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João Ricardo Nickenig Vissoci, Thiago Augusto Hernandes Rocha, Núbia Cristina da Silva, Rejane Christine de Sousa Queiroz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca Thomaz, Pedro Vasconcelos Maia Amaral, Adriana Lein, Maria Dos Remédios Freitas Carvalho Branco, José Aquino, Zulimar Márita Ribeiro Rodrigues, Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva, Catherine Staton
BACKGROUND: Although the Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic ceased to be a public health emergency by the end of 2016, studies to improve knowledge about this emerging disease are still needed, especially those investigating a causal relationship between ZIKV in pregnant women and microcephaly in neonates. However, there are still many challenges in describing the relationship between ZIKV and microcephaly. The few studies focusing on the epidemiological profile of ZIKV and its changes over time are largely limited to systematic reviews of case reports and dispersal mapping of ZIKV spread over time without quantitative methods to analyze patterns and their covariates...
April 25, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ann Marie Reinhold, Geoffrey C Poole, Robert G Bramblett, Alexander V Zale, David W Roberts
Determining the influences of anthropogenic perturbations on side channel dynamics in large rivers is important from both assessment and monitoring perspectives because side channels provide critical habitat to numerous aquatic species. Side channel extents are decreasing in large rivers worldwide. Although riprap and other linear structures have been shown to reduce side channel extents in large rivers, we hypothesized that small "anthropogenic plugs" (flow obstructions such as dikes or berms) across side channels modify whole-river geomorphology via accelerating side channel senescence...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Nick Scott, Samuel W Hainsworth, Rachel Sacks-Davis, Alisa Pedrana, Joseph Doyle, Amanda Wade, Margaret Hellard
Background and aim: Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatments became available for all people living with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Australia in March 2016. We assess variations in treatment rates and prescribing patterns across Australia's 338 Statistical Area 3 (SA3) geographical units. Methods: Geocoded DAA treatment initiation data were analysed for the period 1 March 2016 to 30 June 2017. Regression models tested associations between the population demographics and healthcare service coverage of geographical areas and (a) their treatment rates; and (b) the proportion of prescriptions written by specialists compared to non-specialists...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
Jonatan Zischg, Peter Zeisl, Daniel Winkler, Wolfgang Rauch, Robert Sitzenfrei
In the future, infrastructure systems will have to become smarter, more sustainable, and more resilient requiring new methods of urban infrastructure design. In the field of urban drainage, green infrastructure is a promising design concept with proven benefits to runoff reduction, stormwater retention, pollution removal, and/or the creation of attractive living spaces. Such 'near-nature' concepts are usually distributed over the catchment area in small scale units. In many cases, these above-ground structures interact with the existing underground pipe infrastructure, resulting in hybrid solutions...
April 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Bipin Kumar Acharya, Chunxiang Cao, Min Xu, Wei Chen, Shreejana Pandit
This study describes spatiotemporal distribution and geospatial diffusion patterns of dengue outbreak of 2013 in Jhapa district, Nepal. Laboratory-confirmed dengue cases were collected from the District Public Health Office, Government of Nepal. Choropleth mapping technique, Global Moran's Index, SaTScan, and standard deviational ellipse were used to map and quantify the outbreak dynamics. The results revealed heterogeneous distribution and globally autocorrelated patterns. Local clusters were observed in 3 major urban centers...
April 1, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
Lee Weiss, Jesse Thé, Jennifer Winter, Bahram Gharabaghi
Excessive phosphorus loading to inland freshwater lakes around the globe has resulted in nuisance plant growth along the waterfronts, degraded habitat for cold water fisheries, and impaired beaches, marinas and waterfront property. The direct atmospheric deposition of phosphorus can be a significant contributing source to inland lakes. The atmospheric deposition monitoring program for Lake Simcoe, Ontario indicates roughly 20% of the annual total phosphorus load (2010-2014 period) is due to direct atmospheric deposition (both wet and dry deposition) on the lake...
