#16
Panayiotis A Procopiou, Alison J Ford, Paul M Gore, Brian E Looker, Simon T Hodgson, Duncan S Holmes, Sadie Vile, Kenneth L Clark, Ken A Saunders, Robert J Slack, James E Rowedder, Clarissa J Watts
The synthesis of potent amide-containing phthalazinone H1 histamine receptor antagonists is described. Three analogues 3e, 3g, and 9g were equipotent with azelastine and were longer-acting in vitro. Amide 3g had low oral bioavailability, low brain-penetration, high metabolic clearance, and long duration of action in vivo, and it was suitable for once-daily dosing intranasally, with a predicted dose for humans of approximately 0.5 mg per day.
May 11, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522961/energy-homeostasis-and-abnormal-rna-metabolism-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#17
REVIEW
Yu-Ju Liu, Po-Yi Tsai, Yijuang Chern
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disease that is clinically characterized by progressive muscle weakness and impaired voluntary movement due to the loss of motor neurons in the brain, brain stem and spinal cord. To date, no effective treatment is available. Ample evidence suggests that impaired RNA homeostasis and abnormal energy status are two major pathogenesis pathways in ALS. In the present review article, we focus on recent studies that report molecular insights of both pathways, and discuss the possibility that energy dysfunction might negatively regulate RNA homeostasis via the impairment of cytoplasmic-nuclear shuttling in motor neurons and subsequently contribute to the development of ALS...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522608/altered-learning-memory-and-social-behavior-in-type-1-taste-receptor-subunit-3-knockout-mice-is-associated-with-neuronal-dysfunction
#18
Bronwen Martin, Rui Wang, Wei-Na Cong, Caitlin M Daimon, Wells W Wu, Bin Ni, Kevin G Becker, Elin Lehrmann, William H Wood, Yongqing Zhang, Harmonie Etienne, Jaana van Gastel, Abdelkrim Azmi, Jonathan Janssens, Stuart Maudsley
The type 1 taste receptor member 3 (T1R3) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) involved in sweet taste perception. Besides the tongue, the T1R3 receptor is highly expressed in brain areas implicated in cognition, including the hippocampus and cortex. As cognitive decline is often preceded by significant metabolic or endocrinological dysfunctions, regulated by the sweet taste perception system, we hypothesized that a disruption of the sweet taste perception in the brain could have a key role in the development of cognitive dysfunction...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522333/development-of-qsars-for-parameterizing-physiology-based-toxicokinetic-models
#19
Dimosthenis Α Sarigiannis, Krystalia Papadaki, Periklis Kontoroupis, Spyros P Karakitsios
A Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) model was developed in order to predict physicochemical and biochemical properties of industrial chemicals of various groups. This model was based on the solvation equation, originally proposed by Abraham. In this work Abraham's solvation model got parameterized using artificial intelligence techniques such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the prediction of partitioning into kidney, heart, adipose, liver, muscle, brain and lung for the estimation of the bodyweight-normalized maximal metabolic velocity (Vmax) and the Michaelis - Menten constant (Km)...
May 15, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521669/ppars-in-neurodegenerative-and-neuroinflammatory-pathways
#20
E Benedetti, L Cristiano, A Antonosante, M d'Angelo, B D'Angelo, S Selli, V Castelli, R Ippoliti, A Giordano, A Cimini
PPARs are lipid sensors activate by dietary lipids or their metabolites, mainly fatty acids and eicosanoids , that play critical roles in CNS biology, since brain has a very high lipid content and has the higher energetic metabolism in the body. In neurodegenerative diseases in addition to metabolic impariment also neuroinflammation is observed and PPARs are also closely linked to inflammatory process. Several studies have revealed a complicated relationship between the innate immune response and tissue metabolism...
May 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
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