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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818819/quantifying-human-movement-using-the-movn-smartphone-app-validation-and-field-study
#1
Ralph Maddison, Luke Gemming, Javier Monedero, Linda Bolger, Sarahjane Belton, Johann Issartel, Samantha Marsh, Artur Direito, Madeleine Solenhill, Jinfeng Zhao, Daniel John Exeter, Harshvardhan Vathsangam, Jonathan Charles Rawstorn
BACKGROUND: The use of embedded smartphone sensors offers opportunities to measure physical activity (PA) and human movement. Big data-which includes billions of digital traces-offers scientists a new lens to examine PA in fine-grained detail and allows us to track people's geocoded movement patterns to determine their interaction with the environment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the validity of the Movn smartphone app (Moving Analytics) for collecting PA and human movement data...
August 17, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815121/enhancing-electronic-health-record-data-with-geospatial-information
#2
Sherrie Xie, Rebecca Greenblatt, Michael Z Levy, Blanca E Himes
Electronic Health Record (EHR)-derived data is a valuable resource for research, and efforts are underway to overcome some of its limitations by using data from external sources to gain a fuller picture of patient characteristics, symptoms, and exposures. Our goal was to assess the utility of augmenting EHR data with geocoded patient addresses to identify geospatial variation of disease that is not explained by EHR-derived demographic factors. Using 2011-2014 encounter data from 27,604 University of Pennsylvania Hospital System asthma patients, we identified factors associated with asthma exacerbations: risk was higher in female, black, middle aged to elderly, and obese patients, as well as those with positive smoking history and with Medicare or Medicaid vs...
2017: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813522/surveillance-in-easy-to-access-population-subgroups-as-a-tool-for-evaluating-malaria-control-progress-a-systematic-review
#3
Sanie S S Sesay, Emanuele Giorgi, Peter J Diggle, David Schellenberg, David G Lalloo, Dianne J Terlouw
BACKGROUND: The need for surveillance systems generating targeted, data-driven, responsive control efforts to accelerate and sustain malaria transmission reduction has been emphasized by programme managers, policy makers and scientists. Surveillance using easy-to-access population subgroups (EAGs) may result in considerable cost saving compared to household surveys as the identification and selection of individuals to be surveyed is simplified, fewer personnel are needed, and logistics are simpler...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811173/prenatal-exposure-to-pyrethroid-pesticides-and-childhood-behavior-and-executive-functioning
#4
Melissa A Furlong, Dana Boyd Barr, Mary S Wolff, Stephanie M Engel
Several previous studies of pyrethroid biomarkers and behavior have reported associations between concurrent pyrethroid levels and adverse behavioral problems in children. One geospatial study reported associations between prenatal exposure to pyrethroids and autism. However, the association between prenatal pyrethroid biomarkers and childhood behavior is unknown. The Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Center is a prospective birth cohort with urinary pyrethroid biomarkers during pregnancy and behavioral measurements at 4, 6, and 7-9 years of age...
August 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810514/multi-objective-spatial-tools-to-inform-maritime-spatial-planning-in-the-adriatic-sea
#5
Daniel Depellegrin, Stefano Menegon, Giulio Farella, Michol Ghezzo, Elena Gissi, Alessandro Sarretta, Chiara Venier, Andrea Barbanti
This research presents a set of multi-objective spatial tools for sea planning and environmental management in the Adriatic Sea Basin. The tools address four objectives: 1) assessment of cumulative impacts from anthropogenic sea uses on environmental components of marine areas; 2) analysis of sea use conflicts; 3) 3-D hydrodynamic modelling of nutrient dispersion (nitrogen and phosphorus) from riverine sources in the Adriatic Sea Basin and 4) marine ecosystem services capacity assessment from seabed habitats based on an ES matrix approach...
