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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727136/a-multidimensional-view-of-racial-differences-in-access-to-prostate-cancer-care
#1
Craig Evan Pollack, Katrina A Armstrong, Nandita Mitra, Xinwei Chen, Katelyn R Ward, Archana Radhakrishnan, Michelle S Wong, Justin E Bekelman, Charles C Branas, Karin V Rhodes, David T Grande
BACKGROUND: Racial disparities in prostate cancer treatment and outcomes are widespread and poorly understood. In the current study, the authors sought to determine whether access to care, measured across multiple dimensions, contributed to racial differences in prostate cancer. METHODS: The Philadelphia Area Prostate Cancer Access Study (P(2) Access) included 2374 men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer between 2012 and 2014. Men were surveyed to assess their experiences accessing care (response rate of 51...
July 20, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722639/human-cases-of-tularemia-in-armenia-1996-2012
#2
Syuzanna Melikjanyan, Karo Palayan, Artavazd Vanyan, Lilit Avetisyan, Nune Bakunts, Marine Kotanyan, Marta Guerra
A retrospective analysis was conducted of human cases and outbreaks of tularemia in the Republic of Armenia from 1996 to 2012 utilizing Geographic Information System software. A total of 266 human cases of tularemia were recorded in Armenia from 1996 to 2012, with yearly incidence ranging from 0 to 5.5 cases per 100,000 people. Cases predominantly affected the male population (62.8%), 11-20 year age group (37.2%), agricultural workers (49.6%), and persons residing in rural areas (93.6%). In 2003, a waterborne outbreak involving 158 cases occurred in Kotayk Marz, and in 2007, a foodborne outbreak with 17 cases occurred in Gegharkunik Marz, attributed to exposure of food products to contaminated hay...
June 19, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722587/lack-of-geospatial-population-structure-yet-significant-linkage-disequilibrium-in-the-reservoir-of-plasmodium-falciparum-in-bongo-district-ghana
#3
Shazia Ruybal-Pesántez, Kathryn E Tiedje, Mary M Rorick, Lucas Amenga-Etego, Anita Ghansah, Abraham Oduro, Kwadwo A Koram, Karen P Day
Malaria control in West Africa is impeded by the large reservoir of chronic asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections in the human population. This study aimed to assess the extent of diversity in the P. falciparum reservoir in Bongo District (BD), Ghana, at the end of the dry season, the lowest point in malaria transmission over the course of the year. Analysis of the variation in 12 microsatellite loci was completed for 200 P. falciparum isolates collected from a cross-sectional survey of residents of all ages from two catchment areas in BD...
July 3, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722536/travel-burden-associated-with-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-administration-in-a-medicare-aged-population-a-geospatial-analysis
#4
J Mark Stephens, Mark Bensink, Charles Bowers, Christopher S Hollenbeak
OBJECTIVE: Prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSFs) is recommended for patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy regimens with a high risk of febrile neutropenia (FN). G-CSFs should be administered starting the day after chemotherapy, necessitating return trips to the oncology clinic at the end of each cycle. We examined the travel burden related to prophylactic G-CSF injections after chemotherapy in the United States (US). METHODS: We used 2012-2014 Medicare claims data to identify a national cohort of beneficiaries age 65+ with non-myeloid cancers who received both chemotherapy and prophylactic G-CSFs...
July 19, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721955/spatiotemporal-clustering-of-dengue-cases-in-thiruvananthapuram-district-kerala
#5
Joanna Sara Valson, Biju Soman
BACKGROUND: Dengue cases are increasing in Kerala since 2010. Information on clustering of cases across locations and time periods is vital for disease surveillance and timely control. OBJECTIVES: The objective is to study spatiotemporal clustering of dengue cases and their climatic and physioenvironmental correlates in Thiruvananthapuram district during 2010-2014. METHODS: Health department data on reported cases of dengue were obtained from January 2011 to June 2014...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721588/impact-of-highway-construction-on-water-bodies-a-geospatial-assessment
#6
Ritesh Vijay, Vikash K Kushwaha, Trupti Mardikar, P K Labhasetwar
India has witnessed a massive infrastructure boom in the past few years. One of such projects is National Highway-7 (NH-7), a North-South highway connecting Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, to Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, traversing many water bodies. The present study aims to assess the pre- and post-construction impact due to existing, new and widened NH-7 on the physical status of the water bodies, using remote sensing techniques. Satellite images spanning 22 years were procured and analysed for change detection in land use and land cover within the waterbodies...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715855/assessing-long-term-impact-of-land-use-change-on-hydrological-ecosystem-functions-in-a-mediterranean-upland-agro-forestry-catchment
#7
Paolo Nasta, Mario Palladino, Nadia Ursino, Antonio Saracino, Angelo Sommella, Nunzio Romano
During the second half of the 20th century farming systems in hilly and mountainous areas of Mediterranean Europe were progressively abandoned and the forest cover subsequently re-expanded. This paper investigates the environmental impacts of land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes on hydrological ecosystem functions (HEFs) in the Upper Alento River Catchment (UARC) in southern Italy. We document the human-driven post-war landscape in 1955 with its maximum expansion of pasture and crops. By 1998 forest cover had doubled and cropland had roughly halved due to decades of land abandonment and reduction in human pressure...
