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Genotoxicity of Fishes

Cristina Fernández-Díez, Silvia González-Rojo, Marta Lombó, M Paz Herráez
Spermatozoa carry DNA damage that must be repaired by the oocyte machinery upon fertilization. Different strategies could be adopted by different vertebrates to face the paternal genotoxic damage. Mammals have strong sperm selection mechanisms and activate a zygotic DNA damage response (DDR) (including cell cycle arrest, DNA repair and alternative apoptosis) in order to guarantee the genomic conformity of the reduced progeny. However, external fertilizers, with different reproductive strategies, seem to proceed distinctively...
April 30, 2018: Biology Open
Fernando G Iturburu, María F Simoniello, Sandra Medici, Ana M Panzeri, Mirta L Menone
Neonicotinoids are one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. DNA damage is considered an early biological effect which could lead to reproductive and carcinogenic effects. The present study aimed to evaluate DNA damage and bases oxidation as a mechanism of genotoxicity, on the freshwater fish Australoheros facetus acutely exposed to imidacloprid (IMI). The Comet assay with the nuclease ENDO III enzyme was performed for detecting pyrimidine bases oxidation using blood samples. Micronucleus and other nuclear abnormalities frequencies were also quantified...
April 16, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Edgar Hell Kampke, Maria Eduarda de Souza Barroso, Franciane Martins Marques, Marcio Fronza, Rodrigo Scherer, Mayara Fumiere Lemos, Bianca Prandi Campagnaro, Levy Carvalho Gomes
"Erva cidreira" (Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown) is popular for its therapeutic properties, especially its sedative properties. Such properties led to the discovery of the anesthetic action of Lippia alba essential oil in fish culture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effect of Lippia alba essential oil in fish and mammals. The oil was extracted by hydrodistillation with a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), where the compounds linalool, eucalyptol, γ-muurolene, and caryophyllene were identified as the most abundant compounds...
March 26, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Fernanda Dos Santos Cunha, Natalino da Costa Sousa, Rudã Fernandes Brandão Santos, Juliana Oliveira Meneses, Márcia Valéria Silva do Couto, Fabrício Tavares Cunha de Almeida, José Guedes de Sena Filho, Paulo César Falanghe Carneiro, Alexandre Nizio Maria, Rodrigo Yudi Fujimoto
Deltamethrin is one of the most commonly used pyrethroids in the world, and it has a high toxic potential, mainly on aquatic organism. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate LC50 values of deltamethrin on tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) fingerlings and to investigate genotoxic effects and histopathological responses. Fish were exposed to different concentrations of deltamethrin (0, 6.16 × 10-3 ; 6.44 × 10-2 ; 1.34 × 10-1 , and 1.93 × 10-1  mg L-1 ) for 96 h. In addition, a genotoxicity analysis was carried out on peripheral blood erythrocytes and histopathological changes were classified by the severity degree of damage and organ functioning...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
P Reis, J Lourenço, F P Carvalho, J Oliveira, M Malta, S Mendo, R Pereira
The induction of RIBE (Radiation Induced Bystander Effect) is a non-target effect of low radiation doses that has already been verified at an inter-organismic level in fish and small mammals. Although the theoretical impact in the field of environmental risk assessment (ERA) is possible, there is a gap of knowledge regarding this phenomenon in invertebrate groups and following environmentally relevant exposures. To understand if RIBE should be considered for ERA of radionuclide-rich wastewaters, we exposed Daphnia magna (<24 h and 5d old) to a 2% diluted uranium mine effluent for 48 h, and to a matching dose of waterborne uranium (55...
March 9, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Prince Sharma, Pooja Chadha, Harvinder Singh Saini
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is the most widely used brominated flame retardant and its increased use in common products such as plastics, electronic equipment, etc., has raised concern about its ecotoxicity. The present study was conducted to investigate the oxidative stress and genotoxic potential of TBBPA on fresh water fish Channa punctatus by measuring malondialdehyde level and DNA damage, respectively. Fish were exposed to 5.09 mg/l (1/2 of LC50 ) of TBBPA along with positive (acetone) and negative controls (water) for 96 h...
March 14, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Liana Bezerra Dias de Lima, Paula Benevides de Morais, Ricardo Lopes Tortorela de Andrade, Luciana Vieira Mattos, Sandro Estevan Moron
This research aimed to evaluate the ecological risk of xenobiotics associated with agricultural activities by determining metal contents and biomarker responses using tucunaré (Cichla sp.) as a bioindicator. The work was conducted in the southwest region of the state of Tocantins, in the cities of Lagoa da Confusão and Pium. Water samples and specimens of Cichla sp. were collected in the Javaés and Formoso Rivers at three collection points (A, B and C). The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni and Zn in water and fish were analyzed...