August 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809849/spatiotemporal-database-of-us-congressional-elections-1896-2014
#6
Levi John Wolf
High-quality historical data about US Congressional elections has long provided common ground for electoral studies. However, advances in geographic information science have recently made it efficient to compile, distribute, and analyze large spatio-temporal data sets on the structure of US Congressional districts. A single spatio-temporal data set that relates US Congressional election results to the spatial extent of the constituencies has not yet been developed. To address this, existing high-quality data sets of elections returns were combined with a spatiotemporal data set on Congressional district boundaries to generate a new spatio-temporal database of US Congressional election results that are explicitly linked to the geospatial data about the districts themselves...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804490/a-vision-for-incorporating-environmental-effects-into-nitrogen-management-decision-support-tools-for-u-s-maize-production
#7
Kamaljit Banger, Mingwei Yuan, Junming Wang, Emerson D Nafziger, Cameron M Pittelkow
Meeting crop nitrogen (N) demand while minimizing N losses to the environment has proven difficult despite significant field research and modeling efforts. To improve N management, several real-time N management tools have been developed with a primary focus on enhancing crop production. However, no coordinated effort exists to simultaneously address sustainability concerns related to N losses at field- and regional-scales. In this perspective, we highlight the opportunity for incorporating environmental effects into N management decision support tools for United States maize production systems by integrating publicly available crop models with grower-entered management information and gridded soil and climate data in a geospatial framework specifically designed to quantify environmental and crop production tradeoffs...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797037/the-world-s-user-generated-road-map-is-more-than-80-complete
#8
Christopher Barrington-Leigh, Adam Millard-Ball
OpenStreetMap, a crowdsourced geographic database, provides the only global-level, openly licensed source of geospatial road data, and the only national-level source in many countries. However, researchers, policy makers, and citizens who want to make use of OpenStreetMap (OSM) have little information about whether it can be relied upon in a particular geographic setting. In this paper, we use two complementary, independent methods to assess the completeness of OSM road data in each country in the world. First, we undertake a visual assessment of OSM data against satellite imagery, which provides the input for estimates based on a multilevel regression and poststratification model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791583/using-geospatial-analysis-and-emergency-claims-data-to-improve-minority-health-surveillance
#9
David C Lee, Stella S Yi, Jessica K Athens, Andrew J Vinson, Stephen P Wall, Joseph E Ravenell
Traditional methods of health surveillance often under-represent racial and ethnic minorities. Our objective was to use geospatial analysis and emergency claims data to estimate local chronic disease prevalence separately for specific racial and ethnic groups. We also performed a regression analysis to identify associations between median household income and local disease prevalence among Black, Hispanic, Asian, and White adults in New York City. The study population included individuals who visited an emergency department at least once from 2009 to 2013...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771596/the-new-zealand-indices-of-multiple-deprivation-imd-a-new-suite-of-indicators-for-social-and-health-research-in-aotearoa-new-zealand
#10
Daniel John Exeter, Jinfeng Zhao, Sue Crengle, Arier Lee, Michael Browne
For the past 20 years, the New Zealand Deprivation Index (NZDep) has been the universal measure of area-based social circumstances for New Zealand (NZ) and often the key social determinant used in population health and social research. This paper presents the first theoretical and methodological shift in the measurement of area deprivation in New Zealand since the 1990s and describes the development of the New Zealand Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD). We briefly describe the development of Data Zones, an intermediary geographical scale, before outlining the development of the New Zealand Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), which uses routine datasets and methods comparable to current international deprivation indices...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771471/the-genomic-observatories-metadatabase-geome-a-new-repository-for-field-and-sampling-event-metadata-associated-with-genetic-samples
#11
John Deck, Michelle R Gaither, Rodney Ewing, Christopher E Bird, Neil Davies, Christopher Meyer, Cynthia Riginos, Robert J Toonen, Eric D Crandall
The Genomic Observatories Metadatabase (GeOMe, http://www.geome-db.org/) is an open access repository for geographic and ecological metadata associated with biosamples and genetic data. Whereas public databases have served as vital repositories for nucleotide sequences, they do not accession all the metadata required for ecological or evolutionary analyses. GeOMe fills this need, providing a user-friendly, web-based interface for both data contributors and data recipients. The interface allows data contributors to create a customized yet standard-compliant spreadsheet that captures the temporal and geospatial context of each biosample...
August 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770054/dispersal-corridors-for-plant-species-in-the-poyang-lake-basin-of-southeast-china-identified-by-integration-of-phylogeographic-and-geospatial-data
#12
Dengmei Fan, Zhixia Sun, Bo Li, Yixuan Kou, Richard G J Hodel, Zhinong Jin, Zhiyong Zhang
Measuring the dispersal of wildlife through landscapes is notoriously difficult. Recently, the categorical least cost path algorithm that integrates population genetic data with species distribution models has been applied to reveal population connectivity. In this study, we use this method to identify the possible dispersal corridors of five plant species (Castanopsis tibetana, Schima superba, Cyclocarya paliurus, Sargentodoxa cuneata, Eomecon chionantha) in the Poyang Lake Basin (PLB, largely coinciding with Jiangxi Province), China, in the late Quaternary...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766475/vulnerability-of-older-adults-in-disasters-emergency-department-utilization-by-geriatric-patients-after-hurricane-sandy
#13
Sidrah Malik, David C Lee, Kelly M Doran, Corita R Grudzen, Justin Worthing, Ian Portelli, Lewis R Goldfrank, Silas W Smith
OBJECTIVE: Older adults are a potentially medically vulnerable population with increased mortality rates during and after disasters. To evaluate the impact of a natural disaster on this population, we performed a temporal and geospatial analysis of emergency department (ED) use by adults aged 65 years and older in New York City (NYC) following Hurricane Sandy's landfall. METHODS: We used an all-payer claims database to analyze demographics, insurance status, geographic distribution, and health conditions for post-disaster ED visits among older adults...
