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Pathological myopia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898445/pathologic-myopia
#1
Kyoko Ohno-Matsui
Pathologic myopia (PM) is the only myopia that causes the loss of best-corrected visual acuity. The main reason for best-corrected visual acuity loss is complications specific to PM, such as myopic maculopathy, myopic traction maculopathy, and myopic optic neuropathy (or glaucoma). The meta-analyses of the PM study group (META-PM study) made a classification system for myopic maculopathy. On the basis of this study, PM has been defined as eyes having atrophic changes equal to or more severe than diffuse atrophy...
November 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898443/environmental-factors-and-myopia-paradoxes-and-prospects-for-prevention
#2
Kathryn Ailsa Rose, Amanda Nicole French, Ian George Morgan
The prevalence of myopia in developed countries in East and Southeast Asia has increased to more than 80% in children completing schooling, whereas that of high myopia has increased to 10%-20%. This poses significant challenges for correction of refractive errors and the management of pathological high myopia. Prevention is therefore an important priority. Myopia is etiologically heterogeneous, with a low level of myopia of clearly genetic origins that appears without exposure to risk factors. The big increases have occurred in school myopia, driven by increasing educational pressures in combination with limited amounts of time spent outdoors...
November 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898442/epidemiology-of-pathologic-myopia-in-asia-and-worldwide
#3
Yee-Ling Wong, Seang-Mei Saw
The myopia epidemic in Asia is evident because the prevalence of high myopia among young adults is higher among Asian (6.8%-21.6%) compared with non-Asian populations (2.0%-2.3%). High myopia is linked to pathologic myopia (PM), which may cause irreversible visual impairment (VI). This review will highlight updates on the prevalence of PM and the associated VI from PM. The prevalence of PM among the middle-aged and elderly (0.9%-3.1%) is higher than the prevalence among children and adolescents (<0.2%). The PM lesions detected among older adults include advanced lesions, such as posterior staphyloma, chorioretinal atrophy, lacquer cracks, and Fuchs spot (in descending frequency of occurrence)...
November 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896533/characteristics-of-higher-order-aberrations-and-anterior-segment-tomography-in-patients-with-pathologic-myopia
#4
Kaori Kasahara, Naoyuki Maeda, Takashi Fujikado, Makoto Tomita, Muka Moriyama, Mutsumi Fuchihata, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui
PURPOSE: To investigate prospectively the characteristics in the higher-order aberrations and anterior segment tomography in patients with pathologic myopia. METHODS: One hundred and twelve consecutive highly myopic patients (mean age 43.4 ± 9.3 years, spherical equivalent of refractive error ≥8 D and an axial length ≥26.5 mm) were studied. Thirty-seven emmetropic individuals (mean age 37.0 ± 14.5 years, spherical equivalent of refractive error ≤ ±1 D) were analyzed as controls...
November 28, 2016: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860316/prevalence-of-myopic-retinopathy-in-rural-central-india
#5
Jost B Jonas, Vinay Nangia, Rajesh Gupta, Krishna Bhojwani, Prabhat Nangia, Songhomitra Panda-Jonas
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of myopic retinopathy (MR) in rural Central India. METHODS: The population-based Central India Eye and Medical Study included 4711 subjects (aged 30+ years). The participants underwent a detailed eye examination, including fundus photography. Myopic retinopathy was defined according to the Pathologic Myopia Study Group. RESULTS: Readable fundus photographs were available on 4561 (96...
November 17, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853350/intravitreal-aflibercept-for-the-treatment-of-choroidal-neovascularization-associated-with-pathologic-myopia-a-pilot-study
#6
Andrii R Korol, Oleg S Zadorozhnyy, Volodymyr O Naumenko, Taras B Kustryn, Nataliya V Pasyechnikova
PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept injections for the treatment of patients with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) associated with pathologic myopia. METHODS: In this uncontrolled, prospective cohort study, 31 eyes of 30 consecutive patients affected by CNV associated with pathologic myopia were treated with intravitreal aflibercept (2 mg) as needed following two initial monthly doses and observed over a 12-month follow-up period. The primary endpoint was change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at month 12, while central retinal thickness (CRT) on optical coherence tomography (OCT), neovascularization activity on fluorescein angiography, the number of aflibercept injections administered, and safety were examined as secondary endpoints...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852402/-changes-of-ocular-biological-parameters-and-lumican-expression-in-the-monocularly-deprivation-myopic-model-of-mutant-lumican-transgenic-mice
#7
M S Sun, Y Z Song, F J Zhang, J Tao, Y B Liu
Objective: To investigate ocular changes in the monocularly deprivation myopic model of mutant Lumican transgenic mice. Comparing influences on biological parameters and sclera development between Lumican transgenic and form deprivation mice, and to prepare for further study of pathogenesis of pathological myopia (PM). Methods: Experimental research. Lumican transgenic mice and wild mice were monocularly lid-sutured at ten days after birth. All eyes were divided into 6 groups, group A(32 eyes): control eyes in transgenic mice; group B(34 eyes): sutured eyes in transgenic mice; group C(34 eyes): fellow eyes in transgenic mice; group D(28 eyes): control eyes in wild mice; group E(32 eyes): sutured eyes in wild mice; group F(32 eyes): fellow eyes in wild mice...
