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Infertility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029270/does-active-oral-sex-contribute-to-female-infertility
#1
Patrik M Bavoil, Patricia X Marques, Rebecca Brotman, Jacques Ravel
Based on recent, historical, and circumstantial evidence, we present a multifactorial hypothesis that has potential direct implications on the epidemiology and management of chlamydial infection and disease in humans. We propose that (1) like its veterinary relatives, the oculogenital pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis evolved as a commensal organism of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract primarily transmissible via the fecal-oral route; (2) in the modern era, C. trachomatis causes "opportunistic" infection at non-GI sites under conditions driven by improved sanitation/hygiene and reduced fecal-oral transmission; and (3) the rise in the practice of oral sex is contributing to the increased prevalence of C...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029094/thyroid-hormone-metabolism-defects-in-a-mouse-model-of-sbp2-deficiency
#2
Jiao Fu, Haruki Fujisawa, Benjamin Follman, Xiao-Hui Liao, Alexandra M Dumitrescu
SBP2 (selenocysteine insertion sequence binding protein 2) is an essential factor in selenoprotein synthesis. Patients with SBP2 defects have a characteristic thyroid phenotype and additional manifestations such as growth delay, male infertility, impaired motor coordination and developmental delay. The thyroid phenotype has become pathognomonic for this defect and putative deficiencies in the iodothyronine deiodinases selenoenzymes have been implicated. To investigate the role of SBP2 and selenoproteins in thyroid physiology and answer questions raised by the human syndrome we generated a tamoxifen inducible Sbp2 conditional knockout (iCKO) mouse model...
September 28, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029020/the-endometrial-polarity-paradox-differential-regulation-of-polarity-within-secretory-phase-human-endometrium
#3
Sarah Whitby, Lois A Salamonsen, Jemma Evans
A major cause of infertility in normal and assisted reproduction cycles is failure of the endometrium to undergo appropriate changes during the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle as it acquires receptivity for an implanting blastocyst. Current dogma states that loss of epithelial polarity in the luminal epithelial cells, the point of first contact between maternal endometrium and blastocyst, may facilitate embryo implantation. Loss of polarity is likely an important change during the secretory phase to overcome mutual repulsion between otherwise polarised epithelial surfaces...
September 29, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027840/male-factor-infertility-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-register-based-cohort-study
#4
Clara Helene Glazer, Sandra Søgaard Tøttenborg, Aleksander Giwercman, Elvira Vaclavik Bräuner, Michael L Eisenberg, Ditte Vassard, Melinda Magyari, Anja Pinborg, Lone Schmidt, Jens Peter Bonde
BACKGROUND: Gender, possibly due to the influence of gonadal hormones, is presumed to play a role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), but no studies have evaluated whether male infertility is associated with MS. OBJECTIVE: To study the association between male factor infertility and prevalent as well as incident MS. METHOD: Our cohort was established by linkage of the Danish National in vitro fertilization (IVF) registry to The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry and consisted of 51,063 men whose partners had undergone fertility treatment in all public and private fertility clinics in Denmark between 1994 and 2015...
October 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027829/mental-health-pain-symptoms-and-systemic-comorbidities-in-women-with-endometriosis-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Silvia Vannuccini, Lucia Lazzeri, Cinzia Orlandini, Giuseppe Morgante, Giuseppe Bifulco, Andrea Fagiolini, Felice Petraglia
INTRODUCTION: Endometriosis is a gynecological disease with a severe impact on quality of life. The aim of this study is to assess mental health status in a group of women with endometriosis, investigating their clinical history, pain symptoms and systemic comorbidities. METHODS: An observational cross-sectional study was performed on a group of Italian Caucasian women with endometriosis (n = 134). All patients filled the 'Patient Health Questionnaire' (PHQ), a self-administered screening tool for mental health disorders...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027807/annals-express-biochemistry-of-the-menopause
#6
John W Honour
The life of a human female is characterised from teenage years by monthly menstruation which ceases (the menopause) typically between the age of 40 and 60 years. The potential for reproduction declines and ceases as the ovaries become depleted of follicles. A transition period in mid-life, for 2 to 10 years, when menstruation is less regular is called the peri-menopause. The menopause is associated with a significant decline in plasma concentrations of sex hormones, an increase in the concentrations of the gonadotrophins and changes in other hormones such as the inhibins...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026724/lifestyle-intervention-for-obese-women
#7
REVIEW
Ju-Hee Nho
Obesity produces various physical and psychological health risks in women, including effects on reproductive health. In particular, the possibility of infertility in obese women is high. Lifestyle interventions involving nutrition education, physical activity, and stress management have been shown to be effective in improving the health of obese subjects. Therefore, it is necessary to develop and apply a lifestyle intervention program to promote reproductive health in obese women.
