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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225805/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-chlamydia-infection-in-hong-kong-a-population-based-geospatial-household-survey-and-testing
#1
William Chi Wai Wong, Yanping Zhao, Ngai Sze Wong, William L Parish, Heidi Yin Hai Miu, Li-Gang Yang, Michael Emch, King Man Ho, Francois Yeung Fong, Joseph D Tucker
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia causes infertility and increases risk of HIV infection, and population-based studies provide essential information for effective infection control and prevention. This study examined Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and risk factors among a representative sample of 18-49-year-old residents in Hong Kong. METHODS: Census boundary map of 412 constituency areas was used as primary sampling units to construct the sampling frame and, residential buildings and units were randomly selected using geospatial modelling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222757/spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-hiv-1-transmission-in-france-1999-2014-and-impact-of-targeted-prevention-strategies
#2
Antoine Chaillon, Asma Essat, Pierre Frange, Davey M Smith, Constance Delaugerre, Francis Barin, Jade Ghosn, Gilles Pialoux, Olivier Robineau, Christine Rouzioux, Cécile Goujard, Laurence Meyer, Marie-Laure Chaix
BACKGROUND: Characterizing HIV-1 transmission networks can be important in understanding the evolutionary patterns and geospatial spread of the epidemic. We reconstructed the broad molecular epidemiology of HIV from individuals with primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) enrolled in France in the ANRS PRIMO C06 cohort over 15 years. RESULTS: Sociodemographic, geographic, clinical, biological and pol sequence data from 1356 patients were collected between 1999 and 2014. Network analysis was performed to infer genetic relationships, i...
February 21, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221822/clinical-characteristics-and-spatial-distribution-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-children-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-an-emerging-focus-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-brazil
#3
Patricia Rodrigues Naufal Spir, Luiz Euribel Prestes-Carneiro, Elivelton Silva Fonseca, Aline Dayse, Rogério Giuffrida, Lourdes Aparecida Zampieri D'Andrea
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an emerging zoonosis, and Brazil harbors about 90% of those infected in Latin America. Since 1998, the disease has been spreading quickly in São Paulo state, and the western region is considered an emerging focus of VL in Brazil. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and spatial distribution of VL in children referred to a public tertiary hospital located in the western region of São Paulo state, Brazil. METHODS: Medical records of children up to 18 years of age who were diagnosed with VL between January 2006 and December 2010 were reviewed...
February 21, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217711/source-attribution-of-poly-and-perfluoroalkyl-substances-pfass-in-surface-waters-from-rhode-island-and-the-new-york-metropolitan-area
#4
Xianming Zhang, Rainer Lohmann, Clifton Dassuncao, Xindi C Hu, Andrea K Weber, Chad D Vecitis, Elsie M Sunderland
Exposure to poly and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been associated with adverse health effects in humans and wildlife. Understanding pollution sources is essential for environmental regulation but source attribution for PFASs has been confounded by limited information on industrial releases and rapid changes in chemical production. Here we use principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical clustering, and geospatial analysis to understand source contributions to 14 PFASs measured across 37 sites in the Northeastern United States in 2014...
September 13, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209283/community-audit-of-social-civil-and-activity-domains-in-diverse-environments-cascadde
#5
Emily A Knapp, Claudia Nau, Sy Brandau, Joseph DeWalle, Annemarie G Hirsch, Lisa Bailey-Davis, Brian S Schwartz, Thomas A Glass
There are currently no direct observation environmental audit tools that measure diverse aspects of the obesity-related environment efficiently and reliably in a variety of geographic settings. The goal was to develop a new instrument to reliably characterize the overall properties and features of rural, suburban, and urban settings along multiple dimensions. The Community Audit of Social, Civil, and Activity Domains in Diverse Environments (CASCADDE) is an iPad-based instrument that incorporates GPS coordinates and photography and comprises 214 items yielding seven summary indices...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193891/mapping-evaporative-water-loss-in-desert-passerines-reveals-an-expanding-threat-of-lethal-dehydration
#6
Thomas P Albright, Denis Mutiibwa, Alexander R Gerson, Eric Krabbe Smith, William A Talbot, Jacqueline J O'Neill, Andrew E McKechnie, Blair O Wolf
Extreme high environmental temperatures produce a variety of consequences for wildlife, including mass die-offs. Heat waves are increasing in frequency, intensity, and extent, and are projected to increase further under climate change. However, the spatial and temporal dynamics of die-off risk are poorly understood. Here, we examine the effects of heat waves on evaporative water loss (EWL) and survival in five desert passerine birds across the southwestern United States using a combination of physiological data, mechanistically informed models, and hourly geospatial temperature data...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183742/preventable-injury-deaths-identifying-opportunities-to-improve-timeliness-and-reach-of-emergency-healthcare-services-in-new-zealand
#7
Rebbecca Lilley, Bridget Kool, Gabrielle Davie, Brandon de Graaf, Shanthi N Ameratunga, Pararangi Reid, Ian Civil, Bridget Dicker, Charles C Branas
BACKGROUND: Traumatic injury is a leading cause of premature death and health loss in New Zealand. Outcomes following injury are very time sensitive, and timely access of critically injured patients to advanced hospital trauma care services can improve injury survival. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study will investigate the epidemiology and geographic location of prehospital fatal injury deaths in relation to access to prehospital emergency services for the first time in New Zealand...
