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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453895/cross-sectional-studies-what-are-they-good-for
#1
Ulrik Schiøler Kesmodel
Cross-sectional studies serve many purposes, and the cross-sectional design is the most relevant design when assessing the prevalence of disease, attitudes and knowledge among patients and health personnel, in validation studies comparing e.g. different measurement instruments, and in reliability studies. This paper describes the use and provides examples within obstetrics and gynecology. Caveats are also described; for example, when cross-sectional data is used for analytical purposes of associations between an exposure and an outcome, authors and readers should be careful not to make causal inferences, unless the exposure may safely be assumed to be stable over time and not influenced by experiencing the outcome...
February 17, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453880/information-bias-in-epidemiological-studies-with-a-special-focus-on-obstetrics-and-gynecology
#2
Ulrik Schiøler Kesmodel
Information bias occurs when any information used in a study is either measured or recorded inaccurately. This paper describes some of the most common types of information bias, using examples from obstetrics and gynecology, and describes how information bias may affect results of observational studies. Non-differential misclassification occurs when the degree of misclassification of exposure status among those with and those without the disease is the same, and in cohort studies, this type of bias is most likely and will bias estimates toward no association when exposure is dichotomized...
February 17, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450864/real-world-evaluation-of-direct-and-indirect-economic-burden-among-endometriosis-patients-in-the-united-states
#3
Ahmed M Soliman, Eric Surrey, Machaon Bonafede, James K Nelson, Jane Castelli-Haley
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of endometriosis and the need for treatment in the USA has led to the need to explore the contemporary cost burden associated with the disease. This retrospective cohort study compared direct and indirect healthcare costs in patients with endometriosis to a control group without endometriosis. METHODS: Women aged 18-49 years with endometriosis (date of initial diagnosis = index date) were identified in the Truven Health MarketScan ® Commercial database between 2010 and 2014 and female control patients without endometriosis were matched by age and index year...
February 15, 2018: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447695/cervicovaginal-microbiota-and-reproductive-health-the-virtue-of-simplicity
#4
REVIEW
Melis N Anahtar, David B Gootenberg, Caroline M Mitchell, Douglas S Kwon
Cervicovaginal microbiota play a critical role in women's health and reproductive outcomes. Despite being one of the simplest commensal bacterial communities in the human body, we are only beginning to appreciate its complex dynamic nature and important role in host immune modulation. In this review, we discuss the "optimal" cervicovaginal bacterial community composition, the impact of microbiota on gynecologic and obstetric outcomes, and the hurdles to developing a deeper mechanistic understanding of the function of the cervicovaginal microbiome...
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447091/obesity-in-pregnancy-a-comparison-of-four-national-guidelines
#5
Dana Vitner, Kristin Harris, Cynthia Maxwell, M D Farine
BACKGROUND: Obesity in pregnancy has become one of the most important challenges in obstetrical care given its prevalence and potential adverse impact on both mother and fetus. The primary objective of this descriptive review is to identify common themes and distinctions within the current recommendations for maternal obesity in the most updated version of four published national guidelines. METHODS: We reviewed the following guidelines for obesity in pregnancy: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) 2015, Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (RANZCOG) 2013, Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (RCOG) 2010, and Society of Obstetrics and Gynecologists of Canada (SOGC) 2010...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445909/the-relationship-among-preconception-depression-anxiety-and-social-support-of-the-reproductive-aged-women-in-china
#6
Jihong Xu, Ping Chen, Xu Ma
The reproductive-aged women have to face physiological and psychological challenges as long as they plan to conceive. However, most previous studies focused on depression and anxiety during pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate the association among preconception depression, anxiety, and social support of the Chinese reproductive-aged women. Nine-hundred five reproductive-aged women who planned to conceive for the first or second time in the next three months were recruited through the Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital and Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital from three provinces in China...
