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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443082/inbred-mouse-populations-exhibit-intergenerational-changes-in-intestinal-microbiota-composition-and-function-following-introduction-to-a-facility
#1
Jocelyn M Choo, Paul J Trim, Lex E X Leong, Guy C J Abell, Carly Brune, Nicole Jeffries, Steve Wesselingh, T N Dear, Marten F Snel, Geraint B Rogers
Inbred mice are used to investigate many aspects of human physiology, including susceptibility to disease and response to therapies. Despite increasing evidence that the composition and function of the murine intestinal microbiota can substantially influence a broad range of experimental outcomes, relatively little is known about microbiome dynamics within experimental mouse populations. We investigated changes in the intestinal microbiome between C57BL/6J mice spanning six generations (assessed at generations 1, 2, 3, and 6), following their introduction to a stringently controlled facility...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435465/hypertension-cerebrovascular-impairment-and-cognitive-decline-in-aged-a%C3%AE-pp-ps1-mice
#2
Maximilian Wiesmann, Valerio Zerbi, Diane Jansen, Dieter Lütjohann, Andor Veltien, Arend Heerschap, Amanda J Kiliaan
Cardiovascular risk factors, especially hypertension, are also major risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). To elucidate the underlying vascular origin of neurodegenerative processes in AD, we investigated the relation between systolic blood pressure (SBP) cerebral blood flow (CBF) and vasoreactivity with brain structure and function in a 16-18 months old double transgenic AβPPswe/PS1dE9 (AβPP/PS1) mouse model for AD. These aging AβPP/PS1 mice showed an increased SBP linked to a declined regional CBF...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434583/a-proposal-for-new-neurorehabilitative-intervention-on-moebius-syndrome-patients-after-smile-surgery-proof-of-concept-based-on-mirror-neuron-system-properties-and-hand-mouth-synergistic-activity
#3
REVIEW
Pier Francesco Ferrari, Anna Barbot, Bernardo Bianchi, Andrea Ferri, Gioacchino Garofalo, Nicola Bruno, Gino Coudé, Chiara Bertolini, Martina Ardizzi, Ylenia Nicolini, Mauro Belluardo, Elisa De Stefani
Studies of the last twenty years on the motor and premotor cortices of primates demonstrated that the motor system is involved in the control and initiation of movements, and in higher cognitive processes, such as action understanding, imitation, and empathy. Mirror neurons are only one example of such theoretical shift. Their properties demonstrate that motor and sensory processing are coupled in the brain. Such knowledge has been also central for designing new neurorehabilitative therapies for patients suffering from brain injuries and consequent motor deficits...
May 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419195/plasma-ctdna-ras-mutation-analysis-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-monitoring-of-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-patients
#4
J Vidal, L Muinelo, A Dalmases, F Jones, D Edelstein, M Iglesias, M Orrillo, A Abalo, C Rodríguez, E Brozos, Y Vidal, S Candamio, F Vázquez, J Ruiz, M Guix, L Visa, V Sikri, J Albanell, B Bellosillo, R López, C Montagut
Background: RAS assessement is mandatory for therapy decision in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. This determination is based on tumor tissue, however genotyping of circulating tumor (ct)DNA offers clear advantages as a minimally invasive method that represents tumor heterogeneity. Our study aims to evaluate the use of ctDNA as an alternative determining baseline RAS status and subsequent monitoring of RAS mutations during therapy as a component of routine clinical practice...
April 13, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416551/comparative-pharmacodynamics-of-telavancin-and-vancomycin-in-the-neutropenic-murine-thigh-and-lung-infection-models-against-staphylococcus-aureus
#5
Alexander J Lepak, Miao Zhao, David R Andes
The pharmacodynamics of telavancin and vancomycin were compared using neutropenic murine thigh and lung infection models. Four S. aureus strains were included. The telavancin MIC ranged from 0.06 - 0.25 mg/L and vancomycin MIC from 1 - 4 mg/L. Plasma pharmacokinetics of escalating doses (1.25, 5, 20 and 80 mg/kg) of telavancin and vancomycin were linear over the dose range. Epithelial lining fluid (ELF) pharmacokinetics for each drug revealed penetration into the ELF mirrored the percent free fraction (not protein bound) in plasma for each drug...
April 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411907/epidemiology-of-the-small-renal-mass-and-the-treatment-disconnect-phenomenon
#6
REVIEW
Robert M Turner, Todd M Morgan, Bruce L Jacobs
The incidence of kidney cancer has steadily increased over recent decades, with most new cases now found when lesions are asymptomatic and small. This downward stage migration relates to the increasing use of abdominal imaging. Three public health epidemics-smoking, hypertension, and obesity-also play roles in the increase. Treatment mirrors the rise in incidence, with increasing interest in nephron-sparing therapies. Despite earlier detection and increasing treatment, the mortality rate has not decreased. This treatment disconnect phenomenon highlights the need to decrease unnecessary treatment of indolent tumors and address modifiable risk factors to reduce incidence and mortality...
