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Genotoxicity of Fishes

Chamini K Hemachandra, Asoka Pathiratne
Biological effect directed in vivo tests with model organisms are useful in assessing potential health risks associated with chemical contaminations in surface waters. This study examined the applicability of two in vivo test systems viz. plant, Allium cepa root based tests and fish, Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based tests for screening cytogenotoxic potential of raw source water, water treatment waste (effluents) and treated water of drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) using two DWTPs associated with a major river in Sri Lanka...
November 3, 2016: Water Research
Cátia S A Santos, Ricardo Brandão, Marta S Monteiro, Ana C Bastos, Amadeu M V M Soares, Susana Loureiro
Over the past decades, the presence of micronucleated blood cells has been used to detect genotoxic effects of xenobiotics in fish, amphibians and birds. This study assessed the frequency of micronuclei (MN) and other nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes of individuals of Ardea cinerea and Ciconia ciconia retrieved for rehabilitation in order to evaluate the influence of age, temporal and spatial factors on the occurrence of DNA damage in Portuguese wild birds. Blood smears from 65 birds with different life-history backgrounds (e...
November 7, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Medjda Bellamri, Ludovic Le Hegarat, Laurent Vernhet, Georges Baffet, Robert J Turesky, Sophie Langouët
Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) are formed in cooked meat, poultry and fish but also arise in tobacco smoke and exhaust gases. HAA are potential human carcinogens, which require metabolic activation to exert their genotoxicity. Human tissues can bioactivate HAA to produce reactive intermediates that bind to DNA. HAA DNA adduct formation occurs in human hepatocytes; however, the potential of HAA to form DNA adducts has not been investigated in human T lymphocytes. In this study, we investigated the ability of human T lymphocytes activated with PMA/Ionomycin or CD3/CD28 to express functional CYP1 activity and bioactivate three major HAA: 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC) to form DNA adducts...
December 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Priscila Leocádia Rosa Dourado, Monyque Palagano da Rocha, Liriana Mara Roveda, Jorge Luiz Raposo, Liliam Sílvia Cândido, Claudia Andréa Lima Cardoso, Maria Aparecida Marin Morales, Kelly Mari Pires de Oliveira, Alexeia Barufatti Grisolia
This study aimed to evaluate DNA damage in animal and plant cells exposed to water from the Água Boa stream (Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil) by using bioassays, and to identify the chemical compounds in the water to determine the water quality in the area. Through the cytotoxicity bioassay with Allium cepa, using micronucleus test, and comet assay, using Astyanax altiparanae fish, the results indicated that biological samples were genetically altered. Micronuclei were observed in erythrocytes of A. altiparanae after exposure to water from locations close to industrial waste discharge...
October 31, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Edimar Olegário de Campos Júnior, Rosiane Gomes da Silva Oliveira, Boscolli Barbosa Pereira, Henrique Nazareth Souto, Carlos Fernando Campos, Júlio Cesar Nepomuceno, Sandra Morelli
Exposure to certain pollutants induces a series of alterations in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that may result in genotoxic/mutagenic effects in exposed individuals. The present study aimed to monitor genotoxic, mutagenic, and recombinogenic potential and consequently water quality in two streams in the Paranaíba River basin in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using two bioindicator fish (Rhamdia quelen and Geophagus brasiliensis). The micronucleus (MN) test and somatic recombination and mutation test (SMART) were employed to assess DNA damage...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Ana Marques, Andreia Rego, Sofia Guilherme, Isabel Gaivão, Maria Ana Santos, Mário Pacheco
The formulation Mancozan(®), containing mancozeb as active ingredient, is among the most widely used fungicides. Although mancozeb has been detected in surface waters, studies addressing the genotoxic risk to fish arising from the use of this formulation, testing environmentally realistic concentrations, are absent from the literature. Hence, this work aimed to investigate the DNA and chromosome damaging potential of Mancozan(®) (0.29 and 2.9μgL(-1)) in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.), after a short-term exposure (3days), through the adoption of the comet and the erythrocytic nuclear abnormality (ENA) assays...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Sabzar Ahmad Dar, Abdul Rehman Yousuf, Masood-Ul-Hassan Balkhi, Bashir Ahmad Ganai, Mudasir Tantry, Farooz Ahmad Bhat
CONTEXT: Medicinal plants continue to act as a repository for novel drug leads with novel mechanisms of action. Podophyllum hexandrum Royale (Berberideceae) treats diverse conditions in folk medicine. OBJECTIVE: The antimutagenic potential of P. hexandrum was evaluated against endosulfan-induced clastogenicity in a piscine model by cytogenetic endpoints. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Podophyllum hexandrum rhizomes were subjected to successive solvent extraction...