February 14, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445511/management-of-group-b-streptococcus-positive-pregnant-women-at-maternity-homes-in-japan-a-questionnaire-survey-of-compliance-among-midwives
#7
Kotomi Yamaguchi, Kazutomo Ohashi
Background: Per the 2014 Japanese Midwives Association (JMA) guidelines, midwives were allowed to manage the deliveries for group B streptococcus (GBS)-positive pregnant women in labour at maternity homes without the supervision of a medical doctor if they complied with the guidelines of the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (JSOG), wherein midwives working for maternity homes are expected to cooperate with commissioned obstetricians and paediatricians in cooperative medical facilities...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442402/ectopic-pregnancy-in-women-with-recurrent-miscarriage
#8
Carlo Ticconi, Maria V Capogna, Federica Martelli, Barbara Borelli, Valentina Bruno, Raffaella Ergasti, Roberto Sorge, Emilio Piccione, Adalgisa Pietropolli
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between recurrent miscarriage (RM) and ectopic pregnancy (EP). METHODS: In this case-control retrospective study, the clinical cards of women followed as outpatients in the RM and low-risk pregnancy offices of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit at the Policlinico Tor Vergata University Hospital were carefully reviewed for the occurrence of EP. RESULTS: Overall, 598 women with RM and 2043 normal women without RM (controls) were included in the study...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432972/the-effect-of-lymphadenectomy-in-advanced-ovarian-cancer-according-to-residual-tumor-status-a-population-based-study
#9
Juan Zhou, Wen-Wen Zhang, Qing-Hong Zhang, Zhen-Yu He, Jia-Yuan Sun, Qiong-Hua Chen, San-Gang Wu
BACKGROUND: We investigated the effect of lymphadenectomy on the survival outcomes of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database according to residual disease status. METHODS: We evaluated 3048 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage-IIIC-IV epithelial ovarian cancer. We assessed the effect of lymphadenectomy stratified by residual disease size on cause-specific survival (CSS)...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431903/intimate-partner-violence-sexual-autonomy-and-postpartum-std-prevention-among-young-couples-a-mediation-analysis
#10
Tiara C Willie, Tamora A Callands, Trace S Kershaw
CONTEXT: The transition to parenthood is a stressful time for young couples and can put them at risk for acquiring STDs. Mechanisms underlying this risk-particularly, intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual autonomy-have not been well studied. METHODS: Between 2007 and 2011, a prospective cohort study of the relationships and health of pregnant adolescents and their male partners recruited 296 couples at four hospital-based obstetrics and gynecology clinics in the U...
February 12, 2018: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429800/definite-chemoradiotherapy-is-a-competent-treatment-option-in-figo-stage-ib2-cervical-cancer-compared-with-radical-surgery-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#11
He-Yuan Hsieh, Jin-Wen Huang, Chien-Hsing Lu, Jin-Ching Lin, Lily Wang
BACKGROUND: To compare the treatment outcomes of different treatment modalities for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IB2 cervical cancer. METHODS: From January 2002 to July 2016, 91 patients with FIGO stage IB2 squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix were enrolled. All of them received one of the following treatment modalities, including intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy (CCRT group, n = 27), radical surgery with or without adjuvant treatment (RH group, n = 25), or neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical surgery with or without adjuvant treatment (NACT group, n = 39)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429350/-steroid-21-hydroxylase-deficiency-the-most-frequent-cause-of-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#12
Márton Doleschall, Dóra Török, Katalin Mészáros, Andrea Luczay, Zita Halász, Krisztina Németh, Nikolette Szücs, Róbert Kiss, Judit Tőke, János Sólyom, György Fekete, Attila Patócs, Péter Igaz, Miklós Tóth
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a group of genetic diseases due to the disablement of 7 genes; one of them is steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency. The genes of congenital adrenal hyperplasia encode enzymes taking part in the steroidogenesis of adrenal gland. Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations of the steroid 21-hydroxylase gene. The mutations of steroid 21-hydroxylase gene cause 95% of the congenital adrenal hyperplasia cases. Although the non-classic steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency with mild symptoms is seldom diagnosed, the classic steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency may lead to life-threatening salt-wasting and adrenal crises due to the insufficient aldosterone and cortisol serum levels...
February 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428978/overexpression-of-gpnmb-predicts-an-unfavorable-outcome-of-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#13
Rui-Qiong Ma, Zhi-Jian Tang, Xue Ye, Hong-Yan Cheng, Kun-Kun Sun, Xiao-Hong Chang, Heng Cui
OBJECTIVE: Glycoprotein non-metastatic protein B (GPNMB) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed at higher levels in several malignant human tissues than those in matched normal tissues. Thus, GPNMB may serve as an attractive therapeutic target of cancer treatment. In this study, the prognostic value of GPNMB expression was examined in tumors derived from a cohort of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). METHODS: GPNMB expression in matched formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC), whereas GPNMB mRNA expression in fresh-frozen biopsy tissues was detected using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR)...
