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Brain metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145068/anorexigenic-effects-induced-by-rvd-hemopressin-%C3%AE-administration
#1
Claudio Ferrante, Lucia Recinella, Sheila Leone, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Chiara Di Nisio, Sara Martinotti, Adriano Mollica, Giorgia Macedonio, Azzurra Stefanucci, Szabolcs Dvorácskó, Csaba Tömböly, Luciano De Petrocellis, Michele Vacca, Luigi Brunetti, Giustino Orlando
BACKGROUND: Hemopressin, VD-hemopressin(α) and RVD-hemopressin(α) are hemoglobin α chain derived-peptides which have been found in mouse brain, and where they modulate cannabinoid (CB) receptor function. The nonapeptide hemopressin has been reported to inhibit feeding after both central and peripheral administration, possibly playing a role of antagonist/inverse agonist of CB1 receptors, and consequently blocking the orexigenic effects of endogenous cannabinoids. VD-hemopressin(α) and RVD- hemopressin(α), are N-terminal extended forms of hemopressin...
June 3, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144968/a-synaptic-basis-for-glp-1-action-in-the-brain
#2
Sandrine Lefort, Matthias H Tschöp, Cristina García-Cáceres
Unraveling the brain control of metabolism may generate opportunities to discover novel precision medicines for obesity and diabetes. In this issue of Neuron, Liu et al. (2017) identify a novel glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor-dependent signaling process that exerts anorexigenic action via the regulation of AMPA receptor subunit composition in the hypothalamus.
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144870/brain-maturation-differences-in-biochemical-composition-of-fetal-and-child-s-brain
#3
Andrzej Urbanik, Monika Cichocka, Justyna Kozub, Paulina Karcz, Izabela Herman-Sucharska
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in (1)H MRS spectra of the brain of fetuses and children from 6 to 11 years of age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 21 healthy fetuses in the third trimester and 22 children were examined using the proton nuclear magnetic resonance. The relative metabolite concentrations to the sum of all metabolites were calculated. RESULTS: In the (1)H MRS spectra of the brain from fetuses and children, there are the same characteristic peaks: N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho), and myo-inositol (mI)...
October 2017: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143800/hungry-neurons-metabolic-insights-on-seizure-dynamics
#4
REVIEW
Paolo Bazzigaluppi, Azin Ebrahim Amini, Iliya Weisspapir, Bojana Stefanovic, Peter L Carlen
Epilepsy afflicts up to 1.6% of the population and the mechanisms underlying the appearance of seizures are still not understood. In past years, many efforts have been spent trying to understand the mechanisms underlying the excessive and synchronous firing of neurons. Traditionally, attention was pointed towards synaptic (dys)function and extracellular ionic species (dys)regulation. Recently, novel clinical and preclinical studies explored the role of brain metabolism (i.e., glucose utilization) of seizures pathophysiology revealing (in most cases) reduced metabolism in the inter-ictal period and increased metabolism in the seconds preceding and during the appearance of seizures...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143197/three-cases-of-hereditary-tyrosinaemia-type-1-neuropsychiatric-outcomes-and-brain-imaging-following-treatment-with-ntbc
#5
Helen Walker, Mervi Pitkanen, Yusof Rahman, Sally F Barrington
AIM: To examine neuropsychiatric outcomes in adults with hereditary tyrosinaemia type I (HT-1), treated with 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC) and correlate these with functional imaging as well as with tyrosine and phenylalanine-tyrosine (Phe:Tyr) ratios. DESIGN: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of three adult HT-1 patients with a particular focus on their FDG PET/CT brain scans, neuropsychiatric assessment (including neurocognitive assessment and mood and anxiety ratings) as well as mean tyrosine and phenylalanine levels and Phe:Tyr ratios for 3-month period...
November 16, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141982/a-partial-loss-of-function-variant-in-akt2-is-associated-with-reduced-insulin-mediated-glucose-uptake-in-multiple-insulin-sensitive-tissues-a-genotype-based-callback-positron-emission-tomography-study
#6
Aino Latva-Rasku, Miikka-Juhani Honka, Alena Stančáková, Heikki A Koistinen, Johanna Kuusisto, Li Guan, Alisa K Manning, Heather Stringham, Anna L Gloyn, Cecilia M Lindgren, Francis S Collins, Karen L Mohlke, Laura J Scott, Tomi Karjalainen, Lauri Nummenmaa, Michael Boehnke, Pirjo Nuutila, Markku Laakso
Rare fully penetrant mutations in AKT2 are an established cause of monogenic disorders of glucose metabolism. Recently, a novel partial loss-of-function AKT2 coding variant (p.Pro50Thr) was identified that is nearly specific to Finns (frequency 1.1%), with the low-frequency allele associated with an increase in fasting plasma insulin level and risk of type 2 diabetes. The effects of p.Pro50Thr on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU) in the whole body and in different tissues have not previously been investigated...