July 2017: Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026720/efficacy-of-embryo-transfer-on-day-2-versus-day-3-according-to-maternal-age-in-patients-with-normal-ovarian-response
#8
Jung-Woo Lee, Jeong-Ho Cha, Sun-Hee Shin, Yun-Jeong Kim, Seul-Ki Lee, Choon-Keun Park, Kyung-Ah Pak, Ji-Sung Yoon, Seo-Young Park
OBJECTIVE: Delaying embryo transfer (ET) enables us to select among the embryos available for transfer and is associated with positive effects on implantation and pregnancy outcomes. However, the optimal day for ET of human cleavage-stage embryos remains controversial. METHODS: A retrospective study of 3,124 in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles (2,440 patients) was conducted. We compared the effects of day 2 and 3 ET on rates of implantation and pregnancy outcomes between young maternal age (YMA; <38 years old, n=2,295) and old maternal age (OMA; ≥38 years old, n=829) patient groups...
September 2017: Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026709/needle-aspiration-biopsy-of-seminiferous-tubules-nabst-as-a-diagnostic-method-in-korea
#9
Jay Ho Jung, Tae Ho Lee, Kyung Hwa Choi, Jae Yup Hong
To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of needle aspiration biopsy of seminiferous tubules (NABST) and to represent the redistributed diagnostic results corresponding to testicular volumes and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. In this retrospective study, we investigated 65 infertile men with either azoospermia or oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. Following NABST, specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and classified into five histological types. With pre-procedure FSH levels and testicular volumes, we evaluated the probabilities of detecting sperms within biopsy specimens...
September 2017: Chonnam Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025102/effects-of-non-cavity-distorting-fibroids-on-endometrial-gene-expression-and-function
#10
L Aghajanova, S Houshdaran, J C Irwin, L C Giudice
Uterine fibroids are a common finding in infertility patients. Impaired implantation and decidualization have been proposed to contribute to compromised fertility. Data are limited on the endometrial transcriptome from subjects with uterine fibroids, as well as endometrial receptivity and decidualization potential of endometrial stromal fibroblasts (eSF) from women with fibroids. Our objective was to investigate the endometrial transcriptome of women with non-cavity distorting intramural fibroids and compare them to control subjects with no uterine pathology throughout the menstrual cycle...
August 30, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025071/the-expression-characteristics-of-fam71d-and-its-association-with-sperm-motility
#11
Qian Ma, Yuchi Li, Manling Luo, Huan Guo, Shouren Lin, Jianbo Chen, Ye Du, Zhimao Jiang, Yaoting Gui
STUDY QUESTION: What are the features of FAM71D (Family with sequence similarity 71, member D) expression and is there an association between FAM71D expression and sperm motility? SUMMARY ANSWER: FAM71D, a novel protein exclusively expressed in the testis, is located in sperm flagella and is functionally involved in sperm motility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Some testis-specific proteins have been reported as potential diagnostic biomarkers to evaluate the spermatogenesis process and sperm quality...
September 12, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025060/adrenomedullin-improves-fertility-and-promotes-pinopodes-and-cell-junctions-in-the-peri-implantation-endometrium
#12
Brooke C Matson, Stephanie L Pierce, Scott T Espenschied, Eric Holle, Imani H Sweatt, Eric S Davis, Robert Tarran, Steven L Young, Trudy A Kohout, Marcel van Duin, Kathleen M Caron
Implantation is a complex event demanding contributions from both embryo and endometrium. Despite advances in assisted reproduction, endometrial receptivity defects persist as a barrier to successful implantation in women with infertility. We previously demonstrated that maternal haploinsufficiency for the endocrine peptide adrenomedullin (AM) in mice confers a sub-fertility phenotype characterized by defective uterine receptivity and sparse epithelial pinopode coverage. The strong link between AM and implantation suggested the compelling hypothesis that administration of AM prior to implantation may improve fertility, protect against complications, and ultimately lead to better maternal and fetal outcomes...
August 28, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025057/nqo2-inhibition-relieves-ros-effects-on-mouse-oocyte-meiotic-maturation-and-embryo-development
#13
Dandan Chen, Xin Li, Xiaoyun Liu, Xiaoyu Liu, Xiuying Jiang, Juan Du, Qian Wang, Yuanjing Liang, Wei Ma
NRH: quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) is a cytosolic and ubiquitously expressed flavoprotein that catalyzes the two-electron reduction of quinone to hydroquinones. Herein, we assessed the protein expression, subcellular localization and possible functions of NQO2 in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation and embryo development. Western blot analysis detected high and stable protein expression of NQO2 in mouse oocytes during meiotic progression. Immunofluorescence illustrated NQO2 distribution on nuclear membrane, chromosomes and meiotic spindles...