November 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842529/the-differences-in-level-of-trait-anxiety-among-girls-and-boys-aged-13-17-years-with-myopia-and-emmetropia
#8
Joanna B Łazarczyk, Beata Urban, Beata Konarzewska, Agata Szulc, Alina Bakunowicz-Łazarczyk, Ewa Żmudzka, Urszula Kowzan, Napoleon Waszkiewicz, Karolina Juszczyk-Zajkowska
BACKGROUND: A significant increase in myopia among children and teenagers can be observed all over the world. Yet at the same time, there is still an insignificant number of studies concerning this health problem. The aim of this study was to assess the level of trait anxiety among myopic group of teenagers in comparison to teenagers with emmetropia, and to confirm whether the level of trait anxiety relates to age and gender. METHODS: Two hundred thirty-nine students aged 13-17 years were included in the study...
November 14, 2016: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834967/peripapillary-schisis-in-open-angle-glaucoma
#9
N Dhingra, R Manoharan, S Gill, M Nagar
PurposeTo report clinical features, topographic findings and outcome of 10 eyes with peripapillary schisis in open-angle glaucoma.Patients and methodsA retrospective review of patients with open-angle glaucoma who were noted to have peripapillary schisis on optical coherence tomography (OCT) were included. Serial peripapillary and macula infrared and OCT images, visual acuity, visual fields, and schisis appearance were reviewed.ResultsTen eyes of nine patients with open-angle glaucoma were detected to have the presence of peripapillary schisis...
November 11, 2016: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818204/retinal-microvascular-network-and-microcirculation-assessments-in-high-myopia
#10
Min Li, Ye Yang, Hong Jiang, Giovanni Gregori, Luiz Roisman, Fang Zheng, Bilian Ke, Dongyi Qu, Jianhua Wang
PURPOSE: To investigate the changes of the retinal microvascular network and microcirculation in high myopia. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, matched, comparative clinical study. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty eyes of twenty subjects with non-pathological high myopia (28 ± 5 Years) with a refractive error of -6.31 ± 1.23 Diopters (mean ± standard deviation) and twenty eyes of twenty age- and gender-matched control subjects (30 ± 6 years) with a refractive error of -1...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813523/two-year-outcomes-of-intravitreal-bevacizumab-for-choroidal-neovascularization-associated-with-a-dome-shaped-macula-in-pathologic-myopia
#11
J H Lee, S C Lee, S Choi, H J Koh, S S Kim, C S Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 4, 2016: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800255/the-choroid-and-optical-coherence-tomography
#12
REVIEW
Taha Sezer, Muhammet Altınışık, İbrahim Arif Koytak, Mehmet Hakan Özdemir
The choroid is the most vascular tissue in the eye and it plays an important role in the pathophysiology of various common chorioretinal diseases such as central serous retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and degenerative myopia. Quantitative assessment of the choroid has been quite challenging with traditional imaging modalities such as indocyanine green angiography and ultrasonography due to limited resolution and repeatability. With the advent of optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology, detailed visualization of the choroid in vivo is now possible...
January 2016: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755380/six-year-outcomes-of-intravitreal-bevacizumab-for-choroidal-neovascularization-in-patients-with-pathologic-myopia
#13
Kaori Kasahara, Muka Moriyama, Kei Morohoshi, Takeshi Yoshida, Noriaki Simada, Natsuko Nagaoka, Tae Yokoi, Kosei Shinohara, Yuichiro Kaneko, Mitsuki Suga, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui
PURPOSE: To investigate the 6-year outcome of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) to treat eyes with active choroidal neovascularization (CNV) due to pathologic myopia. METHODS: Medical records of 36 eyes of 35 consecutive patients with high myopia (refractive error ≥8 D or axial length ≥26.5 mm) and active CNV, who had been treated with IVB and followed for ≥6 years were analyzed. The factors that predicted the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 6 years after IVB were determined by multiple regression analyses...
October 10, 2016: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755375/what-is-the-fundamental-nature-of-pathologic-myopia
#14
Kyoko Ohno-Matsui
PURPOSE: Despite being a major cause of visual impairment worldwide, pathologic myopia has not been clearly and consistently defined. This lack of a standardized definition has made comparisons among epidemiological studies difficult. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to summarize the definitions of pathologic myopia. METHODS: A literature search was conducted of Pubmed to identify reports presenting definitions of pathologic myopia. RESULTS: Although cut-off values for refractive error and increased axial length have been used in some studies, a definition based solely on such values is considered to just show a 'high degree of myopia'...