May 2017: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410637/the-influence-of-physician-and-patient-gender-on-risk-assessment-for-lung-cancer-resection
#7
Mark K Ferguson, Megan Huisingh-Scheetz, Katherine Thompson, Kristen Wroblewski, Jeanne Farnan, Julissa Acevedo
BACKGROUND: Women do not receive appropriate surgical therapy for lung cancer as often as men. Patient gender may influence treatment recommendations; less is known about the effect of physician gender on recommendations. METHODS: Gender-neutral vignettes representing low-risk, average-risk, and high-risk candidates for lung resection were paired with concordant videos of standardized patients (SPs). Cardiothoracic trainees and practicing thoracic surgeons read a vignette, provided an initial estimate of the percentage risk of major adverse events after lung resection, viewed a video (randomized to male or female SP), provided a final estimate of risk, and ranked the importance of the video in the final risk estimate...
April 12, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408159/brain-mrs-glutamine-as-a-biomarker-to-guide-therapy-of-hyperammonemic-coma
#8
Anne H O'Donnell-Luria, Alexander P Lin, Sai K Merugumala, Frances Rohr, Susan E Waisbren, Rebecca Lynch, Vatche Tchekmedyian, Aaron D Goldberg, Andrew Bellinger, J Ricardo McFaline-Figueroa, Tracey Simon, Esteban F Gershanik, Bruce D Levy, David E Cohen, Martin A Samuels, Gerard T Berry, Natasha Y Frank
Acute idiopathic hyperammonemia in an adult patient is a life-threatening condition often resulting in a rapid progression to irreversible cerebral edema and death. While ammonia-scavenging therapies lower blood ammonia levels, in comparison, clearance of waste nitrogen from the brain may be delayed. Therefore, we used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to monitor cerebral glutamine levels, the major reservoir of ammonia, in a gastric bypass patient with hyperammonemic coma undergoing therapy with N-carbamoyl glutamate and the ammonia-scavenging agents, sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406650/disability-identity-development-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#9
Anjali J Forber-Pratt, Dominique A Lyew, Carlyn Mueller, Leah B Samples
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize existing empirical research on disability identity development. This review is organized to present the demographics of participants and types of disabilities represented in the existing data, measures of disability identity development and theoretical models of disability identity development. METHOD: Electronic databases (EBSCO, PsycINFO, ERIC, and Sociological Abstracts) were searched for all peer reviewed empirical studies published between 1980 and 2017...
April 13, 2017: Rehabilitation Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374323/gait-balance-and-patient-reported-outcomes-during-taxane-based-chemotherapy-in-early-stage-breast-cancer-patients
#10
Scott M Monfort, Xueliang Pan, Robyn Patrick, Bhuvaneswari Ramaswamy, Robert Wesolowski, Michelle J Naughton, Charles L Loprinzi, Ajit M W Chaudhari, Maryam B Lustberg
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a dose-limiting toxicity of several commonly used chemotherapy drugs including taxanes, vinca alkaloids, and platinum compounds. Development of CIPN is highly variable, both in self-reported symptoms and functional consequences, and can be severe enough to alter dose intensity. PURPOSE: To describe the natural histories of both patient-reported symptoms of CIPN and functional impairments in breast cancer patients undergoing taxane-based chemotherapy...
April 3, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374232/monitoring-the-course-of-ms-with-optical-coherence-tomography
#11
REVIEW
Alexander U Brandt, Elena H Martinez-Lapiscina, Rachel Nolan, Shiv Saidha
Retinae of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), as part of the central nervous system (CNS), display inflammatory and neurodegenerative changes. There is increasing evidence suggesting that retinal changes, and in particular neurodegeneration, mirror global CNS alterations in MS. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is an inexpensive, rapid, non-invasive, and reproducible imaging technique that generates high-resolution images of tissues such as the retina. An advantage of SD-OCT over magnetic resonance imaging techniques in the assessment of neurodegeneration may be its sensitivity to capture changes at the individual patient level...
April 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358987/highly-selective-targeting-of-hepatic-stellate-cells-for-liver-fibrosis-treatment-using-a-d-enantiomeric-peptide-ligand-of-fn14-identified-by-mirror-image-mrna-display
#12
Luying Huang, Jing Xie, Qiuyan Bi, Zhuoxuan Li, Sha Liu, Qing Shen, Chong Li
Although liver fibrosis is a major public health issue, there is still no effective drug therapy in the clinic. Fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14), a membrane receptor highly specifically expressed in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), is the key driver of liver fibrosis, and thus, it has a great potential as a novel target for the development of effective treatment. Here, we identified a d-enantiomeric peptide ligand of Fn14 through mirror-image mRNA display. This included the chemical synthesis of a d-enantiomer of the target protein (extracellular domain of Fn14), identification of an l-peptide ligand of d-Fn14 using a constructed mRNA peptide library, and identification of a d-enantiomer of the l-peptide, which is a ligand of the natural Fn14 for reasons of symmetry...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356646/the-effects-of-action-observation-training-and-mirror-therapy-on-gait-and-balance-in-stroke-patients
#13
Ho Jeong Lee, Young Mi Kim, Dong Kyu Lee
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of action observation training and mirror therapy to improve on balance and gait function of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: The action observation training with activity group practiced additional action observation training with activity for three 30-minute session for six weeks (n=12). The mirror therapy with activity group practiced additional mirror therapy with activity for three 30-minute sessions for six weeks (n=11)...