November 15, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141977/vitamins-associated-with-brain-aging-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-disease-biomarkers-epidemiological-and-experimental-evidence-plausible-mechanisms-and-knowledge-gaps
#7
REVIEW
Michael Fenech
The key to preventing brain aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer disease (AD) via vitamin intake is first to understand molecular mechanisms, then to deduce relevant biomarkers, and subsequently to test the level of evidence for the impact of vitamins in the relevant pathways and their modulation of dementia risk. This narrative review infers information on mechanisms from gene and metabolic defects associated with MCI and AD, and assesses the role of vitamins using recent results from animal and human studies...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141796/high-dose-biotin-as-treatment-for-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Gary Birnbaum, Jessica Stulc
BACKGROUND: Published data suggested high dose biotin improved patients with progressive MS. We wished to determine benefits and side effects of administering daily high dose biotin to patients with progressive multiple sclerosis in a large MS specialty clinic. METHODS: Forty-three patients with progressive multiple scleroses were prescribed pharmaceutical grade biotin as a single daily dose of 300mg/day. Brain MRIs were performed at baseline and after one year on biotin...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141778/pathophysiology-and-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation-detected-after-ischemic-stroke-paradise-a-translational-integrated-and-transdisciplinary-approach
#9
Maryse Paquet, Joshua O Cerasuolo, Victoria Thorburn, Sebastian Fridman, Rasha Alsubaie, Renato D Lopes, Lauren E Cipriano, Paula Salamone, C W James Melling, Ali R Khan, Lucas Sedeño, Jiming Fang, Maria Drangova, Manuel Montero-Odasso, Jennifer Mandzia, Alexander V Khaw, Juan M Racosta, Justin Paturel, Lucy Samoilov, Devin Stirling, Brittany Balint, Victoria Jaremek, Marlys L Koschinsky, Michael B Boffa, Kelly Summers, Agustín Ibañez, Marko Mrkobrada, Gustavo Saposnik, Kurt Kimpinski, Shawn N Whitehead, Luciano A Sposato
BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that ischemic stroke can cause atrial fibrillation. By elucidating the mechanisms of neurogenically mediated paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, novel therapeutic strategies could be developed to prevent atrial fibrillation occurrence and perpetuation after stroke. This could result in fewer recurrent strokes and deaths, a reduction or delay in dementia onset, and in the lessening of the functional, structural, and metabolic consequences of atrial fibrillation on the heart...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140729/gene-expression-and-gene-associations-during-the-development-of-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-in-the-dahl-salt-sensitive-model-of-hypertension
#10
Jeffrey Yim, Hyokeun Cho, Simon W Rabkin
Gene expression and associations were examined in a model of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), a condition with minimal effective treatment. Genes with at least two studies showing significant changes in Dahl rat with heart failure were examined by meta-analysis. Significantly increased in expression were iNOS, p47phox, ADM, ANP, OPN, ACE, MCP-1, GP91PHOX, ICAM-1, TGF-β1, CTGF, ET-1, p22phox, ETB, BNP, ETA, MMP13, Col1a1, MMP2, TIMP1, Col3a1, Il-1β, β-MHC, ECE1, MMP14, AGT, and MMP9...
November 15, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138968/mitochondrial-dysfunctions-contribute-to-energy-deficits-in-rodent-model-of-hepatic-encephalopathy
#11
Saurabh Dhanda, Aditya Sunkaria, Avishek Halder, Rajat Sandhir
Perturbations in the cerebral energy metabolism are anticipated to be an important factor by which ammonia may exert its toxic effects on the central nervous system. The present study was designed to investigate the role of impaired mitochondrial functions and cerebral energy metabolism in the development hepatic encephalopathy (HE) induced by of bile duct ligation (BDL). After four weeks of BDL, a significant increase in hepatic hydroxyproline and collagen content was observed which confirmed biliary fibrosis...