September 4, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025019/differing-molecular-response-of-young-and-advanced-maternal-age-human-oocytes-to-ivm
#14
J M Reyes, E Silva, J L Chitwood, W B Schoolcraft, R L Krisher, P J Ross
STUDY QUESTION: What effect does maternal age have on the human oocyte's molecular response to in vitro oocyte maturation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Although polyadenylated transcript abundance is similar between young and advanced maternal age (AMA) germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes, metaphase II (MII) oocytes exhibit a divergent transcriptome resulting from a differential response to in vitro oocyte maturation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Microarray studies considering maternal age or maturation stage have shown that either of these factors will affect oocyte polyadenylated transcript abundance in human oocytes...
September 15, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025014/reactive-oxygen-species-and-protein-modifications-in-spermatozoa
#15
Cristian O'Flaherty, David Matsushita Fournier
Cellular response to reactive oxygen species (ROS) includes both reversible redox signaling and irreversible non-enzymatic reactions which depend on the nature and concentration of the ROS involved. Changes in thiol/disulfide pairs affect protein conformation, enzymatic activity, ligand binding, and protein-protein interactions. During spermatogenesis and epididymal maturation, there are ROS-dependent modifications of the sperm chromatin and flagellar proteins.The spermatozoon is regulated by redox mechanisms to acquire fertilizing ability...
September 13, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025010/sperm-function-protein-phosphorylation-and-metabolism-differ-in-mice-lacking-successive-sperm-specific-glycolytic-enzymes
#16
Zaohua Huang, Polina V Danshina, Kathleen Mohr, Weidong Qu, Summer G Goodson, Thomas M O'Connell, Deborah A O'Brien
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-S (GAPDHS) and phosphoglycerate kinase 2 (PGK2), two isozymes restricted to the male germline, catalyze successive steps in the glycolytic pathway in mammalian sperm. Although gene targeting of each isozyme demonstrated that glycolysis is required for normal sperm motility and male fertility, the phenotype of mice lacking GAPDHS is more severe than that of mice lacking PGK2. This study examined sperm function, signaling pathways and metabolism to investigate factors that contribute to the phenotypic differences between these knockout models...
August 28, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024992/formation-and-function-of-sperm-tail-structures-in-association-with-sperm-motility-defects
#17
Mari S Lehti, Anu Sironen
Male infertility is an increasing problem partly due to inherited genetic variations. Mutations in genes involved in formation of the sperm tail cause motility defects and thus male infertility. Therefore it is crucial to understand the protein networks required for sperm differentiation. Sperm motility is produced through activation of the sperm flagellum, which core structure, the axoneme, resembles motile cilia. In addition to this cytoskeletal axonemal structure sperm tail motility requires various accessory structures...
August 30, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024988/low-dose-metronomic-delivery-of-cyclophosphamide-is-less-detrimental-to-granulosa-cell-viability-and-ovarian-function-than-maximum-tolerated-dose-delivery-in-the-mouse
#18
Jacqueline Dynes, Kata Osz, Allyssa Hooper, Jim Petrik
Chemotherapy can cause early menopause or infertility in women and have a profound negative impact on the quality of life of young female cancer survivors. Various factors are known to influence the risk of chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure, including the drug dose and treatment duration; however, the scheduling of dose administration has not yet been evaluated as an independent risk factor. We hypothesized that Low-Dose Metronomic (LDM) chemotherapy scheduling would be less detrimental to ovarian function than the traditional Maximum-Tolerated Dose (MTD) strategy...
August 30, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024799/treatment-for-uterine-isthmocele-a-pouch-like-defect-at-the-site-of-cesarean-section-scar
#19
REVIEW
Antonio Setubal, João Alves, Filipa Osório, Adalgisa Guerra, Rodrigo Fernandes, Jaime Albornoz, Zacharoula Sidiroupoulou
Isthmocele appears as a fluid pouch-like defect in the anterior uterine wall at the site of a prior Cesarean section and ranges in prevalence from 19% to 84%, a direct relation to the increase in Cesarean sections performed worldwide. Many definitions have been suggested for the dehiscence resulting from Cesarean section, and we propose standardization with a single term for all cases: isthmocele. Patients are not always symptomatic, but symptoms typically include intermittent abnormal bleeding, pain, and infertility...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024798/hysteroscopic-management-of-asherman-s-syndrome-special-issue-report-on-uterine-surgery-in-the-journal-of-minimally-invasive-gynecology
#20
Zaraq Khan, Jeffrey M Goldberg
In developed countries, Asherman's Syndrome is almost always the result of a prior intrauterine operative trauma. This is often asymptomatic but may result in hypo- or amenorrhea and can contribute to infertility and pregnancy complications. We will review their etiology, clinical implications, and the systems which have been proposed to classify their extent. The numerous methods reported for performing lysis of intrauterine adhesions will be summarized along with the clinical results. Current strategies to prevent recurrence of intrauterine adhesions have not been conclusively shown to be clinically effective but the potential for endometrial regeneration using stem cells is an exciting modality under investigation...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
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