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Brain metabolism

Rohit Marawar, Hsiang J Yeh, Chris Carnabatu, John M Stern
INTRODUCTION: The EEG rhythms demonstrate changes in frequency and power with spontaneous changes in behavioral state that do not have well understood metabolic correlates within the brain. To investigate this question and compare the temporal lobe theta and delta rhythms, resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) was obtained with simultaneous EEG. METHODS: Simultaneous EEG-fMRI was recorded from 14 healthy, sleep-deprived subjects in awake and drowsy states. Scalp electrodes corresponding to bilateral temporal lobes were used to calculate delta and theta band power...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Christoph W Turck, Christian Webhofer, Markus Nussbaumer, Larysa Teplytska, Alon Chen, Giuseppina Maccarrone, Michaela D Filiou
PURPOSE: In this work we discuss how in vivo (15) N metabolic labeling in combination with mass spectrometry simultaneously provides information on protein expression and protein turnover. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We metabolically labeled mice with the stable nitrogen isotope (15) N using a (15) N-enriched diet and analyzed (15) N-labeled vs. unlabeled ((14) N) brain tissue with LC-MS/MS. We then compared the (14) N vs.(15) N peptide isotopologue clusters of (14) N and (15) N-labeled Dihydropyrimidinase-related (DPYSL) proteins...
October 20, 2016: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
Xue-Yuan Li, Wei-Wei Men, Hua Zhu, Jian-Feng Lei, Fu-Xing Zuo, Zhan-Jing Wang, Zhao-Hui Zhu, Xin-Jie Bao, Ren-Zhi Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a leading cause of dementia worldwide, associated with cognitive deficits and brain glucose metabolic alteration. However, the associations of glucose metabolic changes with cognitive dysfunction are less detailed. Here, we examined the brains of APP/presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic (Tg) mice aged 2, 3.5, 5 and 8 months using (18)F-labed fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) microPET to assess age- and brain region-specific changes of glucose metabolism. FDG uptake was calculated as a relative standardized uptake value (SUVr)...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Raquel Fonseca, Rui A Carvalho, Cristina Lemos, Ana C Sequeira, Inês R Pita, Fábio Carvalho, Carlos D Silva, Rui D S Prediger, Ivana Jarak, Rodrigo A Cunha, Carlos A Fontes Ribeiro, Attila Köfalvi, Frederico C Pereira
INTRODUCTION: We recently showed that a single high dose of methamphetamine (METH) induces a persistent frontal cortical monoamine depletion that is accompanied by helpless-like behavior in mice. However, brain metabolic alterations underlying both neurochemical and mood alterations remain unknown. AIMS: Herein, we aimed at characterizing frontal cortical metabolic alterations associated with early negative mood behavior triggered by METH. Adult C57BL/6 mice were injected with METH (30 mg/kg, i...
October 19, 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Katherine R Amato
Research examining the gut microbiota is currently exploding, and results are providing new perspectives on human biology. Factors such as host diet and physiology influence the composition and function of the gut microbiota, which in turn affects human nutrition, health, and behavior via interactions with metabolism, the immune system, and the brain. These findings represent an exciting new twist on familiar topics, and as a result, gut microbiome research is likely to provide insight into unresolved biological mechanisms driving human health...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Mariana Moreira Coutinho Arroja, Emma Reid, Christopher McCabe
The renin angiotensin system (RAS) consists of the systemic hormone system, critically involved in regulation and homeostasis of normal physiological functions [i.e. blood pressure (BP), blood volume regulation], and an independent brain RAS, which is involved in the regulation of many functions such as memory, central control of BP and metabolic functions. In general terms, the RAS consists of two opposing axes; the 'classical axis' mediated primarily by Angiotensin II (Ang II), and the 'alternative axis' mediated mainly by Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7))...