June 2018: Environmental Pollution
Sebastian Heger, Miaomiao Du, Kevin Bauer, Andreas Schäffer, Henner Hollert
The ecotoxicity of two biofuel candidates (1‑octanol and 2‑butanone) was investigated by an integrative test strategy using three bioassays: the acute immobilisation test with water flea (D. magna), the fish embryo acute toxicity test with zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the in vitro micronucleus assay with Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) V79 cells. The median effective concentration (EC50 ) values were 14.9±0.66mgL-1 for 1‑octanol, and 2152.1±44.6mgL-1 for 2‑butanone in the D. magna test. Both 1‑octanol and 2‑butanone caused teratogenic and lethal effects on zebrafish embryos, while exposure to 1‑octanol significantly induced these effects at concentrations ≥2...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Marta Martins, Ana Silva, Maria H Costa, Célia Miguel, Pedro M Costa
Addressing the risk of mixed carcinogens in vivo under environmentally-realistic scenarios is still a challenge. Searching for adequate biomarkers of exposure requires understanding molecular pathways and their connection with neoplasia-related benchmark pathologies. Subjecting the zebrafish model to realistic concentrations of two genotoxicants and carcinogens, cadmium and benzo[a]pyrene, isolated and combined, yielded low levels of DNA damage. Altogether, the organisms' mechanisms of DNA repair, oxidative stress and phases I and II were not overwhelmed after two weeks of treatment...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Valbona Aliko, Mihallaq Qirjo, Eldores Sula, Valon Morina, Caterina Faggio
The manganese contamination has become a global problem, recently, because it is perceived as a real threat to the human health and the environment. It is well-known that overexposure to Mn2+ may have negative physiological effects on fish and other organisms inhabiting heavy metal polluted waters. To the best of our knowledge, studies relating with manganese effects on fish antioxidant enzyme response in the blood, immunocompetence and erythron profile alteration, are scarce. In this study, the acute sub-lethal effects of manganese on blood antioxidant response, immune status and erythron profile were determined by exposing the freshwater model organism, Carassius auratus, to two doses of this metal (3...
May 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
D Castro, C L Mieiro, J P Coelho, S Guilherme, A Marques, M A Santos, A C Duarte, E Pereira, M Pacheco
The decline of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L., 1758) population throughout Europe has been partially attributed to pollution. As glass eel estuarine migration may represent a considerable threat, the impact of mercury (Hg) contamination at this stage was evaluated through an in situ experiment (7days). Total Hg (tHg) bioaccumulation was evaluated concomitantly with erythrocytic nuclear morphology alterations: erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities assay (ENA), frequency of immature erythrocytes (IE) and the erythrocytic maturity index (EMI)...
February 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Fagr Kh Abdel-Gawad, Osama Osman, Samah M Bassem, Hossam F Nassar, Tarek A Temraz, Hanan Elhaes, Medhat Ibrahim
Dioxins have global concerns because of the bioaccumulation tendency and persistency in the environment. Water, seabream Pagrus auratus and seabass Dicentrarchus labrax samples were collected from Abu Qir, Alexandria to evaluate the concentration of dioxin. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) and molecular modeling was applied for elucidating the molecular structure of fish samples. Furthermore, HPLC with UV detection was used to determine the concentration of dioxins (2,8-dichloro dibenzo-p-dioxin)...
February 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Lina M Zapata-Restrepo, Luz Y Orozco-Jiménez, Maribel Rueda-Cardona, Sandra L Echavarría, Nehir Mena-Moreno, Jaime A Palacio-Baena
The permanent monoculture of bananas and plantains farming in the middle of Río Grande (Turbo - Antioquia) requires the application of a variety of pesticides. Inappropriate banana production practices in this region, have often led to waterbody pollution by agrochemicals from leachate and runoff processes. Currently, fish are the most common vertebrates used as bioindicators of water quality, because they are very sensitive to the presence of contaminants. Our main goal with this study was to compare the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) in peripheral blood specimens of fish Brycon henni, from two locations (polluted and unpolluted) in the Rio Grande...
March 2017: Revista de Biología Tropical
Selma Hurem, Tânia Gomes, Dag A Brede, Ian Mayer, Viola H Lobert, Stephen Mutoloki, Kristine B Gutzkow, Hans-Christian Teien, Deborah Oughton, Peter Aleström, Jan L Lyche
The biological effects of gamma radiation may exert damage beyond that of the individual through its deleterious effects on reproductive function. Impaired reproductive performance can result in reduced population size over consecutive generations. In a continued effort to investigate reproductive and heritable effects of ionizing radiation, we recently demonstrated adverse effects and genomic instability in progeny of parents exposed to gamma radiation. In the present study, genotoxicity and effects on the reproduction following subchronic exposure during a gametogenesis cycle to 60 Co gamma radiation (27 days, 8...
