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genotoxicity, DEHP, Comet assay

Pınar Erkekoglu, Belma Kocer-Gumusel
Many of the environmental, occupational and industrial chemicals are able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause oxidative stress. ROS may lead to genotoxicity, which is suggested to contribute to the pathophysiology of many human diseases, including inflammatory diseases and cancer. Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental chemicals and are well-known peroxisome proliferators (PPs) and endocrine disruptors. Several in vivo and in vitro studies have been conducted concerning the carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of phthalates...
December 2014: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
S Theepharaksapan, C Chiemchaisri, W Chiemchaisri, K Yamamoto
Removals of pollutants and toxic organic compounds and reduction in bio-toxicity of leachate along an operating full-scale leachate treatment system utilizing chemical coagulation, sand filtration, microfiltration (MF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane were evaluated. High pollutant removals were achieved mainly by coagulation and sand filtration. Major toxic organic pollutants, i.e. DEHP, DBP and bisphenol A were removed by 100%, 99.6% and 98.0%. Acute toxicity test using water flea, Nile Tilapia and common carp and genotoxicity (Comet assay) were conducted to determine toxicity reduction in leachate along the treatment...
May 2011: Bioresource Technology
Pinar Erkekoglu, Walid Rachidi, Ozge Gursoy Yuzugullu, Belma Giray, Alain Favier, Mehmet Ozturk, Filiz Hincal
Di(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) is the most abundantly used phthalate derivative, inevitable environmental exposure of which is suspected to contribute to the increasing incidence of testicular dysgenesis syndrome in humans. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in germ cells are suggested to contribute to phthalate-induced disruption of spermatogenesis in rodents, and Leydig cells are one of the main targets of phthalates' testicular toxicity. Selenium is known to be involved in the modulation of intracellular redox equilibrium, and plays a critical role in testis, sperm, and reproduction...
October 1, 2010: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Pinar Erkekoğlu, Walid Rachidi, Viviana De Rosa, Belma Giray, Alain Favier, Filiz Hincal
Selenium is an essential cofactor in the key enzymes involved in cellular antioxidant defense. It plays a critical role in testis and reproduction and regulates DNA damage within the prostate. Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that cause alterations in endocrine and spermatogenic functions in animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity potentials of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), the most widely used phthalate and its primary toxic metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP), and their effects on the antioxidant balance in the LNCaP human prostate adenocarcinoma cell line...
August 15, 2010: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Seonyoung Choi, So-Young Park, Ji Jeong, Eunkyung Cho, Sohee Phark, Min Lee, Dongsub Kwak, Ji-Youn Lim, Woon-Won Jung, Donggeun Sul
The effects of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on proteins secreted by HepG2 cells were studied using a proteomic approach. HepG2 cells were exposed to various concentrations of DEHP (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 250 microM) for 24 or 48 h. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and comet assays were then conducted to determine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of DEHP, respectively. The MTT assay showed that 10 microM DEHP was the maximum concentration that did not cause cell death...
May 2010: Proteomics
Russ Hauser
Phthalates are a class of chemicals with widespread general population exposure. Some phthalates are reproductive and developmental toxicants in laboratory animals. Advances in the field of phthalate research in humans are dependent on the development and implementation of biomarkers to assess exposure and outcome, as well as potential markers that may be indicative of increased susceptibility. Recently, we incorporated a novel biomarker of potential 'susceptibility' into our study on the relationship of phthalates with semen quality and sperm DNA damage among men recruited from an infertility clinic...
April 2008: International Journal of Andrology
Norbert H Kleinsasser, Ulrich A Harréus, Ernst R Kastenbauer, Barbara C Wallner, Andrea W Sassen, Rainer Staudenmaier, Albert W Rettenmeier
Phthalic acid esters such as di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) are widely used as plasticizers in PVC products manufactured for commercial, medical, and consumer purposes. Humans are exposed to phthalates originating, e.g., from blood storage bags, tubing materials, and from food-wrapping. While xenoestrogenic and chronic toxic effects of phthalates have been extensively discussed, there is little data on genotoxic effects in human cells. The alkaline comet assay was used to detect single-strand breaks and alkali labile sites of DNA after incubation of human nasal mucosal cells (n = 11) and peripheral lymphocytes (n = 11) with mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP), the principal hydrolysis product of DEHP...
March 14, 2004: Toxicology Letters
D Anderson, T W Yu, F Hinçal
Phthalate esters are among the most extensively used industrial chemicals and are widely distributed in the environment. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and its hydrolysis product mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) have been examined for genotoxic activity on previous occasions. Only MEHP was found to cause chromosome damage in CHO cells but was without effect in the sister chromatid exchange and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl assay. DEHP was found to be a weak direct acting mutagen in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100, the mutagenic activity of which could be abolished by rat liver microsomes (S9 mix)...
1999: Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis
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