2016: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine
Jeong-Hee Kim, Jong-Hoon Kim, Young-Don Son, Yo-Han Joo, Sang-Yoon Lee, Hang-Keun Kim, Myung-Kyun Woo
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the patterns of interregional correlations of serotonin transporter (SERT) availability with glucose metabolism using 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) with (11)C-3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenylthio)benzonitrile ([(11)C]DASB) and [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) in antipsychotic-free patients with schizophrenia in order to shed new light on the disrupted functional connectivity in schizophrenia...
October 16, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
K R Vogel, G R Ainslie, E E W Jansen, G S Salomons, K M Gibson
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1-deficient (aldh5a1(-/-)) mice, the murine orthologue of human succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD), manifest increased GABA (4-aminobutyric acid) that disrupts autophagy, increases mitochondria number, and induces oxidative stress, all mitigated with the mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) inhibitor rapamycin [1]. Because GABA regulates mTOR, we tested the hypothesis that aldh5a1(-/-) mice would show altered levels of mRNA for genes associated with mTOR signaling and oxidative stress that could be mitigated by inhibiting mTOR...
October 16, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Guang Yang, Gonzalo I Cancino, Siraj K Zahr, Axel Guskjolen, Anastassia Voronova, Denis Gallagher, Paul W Frankland, David R Kaplan, Freda D Miller
Maternal diabetes is known to adversely influence brain development in offspring. Here, we provide evidence that this involves the circulating metabolite methylglyoxal, which is increased in diabetes, and its detoxifying enzyme, glyoxalase 1 (Glo1), which when mutated is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Specifically, when Glo1 levels were decreased in embryonic mouse cortical neural precursor cells (NPCs), this led to premature neurogenesis and NPC depletion embryonically and long-term alterations in cortical neurons postnatally...
October 18, 2016: Cell Reports
Denys deCatanzaro, Tyler J Pollock
Estradiol-17β (E2) plays critical roles in female maturation, sexual receptivity, ovulation, and fertility. In many mammals, contact with males can similarly affect these female parameters, while male excretions contain significant quantities of E2 We administered radiolabeled estradiol ([(3)H]E2) to male mice in doses representing a small fraction of their endogenous E2 These males were paired with sexually-receptive females, and radioactivity was traced into the females' systems. In Experiment 1, males were given [(3)H]E2 at 24 and 1 h prior to mating...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Norma Alva, Ronald Alva, Teresa Carbonell
In clinical and experimental settings, a great deal of effort is being made to protect cells and tissues against harmful conditions and to facilitate metabolic recovery following these insults. Much of the recent attention has focused on the protective role of a natural form of sugar, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F16bP). F16bP is a high-energy glycolytic intermediate that has been shown to exert a protective action in different cell types and tissues (including the brain, kidney, intestine, liver and heart) against various harmful conditions...
October 14, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Erika M Palmieri, Alessio Menga, Aurore Lebrun, Douglas C Hooper, D Allan Butterfield, Massimiliano Mazzone, Alessandra Castegna
AIMS: Microglial cells are brain resident macrophages engaged in surveillance and maintained in a constant state of relative inactivity. However, their involvement in autoimmune diseases indicates that in pathological conditions microglia gain an inflammatory phenotype. The mechanisms underlying this change in the microglial phenotype are still unclear. Since metabolism is an important modulator of immune cell function, we focused our attention on glutamine synthetase (GS), a modulator of the response to LPS-activation in other cell types, which is expressed by microglia...
October 19, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
J A Molad, D T Blumenthal, F Bokstein, M Findler, I Finkel, N M Bornstein, S Yust-Katz, E Auriel
Post-radiation leukoencephalopathy is characterized by cognitive impairment and white matter alternations on imaging. Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is one of several suggested etiologies. Cerebral microinfarction (CMI) is a recently described marker of SVD. We sought to examine the rate of CMI as a biomarker of ongoing ischemia among patients who underwent brain radiotherapy (RT). 110 patients treated with RT for primary or metastatic brain tumors were enrolled. A total of 685 brain MRI tests performed 1-108 months post-radiation were examined...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Simona Gaudino, Matia Martucci, Rosellina Russo, Emiliano Visconti, Emma Gangemi, Francesco D'Argento, Tommaso Verdolotti, Libero Lauriola, Cesare Colosimo
BACKGROUND: Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common pediatric brain glioma and is considered the prototype of benign circumscribed astrocytoma. Despite its low malignancy, the CT and MRI features of brain PA may resemble those of much more aggressive brain tumors. Misdiagnosis of PA is particularly easy when it demonstrates MR morphological and non-morphological findings that are inconsistent with its non-aggressive nature and that overlap with the features of more aggressive brain tumors...