February 10, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428277/genetic-counseling-overview-for-the-obstetrician-gynecologist
#14
REVIEW
Jennifer M Hoskovec, Blair K Stevens
This article outlines a framework for the process of genetic counseling in the primary obstetric and gynecologic setting. Specifics regarding risk assessment, family history evaluation, genetic testing, and pretest and posttest counseling are discussed. Additionally, the article provides strategies for counseling patients effectively and addresses when a referral for additional genetic counseling by a specialized genetics provider should be considered.
March 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426745/single-institutional-outcomes-of-adjuvant-brachytherapy-for-stage-i-endometrial-cancer-are-outcomes-consistent-with-randomized-studies
#15
Michael J Dohopolski, Zachary D Horne, Brian J Gebhardt, Scott M Glaser, Robert P Edwards, Joseph L Kelley, John T Comerci, Alexander B Olawaiye, Madeleine Courtney-Brooks, Jessica L Berger, Paniti Sukumvanich, Sushil Beriwal
PURPOSE: Vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) alone has been shown to be a viable adjuvant treatment strategy for most patients with Stage I endometrioid endometrial cancer. We sought to examine our institutional data following practice pattern changes resulting from the publications of GOG-99 and PORTEC-2. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively analyzed women who underwent adjuvant VBT after surgical staging for Stage 1 endometrioid endometrial cancer at our institution from 2007 to 2014...
February 6, 2018: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423520/cisplatin-chemoradiotherapy-vs-radiotherapy-in-figo-stage-iiib-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-uterine-cervix-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
Shyamkishore Shrivastava, Umesh Mahantshetty, Reena Engineer, Supriya Chopra, Rohini Hawaldar, Vinod Hande, Rajendra A Kerkar, Amita Maheshwari, T S Shylasree, Jaya Ghosh, Jyoti Bajpai, Lavanya Gurram, Seema Gulia, Sudeep Gupta
Importance: The evidence for concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CT-RT) in International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIIB squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is not robust. This study reports the final results of a randomized clinical trial of concurrent cisplatin-based CT-RT and radiotherapy alone (RT) in women with FIGO stage IIIB squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Objective: To investigate the benefit of concurrent CT-RT in FIGO stage IIIB squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix...
February 8, 2018: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422404/new-challenges-for-a-core-procedure-development-of-a-faculty-workshop-for-skills-maintenance-for-abdominal-hysterectomy
#17
Lori R Berkowitz, Kaitlyn James, Emil Petrusa, Carey York-Best, Anjali J Kaimal
OBJECTIVE: To describe the development of a low-cost educational module for OB/GYN faculty skills maintenance for total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH), a low frequency core procedure in obstetrics and gynecology. DESIGN: After review of existing educational tools and utilization of a modified Delphi method to establish consensus regarding key procedural components for skills maintenance, a 2-hour workshop was developed to review knowledge and participate in a simulation focused on the critical steps in performing TAH...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422257/giants-in-obstetrics-and-gynecology-series-a-profile-of-john-c-hobbins-md
#18
EDITORIAL
Roberto Romero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420403/use-of-long-acting-reversible-contraception-by-obstetrics-and-gynecology-residents-an-examination-of-access-for-all-women
#19
Megan L Evans, Eve Espey, Tony Ogburn, Nikki B Zite
Although long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) use is increasing in the general female population, only 12% of all women who use contraception and 4.8% of nulliparous women in the United States use either the intrauterine device (IUD) or contraceptive implant. In several studies, however, female physicians prefer LARC for contraception. In 2016, an anonymous electronic survey was administered to all U.S. obstetrics and gynecology residents before the start of the annual in-training examination administered by the Council on Resident Education in Obstetrics and Gynecology...
February 5, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417062/developing-a-pilot-curriculum-to-foster-humanism-among-graduate-medical-trainees
#20
Sarah K Dotters-Katz, Alice Chuang, Amy Weil, Jennifer O Howell
BACKGROUND: Humanism is a central tenant of professionalism, a required competency for all residency programs. Yet, few residencies have formal curriculum for teaching this critical aspect of medicine. Instead, professionalism and humanism are often taught informally through role-modeling. With increased burnout, faculty professionalism may suffer and may compromise resident role-modeling. The objective of this study was to design a pilot curriculum to foster humanism in among residents and assess its ability to do so...
2018: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
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