June 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Glaucia Dal Santo, Alan Grotto, Aline A Boligon, Bárbara Da Costa, Cassiano L Rambo, Emily A Fantini, Elisa Sauer, Luan M V Lazzarotto, Kanandra T Bertoncello, Osmar Tomazelli Júnior, Solange C Garcia, Anna M Siebel, Denis B Rosemberg, Jacir Dal Magro, Greicy M M Conterato, Leila Zanatta
Oxidative stress and DNA damage are involved in the glyphosate-based herbicide toxicity. Uncaria tomentosa (UT; Rubiaceae) is a plant species from South America containing bioactive compounds with known beneficial properties. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant and antigenotoxic potential of UT extract in a model of acute exposure to glyphosate-Roundup® (GR) in zebrafish (Danio rerio). We showed that UT (1.0 mg/mL) prevented the decrease of brain total thiols, the increase of lipid peroxidation in both brain and liver, and the decrease of liver GPx activity caused after 96 h of GR (5...
February 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ghada Souid, Nouha Souayed, Zohra Haouas, Khira Maaroufi
Okadaic Acid (OA) is a marine toxin responsible for DSP (Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning) in humans produced by dinoflagellate. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of OA have been well reported in mammalian experimental animals and in vitro cultured cells. However, there are no available investigations regarding the involvement of the oxidative stress pathways in OA toxicity, especially on aquatic animals such as fish. In this context, we aimed in the present work to demonstrate whether OA (7.5 μg/ml) induces oxidative stress and histopathological damages in the fish species Sparus aurata under short term exposure (2 h, 4 h and 24 h)...
March 15, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Hirochi Yamamura, Victor Hugo Pereira da Silva, Pedro Luiz Menin Ruiz, Valter Ussui, Dolores Ribeiro Ricci Lazar, Ana Claudia Muniz Renno, Daniel Araki Ribeiro
The aim of this study was to synthesize hydroxyapatite (HAP) powder from fish waste. The powder was characterized through X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, scanning electron microscopy and plasma emission spectrometry. The cyto- and genotoxicity was carried out to demonstrate biocompatibility in vivo by means of rat subcutaneous tissue test. The results showed that the visible crystalline nature of typical apatite crystal structure when they were calcined at 800 °C...
April 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Laura M Langan, Silvia Arossa, Stewart F Owen, Awadhesh N Jha
In vitro models are emerging tools for reducing reliance on traditional toxicity tests, especially in areas where information is sparse. For studies of fish, this is especially important for extrahepatic organs, such as the intestine, which, until recently, have been largely overlooked in favour of the liver or gill. Considering the importance of dietary uptake of contaminants, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) intestine-derived cell line RTgutGC was cultured, to test its suitability as a high-throughput in vitro model...
February 2018: Mutation Research
Kannan Maharajan, Sellamani Muthulakshmi, Bojan Nataraj, Mathan Ramesh, Krishna Kadirvelu
Pyriproxyfen (2-[1-methyl-2-(4-phenoxyphenoxy) ethoxy] pyridine) (PPF), a pyridine-based pesticide widely used to control agricultural insect pests and mosquitoes in drinking water sources. However, its ecotoxicological data is limited in aquatic vertebrates particularly in fish. Hence, the present study aimed to evaluate the adverse effect of PPF in zebrafish embryo development (Danio rerio). In order to investigate the impact of PPF, embryos were exposed to 0.16, 0.33 and 1.66 μg/mL (0.52, 1.04 and 5.2 μM, respectively) for 96 hpf and various biomarker indices such as developmental toxicity (edema formation, hyperemia, heart size and scoliosis), oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO)), antioxidant responses (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH)), biochemical (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and acid phosphatase (AP)), neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase (AChE)), genotoxicity (apoptosis and DNA damage) and histopathological changes were determined...
March 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Eric Grégoire, Laurence Roy, Valérie Buard, Martine Delbos, Valérie Durand, Cécile Martin-Bodiot, Pascale Voisin, Irène Sorokine-Durm, Aurélie Vaurijoux, Philippe Voisin, Céline Baldeyron, Joan Francesc Barquinero
PURPOSE: The fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, which easily detects reciprocal translocations, is currently used to estimate doses in retrospective biological dosimetry, after suspected accidental overexposure to ionizing radiation (IR). This study of 42 cases aimed to verify the appropriateness of this assay for radiation dose reconstruction, compared to the dicentric assay, and to evaluate other limitations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We labeled chromosomes 2, 4, and 12 by 3-color FISH painting to detect translocations on lymphocytes of patients with suspected past IR overexposure...
March 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
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