October 18, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Piotr T Filipczak, Cynthia L Thomas, Wenshu Chen, Andrew Salzman, Jacob D McDonald, Yong Lin, Steven A Belinsky
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic multi-organ disorder characterized by the development of neoplastic lesions in kidney, lung, brain, heart and skin. It is caused by an inactivating mutation in tumor suppressor genes coding the TSC1/TSC2 complex, resulting in hyperactivation of mTOR- and Raf/MEK/MAPK-dependent signaling that stimulates tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. Despite its oncogenic effect, cells with TSC deficiency were more sensitive to oxidative stress and dependent on mitochondrial metabolism, providing a rationale for a new therapeutic approach...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Research
Davide Amato, Clare L Beasley, Margaret K Hahn, Anthony C Vernon
Antipsychotic drugs, all of which block the dopamine D2 receptor to a greater or lesser extent, are the mainstay for the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia. Engaging in a deeper understanding of how antipsychotics act on the brain and body, at the cellular, molecular and physiological level is vital to comprehend both the beneficial and potentially harmful actions of these medications and stimulate development of novel therapeutics. To address this, we review recent advances in our understanding of neuroadaptations to antipsychotics, focusing on (1) treatment efficacy, (2) impact on brain volume and (3) evidence from human post-mortem studies that attempt to dissect neuropathological effects of antipsychotic drugs from organic schizophrenia neurobiology and (4) cardio-metabolic side effects...
October 15, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Pramod Kumar, Gajanand Sharma, Rajendra Kumar, Bhupinder Singh, Ruchi Malik, Om Prakash Katare, Kaisar Raza
In various neurological disorders, antioxidants are frequently prescribed along with the specific treatment modalities. One such promising natural flavonoid is quercetin, offering better outcomes than established vitamins E and C. Though with immense promises, various challenges like poor oral-bioavailability (<2%), extensive first-pass metabolism, poor brain permeability, hydrophobic nature and physiological pH instability hinder its proper usage. Hence, it was planned to prepare quercetin-loaded nano lipidic carriers (NLCs) employing biocompatible components like phospholipids and tocopherol acetate for enhanced brain delivery...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Nicola M Grissom, Robert George, Teresa M Reyes
Nutritional conditions in early life can have a lasting impact on health and disease risk, though the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. In the healthy individual, physiological and behavioral responses to stress are coordinated in such a way as to mobilize resources necessary to respond to the stressor and to terminate the stress response at the appropriate time. Induction of proinflammatory gene expression within the brain is one such example that is initiated in response to both physiological and psychological stressors, and is the focus of the current study...
October 15, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Michitaka Funayama, Motoichiro Kato, Masaru Mimura
BACKGROUND: Although post-stroke depression is a well-characterized disorder, there is less understanding of how pre-existence of depression is affected by a stroke. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a patient with treatment-resistant major depression, which had been ongoing for 14 years but disappeared shortly after onset of a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Her cognitive function and functional status were mostly unaffected by the stroke. However, she no longer excessively regretted past events...
October 19, 2016: BMC Neurology
Sven Haller, Greg Zaharchuk, David L Thomas, Karl-Olof Lovblad, Frederik Barkhof, Xavier Golay
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique used to assess cerebral blood flow noninvasively by magnetically labeling inflowing blood. In this article, the main labeling techniques, notably pulsed and pseudocontinuous ASL, as well as emerging clinical applications will be reviewed. In dementia, the pattern of hypoperfusion on ASL images closely matches the established patterns of hypometabolism on fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) images due to the close coupling of perfusion and metabolism in the brain...
November 2016: Radiology
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