November 14, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138746/a-novel-encephalopathy-in-a-thiamine-deficient-dog-resembling-human-wernicke-s-disease-with-atypical-mri-pattern
#12
Floriana Gernone, Mario Ricciardi
Thiamine is a water-soluble vitamin, which participates in several vital metabolic pathways involved in energy metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis of mammals. In companion animals thiamine deficiency is classically associated with signs of diffuse encephalopathy and lesions on brainstem nuclei and mesencephalic colliculi evident on magnetic resonance imaging. This paper describes a novel clinical presentation in a thiamine-deficient dog showing multifocal, central and peripheral nervous and cardiovascular system alterations...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138675/benign-effect-of-extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-field-on-brain-plasticity-assessed-by-nitric-oxide-metabolism-during-poststroke-rehabilitation
#13
Natalia Cichoń, Piotr Czarny, Michał Bijak, Elżbieta Miller, Tomasz Śliwiński, Janusz Szemraj, Joanna Saluk-Bijak
Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most important signal molecules, involved in both physiological and pathological processes. As a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, NO regulates cerebral blood flow, neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of the extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on generation and metabolism of NO, as a neurotransmitter, in the rehabilitation of poststroke patients. Forty-eight patients were divided into two groups: ELF-EMF and non-ELF-EMF...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137009/brain-metabolism-in-patients-with-freezing-of-gait-after-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-a-pilot-study
#14
Seo Yeon Yoon, Sang Chul Lee, Na Young Kim, Young-Sil An, Yong Wook Kim
Movement disorders are 1 of the long-term neurological complications that can occur after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI). However, freezing of gait (FOG) after HIBI is rare. The aim of this study was to examine the brain metabolism of patients with FOG after HIBI using F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET).We consecutively enrolled 11 patients with FOG after HIBI. The patients' overall brain metabolism was measured by F-18 FDG PET, and we compared their regional brain metabolic activity with that from 15 healthy controls using a voxel-by-voxel-based statistical mapping analysis...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136637/transcriptional-profiling-of-toll-like-receptor-2-deficient-primary-murine-brain-cells-during-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#15
Kousuke Umeda, Sachi Tanaka, Fumiaki Ihara, Junya Yamagishi, Yutaka Suzuki, Yoshifumi Nishikawa
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is capable of persisting in the brain, although it is efficiently eliminated by cellular immune responses in most other sites. While Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) reportedly plays important roles in protective immunity against the parasite, the relationship between neurological disorders induced by T. gondii infection and TLR2 function in the brain remains controversial with many unknowns. In this study, primary cultured astrocytes, microglia, neurons, and peritoneal macrophages obtained from wild-type and TLR2-deficient mice were exposed to T...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136611/gut-microbiota-in-health-and-disease
#16
Yuichiro Yamashiro
Intestinal regulatory T (Treg) cells are critical to maintaining immune tolerance to dietary antigens and gut microbiota. This paper reviews several papers on this topic that were recently published by Japanese researchers. Specifically, Prof. K. Honda and his group have found that commensal microbiota capable of metabolizing butyrate induces the differentiation of colonic Treg cells. In a separate work, Prof. Y. Yokoyama and his group used a novel, culture-independent analytical method (the Yakult Intestinal Flora-Scan) for detection of bacteria in the bloodstream...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135035/analysis-and-measurement-of-serotonin
#17
REVIEW
András Seitz, Stelvio M Bandiera
Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine, is an important signaling molecule in the central and peripheral nervous systems of humans. Acting through several receptor types, it helps regulate the normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular system and brain. Serotonin signaling has also been implicated in the etiology of several diseases, including depression, anxiety disorders, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome. The present review focuses on the chemical analysis of serotonin in biological fluids and biomatrices and traces the development and application of early methods based on UV absorbance or fluorescence to more widely-used current methods such as high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry...
November 14, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134686/selective-proton-observed-carbon-edited-selpoce-mrs-method-for-measurement-of-glutamate-and-glutamine-13-c-labeling-in-the-human-frontal-cortex
#18
Henk M De Feyter, Raimund I Herzog, Bart R Steensma, Dennis W J Klomp, Peter B Brown, Graeme F Mason, Douglas L Rothman, Robin A de Graaf
PURPOSE: (13) C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in combination with infusion of (13) C-labeled substrates has led to unique insights into human brain metabolism and neurotransmitter cycling. However, the low sensitivity of direct (13) C MRS and high radiofrequency power requirements has limited (13) C MRS studies to predominantly data acquisition in large volumes of the occipital cortex. The purpose of this study is to develop an MRS technique for localized detection of (13) C-labeling of glutamate and glutamine in the human frontal lobe...
November 13, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134448/hyperammonemia-associated-with-distal-renal-tubular-acidosis-or-urinary-tract-infection-a-systematic-review
#19
Caterina M Clericetti, Gregorio P Milani, Sebastiano A G Lava, Mario G Bianchetti, Giacomo D Simonetti, Olivier Giannini
BACKGROUND: Hyperammonemia usually results from an inborn error of metabolism or from an advanced liver disease. Individual case reports suggest that both distal renal tubular acidosis and urinary tract infection may also result in hyperammonemia. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature on hyperammonemia secondary to distal renal tubular acidosis and urinary tract infection was conducted. RESULTS: We identified 39 reports on distal renal tubular acidosis or urinary tract infections in association with hyperammonemia published between 1980 and 2017...
November 13, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134288/task-relevant-brain-networks-identified-with-simultaneous-pet-mr-imaging-of-metabolism-and-connectivity
#20
Andreas Hahn, Gregor Gryglewski, Lukas Nics, Lucas Rischka, Sebastian Ganger, Helen Sigurdardottir, Chrysoula Vraka, Leo Silberbauer, Thomas Vanicek, Alexander Kautzky, Wolfgang Wadsak, Markus Mitterhauser, Markus Hartenbach, Marcus Hacker, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Except for task-specific functional MRI, the vast majority of imaging studies assessed human brain function at resting conditions. However, tracking task-specific neuronal activity yields important insight how the brain responds to stimulation. We specifically investigated changes in glucose metabolism, functional connectivity and white matter microstructure during task performance using several recent methodological advancements. Opening the eyes and right finger tapping had elicited an increased glucose metabolism in primary visual and motor cortices, respectively...
November 13, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
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