April 18, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Mohamed El Alfy, Talal Alharbi, Basma Mansour
Groundwater is the key for life in arid areas. Aquifer overexploitation and climatic conditions can significantly deteriorate groundwater quality. The Al-Qassim area in central Saudi Arabia is characterized by dense agricultural use and is irrigated mainly by fossil groundwater from the Saq Aquifer. Understanding the area's hydrochemistry, major factors governing groundwater quality, and alternative uses of the groundwater are the main goals of this study. Groundwater samples were collected and examined for major, minor, and trace elements...
April 12, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Zhiyong Hu, Hongda Hu, Yuxia Huang
Artificial lighting at night has becoming a new type of pollution posing an important anthropogenic environmental pressure on organisms. The objective of this research was to examine the potential association between nighttime artificial light pollution and nest densities of the three main sea turtle species along Florida beaches, including green turtles, loggerheads, and leatherbacks. Sea turtle survey data was obtained from the "Florida Statewide Nesting Beach Survey program". We used the new generation of satellite sensor "Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)" (version 1 D/N Band) nighttime annual average radiance composite image data...
April 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Giovanny Herrera, Aníbal Teherán, Iván Pradilla, Mauricio Vera, Juan David Ramírez
BACKGROUND: Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (TL) is a neglected disease with worldwide distribution and considered a public health problem, especially in Latin America. In Colombia, the governmental epidemiological surveillance system (SIVIGILA) is responsible for collecting information on the presentation of cases of TL from each of the municipalities and departments. In absence of a study compiling and analyzing currently available metadata of TL in Colombia, this study describes the geospatial-temporal distribution of TL and identifies the regions of the country on which prevention measures should be established in order to control the disease...
April 6, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Leroy J Walston, Heidi M Hartmann
Land managers increasingly rely upon landscape assessments to understand the status of natural resources and identify conservation priorities. Many of these landscape planning efforts rely on geospatial models that characterize the ecological integrity of the landscape. These general models utilize measures of habitat disturbance and human activity to map indices of ecological integrity. We built upon these modeling frameworks by developing a Landscape Integrity Index (LII) model using geospatial datasets of the human footprint, as well as incorporation of other indicators of ecological integrity such as biodiversity and vegetation departure...
2018: PloS One
Paula M Frew, Chelsea S Lutz, Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Vincent C Marconi, Carlos Del Rio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Rakesh Mandal, Shreekant Kesari, Vijay Kumar, Pradeep Das
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Bihar State (India) continues to be endemic, despite the existence of effective treatment and a vector control program to control disease morbidity. A clear understanding of spatio-temporal distribution of VL may improve surveillance and control implementation. This study explored the trends in spatio-temporal dynamics of VL endemicity at a meso-scale level in Vaishali District, based on geographical information systems (GIS) tools and spatial statistical analysis...
April 2, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Ace R North, H Charles J Godfray
BACKGROUND: Populations of the Anopheles gambiae complex are found during the rainy season throughout West Africa, even in arid areas with long dry seasons during which mosquitoes appear to be absent. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this apparent paradox, including aestivation, dispersal between neighbouring settlements, and long distance migration using high-altitude wind currents. METHODS: An individual-based, spatially explicit model of mosquito populations was developed for a region of West Africa centred on, and including all of, Burkina Faso...
April 2, 2018: Malaria Journal
A S Terzian, N Younes, A E Greenberg, J Opoku, J Hubbard, L P Happ, P Kumar, R R Jones, A D Castel
Distance to HIV care may be associated with retention in care (RIC) and viral suppression (VS). RIC (≥ 2 HIV visits or labs ≥ 90 days apart in 12 months), prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART), VS (< 200 copies/mL at last visit) and distance to care were estimated among 3623 DC Cohort participants receiving HIV care in 13 outpatient clinics in Washington, DC in 2015. Logistic regression models and geospatial statistics were computed. RIC was 73%; 97% were on ART, among whom 77% had VS. ZIP code-level clusters of low RIC and high VS were found in Northwest DC, and low VS in Southeast DC...