February 9, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182978/modeling-background-radiation-in-southern-nevada
#8
Daniel A Haber, Pamela C Burnley, Christopher T Adcock, Russell L Malchow, Kara E Marsac, Elisabeth M Hausrath
Aerial gamma ray surveys are an important tool for national security, scientific, and industrial interests in determining locations of both anthropogenic and natural sources of radioactivity. There is a relationship between radioactivity and geology and in the past this relationship has been used to predict geology from an aerial survey. The purpose of this project is to develop a method to predict the radiologic exposure rate of the geologic materials by creating a high resolution background model. The intention is for this method to be used in an emergency response scenario where the background radiation environment is unknown...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161270/precipitation-collector-bias-and-its-effects-on-temporal-trends-and-spatial-variability-in-national-atmospheric-deposition-program-national-trends-network-data
#9
Gregory A Wetherbee
Precipitation samples have been collected by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program's (NADP) National Trends Network (NTN) using the Aerochem Metrics Model 301 (ACM) collector since 1978. Approximately one-third of the NTN ACM collectors have been replaced with N-CON Systems, Inc. Model ADS 00-120 (NCON) collectors. Concurrent data were collected over 6 years at 12 NTN sites using colocated ACM and NCON collectors in various precipitation regimes. Linear regression models of the colocated data were used to adjust for relative bias between the collectors...
February 1, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160665/geospatial-analysis-of-suicidal-bridge-jumping-in-the-metro-vancouver-regional-district-from-2006-to-2014
#10
Vienna C Lam, J Bryan Kinney, Lynne S Bell
In the past decade, there have been many structural changes implemented to Vancouver's largest bridges as a means of deterring criminogenic and suicidal behaviors. Guided by an environmental criminology theoretical framework, this research examines the patterns and trends of 201 cases of successful suicide jumping in the Metro Vancouver Regional District (MVRD) of British Columbia, Canada from 2006 to 2014. To evaluate these trends and to bolster the existing literature on deterrence measures through environmental design, this research will examine the spatial relationship between preferential bridge jumping locations and the home addresses of the deceased...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157149/improved-methods-for-fire-risk-assessment-in-low-income-and-informal-settlements
#11
REVIEW
John Twigg, Nicola Christie, James Haworth, Emmanuel Osuteye, Artemis Skarlatidou
Fires cause over 300,000 deaths annually worldwide and leave millions more with permanent injuries: some 95% of these deaths are in low- and middle-income countries. Burn injury risk is strongly associated with low-income and informal (or slum) settlements, which are growing rapidly in an urbanising world. Fire policy and mitigation strategies in poorer countries are constrained by inadequate data on incidence, impacts, and causes, which is mainly due to a lack of capacity and resources for data collection, analysis, and modelling...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148765/mapping-poverty-using-mobile-phone-and-satellite-data
#12
Jessica E Steele, Pål Roe Sundsøy, Carla Pezzulo, Victor A Alegana, Tomas J Bird, Joshua Blumenstock, Johannes Bjelland, Kenth Engø-Monsen, Yves-Alexandre de Montjoye, Asif M Iqbal, Khandakar N Hadiuzzaman, Xin Lu, Erik Wetter, Andrew J Tatem, Linus Bengtsson
Poverty is one of the most important determinants of adverse health outcomes globally, a major cause of societal instability and one of the largest causes of lost human potential. Traditional approaches to measuring and targeting poverty rely heavily on census data, which in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are unavailable or out-of-date. Alternate measures are needed to complement and update estimates between censuses. This study demonstrates how public and private data sources that are commonly available for LMICs can be used to provide novel insight into the spatial distribution of poverty...
February 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143808/contextual-impact-of-neighborhood-obesogenic-factors-on-postmenopausal-breast-cancer-the-multiethnic-cohort
#13
Shannon M Conroy, Christina Clarke, Juan Yang, Salma Shariff-Marco, Yurii B Shvetsov, Song-Yi Park, Cheryl L Albright, Andrew Hertz, Kristine R Monroe, Laurence N Kolonel, Loic Le Marchand, Lynne R Wilkens, Scarlett Lin Gomez, Iona Cheng
BACKGROUND: While obesity is well-understood to increase breast cancer risk, the role of the neighborhood obesogenic environment, encompassing social and built environment attributes that influence body size, is poorly understood. METHODS: Using principal components factor analysis, five composite factors (neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES), urban, mixed-land development, unhealthy food environment, parks), based on geospatial data were developed to characterize the obesogenic environment for 48,247 postmenopausal women in the Multiethnic Cohort, residing predominately in Los Angeles County...