October 8, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Islam M Sadiqul, Zannatul Ferdous, Md Tanvir Ahmed Nannu, Golam Mohammod Mostakim, Md Khalilur Rahman
The present study was aimed to assess the genotoxic effect in fish caused by convoy, an insecticide commercial formulation containing quinalphos, present in the aquatic waterbody. For this purpose a freshwater teleost, silver barb was exposed to sublethal concentrations (25% and 50% of LC50) of convoy and erythrocytic cellular abnormalities (ECA) and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) tests were performed in addition to the commonly used micronucleus (MN) assay using peripheral erythrocytes and DNA contents in the different tissues after 1, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h of exposures...
September 22, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Stoimir Kolarević, Mustafa Aborgiba, Margareta Kračun-Kolarević, Jovana Kostić, Predrag Simonović, Vladica Simić, Aleksandra Milošković, Georg Reischer, Andreas Farnleitner, Zoran Gačić, Radmila Milačič, Tea Zuliani, Janja Vidmar, Marija Pergal, Marina Piria, Momir Paunović, Branka Vuković-Gačić
In this study we have performed a comprehensive genotoxicological survey along the 900 rkm of the Sava River. In total, 12 sites were chosen in compliance with the goals of GLOBAQUA project dealing with the effects of multiple stressors on biodiversity and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. The genotoxic potential was assessed using a complex battery of bioassays performed in prokaryotes and aquatic eukaryotes (freshwater fish). Battery comprised evaluation of mutagenicity by SOS/umuC test in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002...
2016: PloS One
Miroslav Mišík, Georg Krupitza, Katarina Mišíková, Karol Mičieta, Armen Nersesyan, Michael Kundi, Siegfried Knasmueller
Environmental contamination with radioactive materials of geogenic and anthropogenic origin is a global problem. A variety of mutagenicity test procedures has been developed which enable the detection of DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation which plays a key role in the adverse effects caused by radioisotopes. In the present study, we investigated the usefulness of the Tradescantia micronucleus test (the most widely used plant based genotoxicity bioassay) for the detection of genetic damage caused by environmental samples and a human artifact (ceramic plate) which contained radioactive elements...
September 7, 2016: Environmental Pollution
John W Wills, Nicole Hondow, Adam D Thomas, Katherine E Chapman, David Fish, Thierry G Maffeis, Mark W Penny, Richard A Brown, Gareth J S Jenkins, Andy P Brown, Paul A White, Shareen H Doak
BACKGROUND: The rapid production and incorporation of engineered nanomaterials into consumer products alongside research suggesting nanomaterials can cause cell death and DNA damage (genotoxicity) makes in vitro assays desirable for nanosafety screening. However, conflicting outcomes are often observed when in vitro and in vivo study results are compared, suggesting more physiologically representative in vitro models are required to minimise reliance on animal testing. METHOD: BASF Levasil® silica nanoparticles (16 and 85 nm) were used to adapt the 3D reconstructed skin micronucleus (RSMN) assay for nanomaterials administered topically or into the growth medium...
2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Irfan Zia Qureshi, Asia Bibi, Sana Shahid, Madiha Ghazanfar
Use of pesticides or insecticides can be highly toxic to aquatic life forms due to leaching and agricultural runoff, rains or flood. Fipronil (FP) is a GABA receptor inhibitor, while buprofezin (BPFN) is an insect growth regulator. Presently, we exposed groups of aquaria acclimated carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) for 96h to sub-lethal concentrations of fipronil (400μgL(-1); 9.15×10(-7)molL(-1)) and buprofezin (BPFN, 100mgL(-1); 1.072×10(-6)molL(-1)) singly or in combination. The extent of damage was assessed at biochemical, hematological, molecular biological and histopathological level...
October 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Nelson Jorge Carvalho Batista, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo Cavalcante, Maria Geci de Oliveira, Eugênia Cristina Nascimento Medeiros, Joseane Lustosa Machado, Sebastiana Ribeiro Evangelista, Johnny F Dias, Carla E I Dos Santos, Anaí Duarte, Fernanda R da Silva, Juliana da Silva
Pollution of aquatic ecosystems is associated with the discharge of mostly industrial and urban effluents, which may cause loss of biodiversity and damage to public health. This study aims to evaluate the toxicity and mutagenicity of water samples collected in the Corrente River, a major waterway in the river basin district of Pedro II, Piauí (Brazil). This river is exposed to intense anthropogenic influence from urban, automotive mechanical and family farm waste, and it is used as the main source of water supply by the population...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Alaa El-Din Hamid Sayed, Tomomi Watanabe-Asaka, Shoji Oda, Hiroshi Mitani
PURPOSE: Previous studies have examined the effects of γ-irradiation (γ-IR) on wild-type and p53 mutant Medaka (Oryzias latipes) 24 hours after irradiation and in the present work, apoptosis and alterations in erythrocytes of 4, 8 and 24 h and 14 days after gamma-ray irradiation were reported as genotoxic biomarkers of γ-irradiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sexually mature wild-type, WT (Hd-rR) and p53(-/-) adult female medaka (O. latipes) were exposed to 4 Gy dose of γ-IR and sampling were collected after 4, 8 and 24 h and 14 days...