March 30, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Jessica P Ridgway, Ellen A Almirol, Jessica Schmitt, Todd Schuble, John A Schneider
Using geospatial analysis, we examined the relationship of distance between a patient's residence and clinic, travel time to clinic, and neighborhood violent crime rates with retention in care or viral suppression among people living with HIV (PLWH). For HIV-positive patients at a large urban clinic, we measured distance and travel time between home and clinic and violent crime rate within a two block radius of the travel route. Kruskal-Wallis rank sum was used to compare outcomes between groups. Over the observation period, 2008-2016, 219/602 (36%) patients were retained in care...
March 29, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Bryan V Giordano, Kevin W Turner, Fiona F Hunter
The purpose of this study was to establish geospatial and seasonal distributions of West Nile virus vectors in southern Ontario, Canada using historical surveillance data from 2002 to 2014. We set out to produce mosquito abundance prediction surfaces for each of Ontario's thirteen West Nile virus vectors. We also set out to determine whether elevation and proximity to conservation areas and provincial parks, wetlands, and population centres could be used to improve our model. Our results indicated that the data sets for Anopheles quadrimaculatus , Anopheles punctipennis , Anopheles walkeri , Culex salinarius , Culex tarsalis , Ochlerotatus stimulans , and Ochlerotatus triseriatus were not suitable for geospatial modelling because they are randomly distributed throughout Ontario...
March 28, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Madeline S Rosamond, Christopher Wellen, Meguel A Yousif, Georgina Kaltenecker, Janis L Thomas, Pamela J Joosse, Natalie C Feisthauer, William D Taylor, Mohamed N Mohamed
Many environmental studies require the characterization of a large geographical region using a range of representative sites amenable to intensive study. A systematic approach to selecting study areas can help ensure that an adequate range of the variables of interest is captured. We present a novel method of selecting study sites representing a larger region, in which the region is divided into subregions, which are characterized with relevant independent variables, and displayed in mathematical variable space...
March 24, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Matthew A Struckhoff, Carl E Orazio, Donald E Tillitt, David K Shaver, Diana M Papoulias
Palmyra Atoll, once a WWII U.S. Navy air station, is now a U.S. National Wildlife Refuge with nearly 50km2 of coral reef and 275ha of emergent lands with forests of Pisonia grandis trees and colonies of several bird species. Due to the known elemental and organic contamination from chemicals associated with aviation, power generation and transmission, waste management, and other air station activities, a screening survey to map elemental concentrations was conducted. A map of 1944 Navy facilities was georeferenced and identifiable features were digitized...
March 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Peter J Barile
The Indian River Lagoon (IRL) system, a poorly flushed 240 km long estuary in east-central Florida (USA), previously received 200 MLD of point source municipal wastewater that was largely mitigated by the mid-1990's. Since then, non-point source loads, including septic tank effluent, have become more important. Seventy sites were sampled for bloom-forming macroalgae and analyzed for δ15 N, % nitrogen, % phosphorus, carbon:nitrogen, carbon:phosphorus, and nitrogen:phosphorus ratios. Data were fitted to geospatial models showing elevated δ15 N values (>+5‰), matching human wastewater in most of the IRL system, with elevated enrichment (δ15 N ≥ +7‰ to +10‰) in urbanized portions of the central IRL and Banana River Lagoon...
March 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Choo-Yee Ting, Chiung Ching Ho, Hui Jia Yee, Wan Razali Matsah
Studies have shown that certain features from geography, demography, trade area, and environment can play a vital role in retail site selection, largely due to the impact they asserted on retail performance. Although the relevant features could be elicited by domain experts, determining the optimal feature set can be intractable and labor-intensive exercise. The challenges center around (1) how to determine features that are important to a particular retail business and (2) how to estimate retail sales performance given a new location? The challenges become apparent when the features vary across time...
March 2018: Big Data
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