March 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351783/-real-life-effectiveness-studies-of-omalizumab-in-adult-patients-with-severe-allergic-asthma-meta-analysis
#14
Abdulaziz Alhossan, Christopher S Lee, Karen MacDonald, Ivo Abraham
BACKGROUND: After the approval of omalizumab for severe allergic asthma, a total of 25 studies have evaluated the effectiveness of omalizumab under "real-life" conditions of heterogeneity in patients, clinicians, sites, and treatment patterns. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of omalizumab focusing on treatment response, lung function, quality of life, symptom control, corticosteroid use, and exacerbations and hospitalizations at 4-6, 12, and 24 months...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344345/gastric-bypass-surgery-with-exercise-alters-plasma-micrornas-that-predict-improvements-in-cardiometabolic-risk
#15
Y O Nunez Lopez, P M Coen, B H Goodpaster, A A Seyhan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery improves insulin sensitivity (SI) and β-cell function in obese non-diabetic subjects. Exercise also improves SI and may be an effective adjunct therapy to RYGB surgery. However, the mechanisms by which exercise or weight loss improve peripheral SI after RYGB surgery are unclear. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs) mediate at least some of the regulatory processes driving such mechanisms. Consequently, this work aimed at profiling plasma miRNAs in participants of the Physical Activity Following Surgery Induced Weight Loss study (clinicaltrials...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339333/non-pharmacological-conservative-therapy-for-phantom-limb-pain-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#16
Sarah Batsford, Cormac G Ryan, Denis J Martin
The aim of this manuscript was to investigate the effectiveness of conservative therapy for phantom limb pain (PLP). In this systematic review, CINAHL, AMED, the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, PEDro, psychology and behavioral sciences collection, and MEDLINE were systematically searched for appropriate randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Selected papers were assessed for risk of bias, and evidence was graded using the GRADE approach. Twelve RCTs met initial inclusion/exclusion criteria, of which five were of sufficient quality for final inclusion...
March 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331550/experiences-of-mobility-for-people-living-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-who-are-receiving-biologic-drug-therapy-implications-for-podiatry-services
#17
Lucy Sanders, Margaret Donovan-Hall, Alan Borthwick, Catherine J Bowen
BACKGROUND: Despite significant advancements in new treatment modalities for rheumatoid arthritis with biological therapies, foot complications remain a disabling and common feature of the disease. In this study the aim was to explore and describe the personal experiences of people with rheumatoid arthritis in receipt of biologic treatments in a bid to understand the impact of this form of medication on their mobility. METHODS: An interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was undertaken to explore in depth the individual experience of rheumatoid disease through personal accounts of the patient journey spanning both 'before' and 'after' the instigation of biologic therapy...
2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329711/one-for-all-the-effect-of-extinction-stimulus-typicality-on-return-of-fear
#18
Sara Scheveneels, Yannick Boddez, Marc Patrick Bennett, Dirk Hermans
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: During exposure therapy, patients are encouraged to approach the feared stimulus, so they can experience that this stimulus is not followed by the anticipated aversive outcome. However, patients might treat the absence of the aversive outcome as an 'exception to the rule'. This could hamper the generalization of fear reduction when the patient is confronted with similar stimuli not used in therapy. We examined the effect of providing information about the typicality of the extinction stimulus on the generalization of extinction to a new but similar stimulus...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325013/mirror-therapy-combined-with-functional-electrical-stimulation-for-rehabilitation-of-stroke-survivors-ankle-dorsiflexion
#19
Ghadir Salhab, Ahmad Rifaii Sarraj, Soha Saleh
This study investigates the effect of combining both mirror therapy with Electrical Stimulation (ES) on improvement of the function of lower extremity compared to conventional therapy. 18 stroke survivors (sub acute stage) were recruited, 9 of them were randomly assigned to receive conventional treatment and another 9 started the mirror therapy combined with ES treatment. Duration of each session in both interventions was 50 minutes, done 4 times per week over two weeks. After 2 weeks, subjects took one week rest before switching they type of treatment; those started with conventional therapy continued with mirror therapy combined with ES, and vice versa...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322827/structural-divergence-of-essential-triad-ribbon-synapse-proteins-among-placental-mammals-implications-for-preclinical-trials-in-photoreceptor-transplantation-therapy
#20
Christopher R J Laver, Joanne A Matsubara
As photoreceptor transplantation rapidly moves closer to the clinic, verifying graft efficacy in animal models may have unforeseen xenogeneic barriers. Although photoreceptor transplants have most convincingly exhibited functional synaptogenesis in conspecific studies, such evidence (while ruling out false-positives due to: viral graft labeling, fusion/cytosolic transfer, or neuroprotection) has not yet been shown for discordant xenografts. From this, a fundamental question should be raised: is useful xenosynaptogenesis likely between human photoreceptors and mouse retina? The triad ribbon synapse (TRS) that would normally form is unique and contains trans-synaptic proteins essential to its formation and function...
March 18, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
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