October 11, 2016: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749472/higher-order-aberrations-after-cyclopentolate-tropicamide-and-artificial-tear-drops-application-in-normal-eyes
#15
Negin Amirshekarizadeh, Hassan Hashemi, Ebrahim Jafarzadehpur, Ali Mirzajani, Abbasali Yekta, Mehdi Khabazkhoob
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of cyclopentolate, tropicamide, and artificial tear drops on higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in normal eyes with OPD-Scan III (Nidek Inc., Tokyo, Japan). METHODS: In this study, 189 eyes of individuals aged 20 to 35 years were selected as samples. Inclusion criteria were a corrected visual acuity of 20/20 or better, a minimum size of about 5 mm for the pupil in the dark, hyperopia and myopia less than 5 D, and astigmatism less than 2 D...
September 30, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711004/unusual-case-of-stellate-nonhereditary-idiopathic-foveomacular-retinoschisis
#16
Rosa Dolz-Marco, Kenneth Kato, K Bailey Freund, Lawrence A Yannuzzi
PURPOSE: To report a case of unilateral stellate nonhereditary idiopathic foveomacular retinoschisis (SNIFR) in a young male showing structural changes induced by a Valsalva maneuver. METHODS: Case report of a 26-year-old oboist with SNIFR, including multimodal imaging. Eye-tracked spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used to compare the retinal architecture at rest and during a Valsalva maneuver. RESULTS: Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed macular and peripapillary retinoschisis with no signs of pathologic myopia, optic pit, or vitreoretinal traction...
August 23, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686470/risk-factors-for-return-to-the-operating-room-after-resident-performed-cataract-surgery
#17
Shivali A Menda, Todd H Driver, Alexandra E Neiman, Seth Blumberg, Ayman Naseri, Jay M Stewart
OBJECTIVE: Investigate risk factors for unplanned return to the operating room after resident-performed cataract surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. SETTING: Institutional. METHODS: Study population: All patients with reoperation within 90 days of resident-performed phacoemulsification were matched to four control eyes which had surgery within 30 days of the reoperation at the same institution. OBSERVATION PROCEDURE: Billing codes were used to identify all patients who underwent resident-performed intended phacoemulsification with intraocular lens placement from January 2005 to December 2010...
September 29, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680013/reduced-fluence-verteporfin-photodynamic-therapy-plus-ranibizumab-for-choroidal-neovascularization-in-pathologic-myopia
#18
M Rinaldi, F Semeraro, F Chiosi, A Russo, M R Romano, M C Savastano, R dell'Omo, C Costagliola
BACKGROUND: To demonstrate the efficacy of intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) in combination with reduced-fluence photodynamic therapy (RF-PDT) in patients with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to pathologic myopia. METHODS: Sixty patients affected by myopic CNV (mCNV) were randomized to receive either ranibizumab 0.5 mg monotherapy (RM; n = 20), standard fluence PDT (SF-PDT, n = 20) or RF-PDT combination therapy (n = 20). Subsequently, IVR was injected as needed...
September 28, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643879/evaluation-of-10-amd-associated-polymorphisms-as-a-cause-of-choroidal-neovascularization-in-highly-myopic-eyes
#19
Alvaro Velazquez-Villoria, Sergio Recalde, Jaouad Anter, Jaione Bezunartea, Maria Hernandez-Sanchez, Laura García-García, Elena Alonso, Jose María Ruiz-Moreno, Javier Araiz-Iribarren, Patricia Fernandez-Robredo, Alfredo García-Layana
Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) commonly occurs in age related macular degeneration and pathological myopia patients. In this study we conducted a case-control prospective study including 431 participants. The aim of this study was to determine the potential association between 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 4 different genetic regions (CFI, COL8A1, LIPC, and APOE), and choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration and the development of choroidal neovascularization in highly myopic eyes of a Caucasian population...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625591/bidirectional-expression-of-metabolic-structural-and-immune-pathways-in-early-myopia-and-hyperopia
#20
Nina Riddell, Loretta Giummarra, Nathan E Hall, Sheila G Crewther
Myopia (short-sightedness) affects 1.45 billion people worldwide, many of whom will develop sight-threatening secondary disorders. Myopic eyes are characterized by excessive size while hyperopic (long-sighted) eyes are typically small. The biological and genetic mechanisms underpinning the retina's local control of these growth patterns remain unclear. In the present study, we used RNA sequencing to examine gene expression in the retina/RPE/choroid across 3 days of optically-induced myopia and hyperopia induction in chick...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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