October 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Ping Nan, Shuai-Guo Yan, Ya-Xing Wang, Qi-Yan Du, Zhong-Jie Chang
This study evaluated the toxicity of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium chloride ([C8mim]Cl) on Paramisgurnus dabryanus by enzyme analysis, comet assay, and apoptosis analysis. The study showed that [C8mim]Cl had an obvious toxic effect inducing oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and cytotoxicity to fish liver cells. [C8mim]Cl also induced changes in the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, and the glutathione content and malondialdehyde level in fish exposed at 20-80mgL(-1). With increased exposure concentration and time, the four antioxidant enzyme activities, three different comet parameters and apoptosis rates of tested cells were significantly increased, with significant differences (P<0...
August 17, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Björn Deutschmann, Stoimir Kolarevic, Werner Brack, Sonja Kaisarevic, Jovana Kostic, Margareta Kracun-Kolarevic, Igor Liska, Momir Paunovic, Thomas-Benjamin Seiler, Ying Shao, Sandor Sipos, Jaroslav Slobodnik, Ivana Teodorovic, Branka Vukovic-Gacic, Henner Hollert
The Joint Danube Survey 3 (JDS3; the biggest river expedition in 2013) had offered the unique opportunity for a large-scale monitoring approach for biomarker response in feral fish collected along a Danube stretch from Kehlheim (DE) to Sulina (RO). The advantage of genotoxicity as a marker for pollution exposure in fish is the early detection of possible long-term effects such as cancer. Therefore, genotoxicity was in the focus of the biomarker investigations in fish during the expedition. Blood samples of common bleak (Alburnus alburnus) for the investigation of the micronucleus frequency and comet tail intensity of fragmented DNA material in erythrocytes were collected at 18 and 12 sampling sites, respectively...
August 9, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Neetu Shahi, Debaji Sarma, Jyoti Pandey, Partha Das, Dandadhar Sarma, Sumanta Kumar Mallik
The present study was carried out to evaluate sub-lethal mechanism of acid mine drainage toxicity in fingerlings (9.5 ± 2.4 cm) of golden mahseer, Tor putitora. Exposed fingerlings showed significant reduction (P < 0.01) in blood erythrocytes, neutrophils, thrombocytes, lymphocytes and leukocytes in contrast to increase in number of immature circulating cells. Hyperplasia, degeneration of glomeruli, presence of inflammatory cells and increased number of melanomacrophage aggregates, vacuolization of cell cytoplasm, hepatocyte swelling were marked in kidney and liver of fish...
July 2016: Journal of Environmental Biology
Sildiane Martins Cantanhêde, Geane da Silva Castro, Natália Jovita Pereira, Jonas Silva de Pinho Campos, Juliana da Silva, Lígia Tchaicka, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho Neta, José Ribamar de Souza Torres, Débora Martins Silva Santos
Estuaries are subjected to continual environmental impacts from activities in the catchment areas. This research assessed the quality of two estuarine habitats located in Ilha do Maranhão, Brazil, through histological and genotoxic biomarkers in Centropomus undecimalis, comparing the data obtained to metal, physical, and chemical concentrations of water samples. The gill histological alterations were analyzed by the histological alteration index and genotoxic lesions in erythrocytes were detected by the Micronucleus Test...
August 4, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Fernando G Iturburu, Markus Zömisch, Ana M Panzeri, Andrea C Crupkin, Valeska Contardo-Jara, Stephan Pflugmacher, Mirta L Menone
The neonicotinoid imidacloprid is under re-evaluation by regulatory agencies because of the poor current information available regarding its potential effects. One of the goals of the present study was to determine imidacloprid uptake and distribution in the freshwater fish Australoheros facetus experimentally exposed for 24 h and 48 h to 100 μg/L, 300 μg/L, and 2500 μg/L. The toxicity of imidacloprid to fish reported in the literature is in the milligrams per liter or gram per liter range, but sublethal effects at micrograms per liter in some groups other than fish have been described...
August 4, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Daniela M Pampanin, Jeremie Le Goff, Karianne Skogland, Cristian R Marcucci, Kjell Birger Øysæd, Marianne Lorentzen, Kåre B Jørgensen, Magne O Sydnes
The monitoring of the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the aquatic environment is a worldwide activity since some of these compounds are well-established carcinogens and mutagens. Contaminants in this class are in fact regarded as priority hazardous substances for environmental pollution (Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC). In this study, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) was selected to assess in vivo effects of two PAH and their first metabolic products, namely, the corresponding trans-dihydrodiols, using biological markers...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
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