January 31, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140386/high-resolution-global-gridded-data-for-use-in-population-studies
#14
Christopher T Lloyd, Alessandro Sorichetta, Andrew J Tatem
Recent years have seen substantial growth in openly available satellite and other geospatial data layers, which represent a range of metrics relevant to global human population mapping at fine spatial scales. The specifications of such data differ widely and therefore the harmonisation of data layers is a prerequisite to constructing detailed and contemporary spatial datasets which accurately describe population distributions. Such datasets are vital to measure impacts of population growth, monitor change, and plan interventions...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139166/moving-beyond-the-household-innovations-in-data-collection-on-kinship
#15
Sangeetha Madhavan, Shelley Clark, Donatien Beguy, Caroline W Kabiru, Mark Gross
Across settings, it has been shown that the co-residential household is an insufficient measure of family structure and support. However, it continues to be the primary means of population data collection. To address this problem, we developed a new instrument, the Kinship Support Tree (KST), to collect kinship structure and support data on co-residential and non-residential kin and tested it on a sample of 462 single mothers and their children in a slum community in Nairobi, Kenya. This instrument is unique in four important ways: (1) it is not limited to the co-residential household; (2) it distinguishes potential from functional kin; (3) it incorporates multiple geospatial measures; and (4) it collects data on kin relationships specifically for children...
March 2017: Population Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138884/drought-analysis-in-the-eastern-nile-basin-using-the-standardized-precipitation-index
#16
Mohamed Elkollaly, Mosaad Khadr, Bakenaz Zeidan
Drought is considered by many researchers to be the most complex but least understood of all natural hazards, affecting more people than any other hazard. Drought affects many aspects of community and environment, and any future increases in the water demand will be most critical in periods of severe drought. Geospatial analysis of the historical drought events and their causes can be used to mitigate drought impacts and to develop preparedness plans. This study aimed to identify the changes in drought frequency, magnitude, duration, and intensity in the Eastern Nile basin during the period 1965-2000, using the standardized precipitation index (SPI)...
January 31, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135857/geospatial-indicators-of-space-and-place-a-review-of-multilevel-studies-of-hiv-prevention-and-care-outcomes-among-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-united-states
#17
José A Bauermeister, Daniel Connochie, Lisa Eaton, Michele Demers, Rob Stephenson
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM), particularly YMSM who are racial/ethnic minorities, are disproportionately affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in the United States. These HIV disparities have been linked to demographic, social, and physical geospatial characteristics. The objective of this scoping review was to summarize the existing evidence from multilevel studies examining how geospatial characteristics are associated with HIV prevention and care outcomes among YMSM populations...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134779/geometric-positioning-for-satellite-imagery-without-ground-control-points-by-exploiting-repeated-observation
#18
Zhenling Ma, Xiaoliang Wu, Li Yan, Zhenliang Xu
With the development of space technology and the performance of remote sensors, high-resolution satellites are continuously launched by countries around the world. Due to high efficiency, large coverage and not being limited by the spatial regulation, satellite imagery becomes one of the important means to acquire geospatial information. This paper explores geometric processing using satellite imagery without ground control points (GCPs). The outcome of spatial triangulation is introduced for geo-positioning as repeated observation...
January 26, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126815/airborne-laser-guided-imaging-spectroscopy-to-map-forest-trait-diversity-and-guide-conservation
#19
G P Asner, R E Martin, D E Knapp, R Tupayachi, C B Anderson, F Sinca, N R Vaughn, W Llactayo
Functional biogeography may bridge a gap between field-based biodiversity information and satellite-based Earth system studies, thereby supporting conservation plans to protect more species and their contributions to ecosystem functioning. We used airborne laser-guided imaging spectroscopy with environmental modeling to derive large-scale, multivariate forest canopy functional trait maps of the Peruvian Andes-to-Amazon biodiversity hotspot. Seven mapped canopy traits revealed functional variation in a geospatial pattern explained by geology, topography, hydrology, and climate...
January 27, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126001/serology-reveals-heterogeneity-of-plasmodium-falciparum-transmission-in-northeastern-south-africa-implications-for-malaria-elimination
#20
Joseph Biggs, Jaishree Raman, Jackie Cook, Khumbulani Hlongwana, Chris Drakeley, Natashia Morris, Ishen Serocharan, Eunice Agubuzo, Philip Kruger, Aaron Mabuza, Alpheus Zitha, Elliot Machaba, Maureen Coetzee, Immo Kleinschmidt
BACKGROUND: It is widely acknowledged that modifications to existing control interventions are required if South Africa is to achieve malaria elimination. Targeting indoor residual spraying (IRS) to areas where cases have been detected is one strategy currently under investigation in northeastern South Africa. This seroprevalence baseline study, nested within a targeted IRS trial, was undertaken to provide insights into malaria transmission dynamics in South Africa and evaluate whether sero-epidemiological practices have the potential to be routinely incorporated into elimination programmes...
January 26, 2017: Malaria Journal
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