August 2, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765336/new-directions-in-cancer-control-and-population-sciences
#14
Robert A Hiatt
Cancer control science has been evolving since it first became a focus for cancer research and program activities a century ago. The evolution of the field has responded to historical megatrends along the way that keep it relevant to the cancer-related needs of society. This commentary describes some of the key trends and developments now influencing cancer control and population sciences that reflect societal change and new tools and concepts in modern biomedical science. New directions include the impact of climate change, health care delivery research, the growth of population health science, data science, precision medicine, data sharing, implementation science, and new technologies, including social media and new geospatial methodologies...
August 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757550/assessing-risks-from-cyclones-for-human-lives-and-livelihoods-in-the-coastal-region-of-bangladesh
#15
Mohammad Abdul Quader, Amanat Ullah Khan, Matthieu Kervyn
As a disaster prone country, Bangladesh is regularly hit by natural hazards, including devastating cyclones, such as in 1970, 1991 and 2007. Although the number of cyclones' fatalities reduced from 0.3 million in 1970 to a few thousand or fewer in recent events, loss of lives and impact on livelihoods remains a concern. It depends on the meteorological characteristics of cyclone and the general vulnerability and capacity of the exposed population. In that perspective, a spatially explicit risk assessment is an essential step towards targeted disaster risk reduction...
July 25, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749369/race-ethnicity-socioeconomic-status-residential-segregation-and-spatial-variation-in-noise-exposure-in-the-contiguous-united-states
#16
Joan A Casey, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Daniel J Mennitt, Kurt Fristrup, Elizabeth L Ogburn, Peter James
BACKGROUND: Prior research has reported disparities in environmental exposures in the United States, but, to our knowledge, no nationwide studies have assessed inequality in noise pollution. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to a) assess racial/ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in noise pollution in the contiguous United States; and b) consider the modifying role of metropolitan level racial residential segregation. METHODS: We used a geospatial sound model to estimate census block group-level median () nighttime and daytime noise exposure and 90th percentile () daytime noise exposure...
July 25, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741102/the-range-of-neurological-complications-in-chikungunya-fever
#17
T Cerny, M Schwarz, U Schwarz, J Lemant, P GĂ©rardin, E Keller
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya fever is a globally spreading mosquito-borne disease that shows an unexpected neurovirulence. Even though the neurological complications have been a major cause of intensive care unit admission and death, to date, there is no systematic analysis of their spectrum available. OBJECTIVE: To review evidence of neurological manifestations in Chikungunya fever and map their epidemiology, clinical spectrum, pathomechanisms, diagnostics, therapies and outcomes...
May 25, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736337/tfos-dews-ii-epidemiology-report
#18
REVIEW
Fiona Stapleton, Monica Alves, Vatinee Y Bunya, Isabelle Jalbert, Kaevalin Lekhanont, Florence Malet, Kyung-Sun Na, Debra Schaumberg, Miki Uchino, Jelle Vehof, Eloy Viso, Susan Vitale, Lyndon Jones
The subcommittee reviewed the prevalence, incidence, risk factors, natural history, morbidity and questionnaires reported in epidemiological studies of dry eye disease (DED). A meta-analysis of published prevalence data estimated the impact of age and sex. Global mapping of prevalence was undertaken. The prevalence of DED ranged from 5 to 50%. The prevalence of signs was higher and more variable than symptoms. There were limited prevalence studies in youth and in populations south of the equator. The meta-analysis confirmed that prevalence increases with age, however signs showed a greater increase per decade than symptoms...
May 12, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727136/a-multidimensional-view-of-racial-differences-in-access-to-prostate-cancer-care
#19
Craig Evan Pollack, Katrina A Armstrong, Nandita Mitra, Xinwei Chen, Katelyn R Ward, Archana Radhakrishnan, Michelle S Wong, Justin E Bekelman, Charles C Branas, Karin V Rhodes, David T Grande
BACKGROUND: Racial disparities in prostate cancer treatment and outcomes are widespread and poorly understood. In the current study, the authors sought to determine whether access to care, measured across multiple dimensions, contributed to racial differences in prostate cancer. METHODS: The Philadelphia Area Prostate Cancer Access Study (P(2) Access) included 2374 men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer between 2012 and 2014. Men were surveyed to assess their experiences accessing care (response rate of 51...
July 20, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722639/human-cases-of-tularemia-in-armenia-1996-2012
#20
Syuzanna Melikjanyan, Karo Palayan, Artavazd Vanyan, Lilit Avetisyan, Nune Bakunts, Marine Kotanyan, Marta Guerra
A retrospective analysis was conducted of human cases and outbreaks of tularemia in the Republic of Armenia from 1996 to 2012 utilizing Geographic Information System software. A total of 266 human cases of tularemia were recorded in Armenia from 1996 to 2012, with yearly incidence ranging from 0 to 5.5 cases per 100,000 people. Cases predominantly affected the male population (62.8%), 11-20 year age group (37.2%), agricultural workers (49.6%), and persons residing in rural areas (93.6%). In 2003, a waterborne outbreak involving 158 cases occurred in Kotayk Marz, and in 2007, a foodborne outbreak with 17 cases occurred in Gegharkunik Marz, attributed to exposure of food products to contaminated hay...
June 19, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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