July 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714353/spatial-analysis-of-temporal-changes-in-the-pandemic-of-severe-cassava-mosaic-disease-in-north-western-tanzania
#8
Anna Maria Szyniszewska, Constantine Busungu, Simon Boniface Boni, Rudolph Rufini Shirima, Hein Bouwmeester, James P Legg
To improve understanding of the dynamics of the cassava mosaic disease (CMD) pandemic front, geospatial approaches were applied to the analysis of three years' data obtained from a 2° by 2° (ca 222km by 222 km) area of north-western Tanzania. A total of 80 farmers' fields were assessed in each of 2009, 2010 and 2011, with 20 evenly-distributed fields per 1° by 1° quadrant. CMD-associated variables (CMD incidence, CMD severity, vector-borne CMD infection and vector abundance) increased in magnitude from 2009-2010, but showed little change from 2010-2011...
July 15, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712139/warming-drives-a-front-of-white-spruce-establishment-near-western-treeline-alaska
#9
Amy E Miller, Tammy L Wilson, Rosemary L Sherriff, James Walton
Regional warming has led to increased productivity near the boreal forest margin in Alaska. To date, the effects of warming on seedling recruitment have received little attention, in spite of forecasted forest expansion. Here, we used stand structure and environmental data from ninety-five white spruce (Picea glauca) plots sampled across a longitudinal gradient in southwest Alaska to explore factors influencing spruce establishment and recruitment near western treeline. We used total counts of live seedlings, saplings, and trees, representing five life stages, to evaluate whether geospatial, climate, and measured plot covariates predicted abundance, using current abundance distributions as a surrogate for climate conditions in the past...
July 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706967/geospatial-analysis-of-dissolved-nutrients-dataset-in-the-surface-water-of-karayar-reservoir-southern-india
#10
N S Magesh, N Chandrasekar, S Krishnakumar
Spatial dataset representing the nutrient distribution in Karayar reservoir during pre and post-monsoon season is presented. Random sampling method was used for data collection and the sample location were fixed using a handheld global positioning system (Garmin GPSMAP-76). The nutrients were estimated using the standard techniques as described in the American Public Health Association (APHA) manual. Physical parameters were estimated using a Hanna portable multi water quality probe (HI-9828, USA). The spatial distribution of physical and nutrient content in surface water is carried out using an inverse distance weighted technique...
August 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706208/predictability-of-state-level-flood-damage-in-the-conterminous-united-states-the-role-of-hazard-exposure-and-vulnerability
#11
Qianqian Zhou, Guoyong Leng, Leyang Feng
Understanding historical changes in flood damage and the underlying mechanisms is critical for predicting future changes for better adaptations. In this study, a detailed assessment of flood damage for 1950-1999 is conducted at the state level in the conterminous United States (CONUS). Geospatial datasets on possible influencing factors are then developed by synthesizing natural hazards, population, wealth, cropland and urban area to explore the relations with flood damage. A considerable increase in flood damage in CONUS is recorded for the study period which is well correlated with hazards...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690347/union-army-veterans-all-grown-up
#12
Dora L Costa, Heather DeSomer, Eric Hanss, Christopher Roudiez, Sven E Wilson, Noelle Yetter
This paper overviews the research opportunities made possible by a NIA-funded program project, Early Indicators, Intergenerational Processes, and Aging. Data collection began almost three decades ago on 40,000 soldiers from the Union Army in the US Civil War. The sample contains extensive demographic, economic, and medical data from childhood to death. In recent years, a large sample of African-American soldiers and an oversampling of soldiers from major US cities have been added. Hundreds of historical maps containing public health data have been geocoded to place soldiers and their family members in a geospatial context...
2017: Historical Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688939/mapping-geospatial-gaps-in-early-identification-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Pamela B DeGuzman, Paige Altrui, Marcus Allen, Cornelia Ramsey Deagle, Jessica Keim-Malpass
Despite the known developmental benefits of early intervention for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), diagnosis before age 5 years is often not achieved. Research suggests that lack of health insurance and living in rural areas and areas of severe provider shortages contribute significantly to these delays. The purpose of this project was to conduct a geospatial evaluation of potential gaps in early ASD diagnosis of uninsured children in Virginia. A secondary purpose was to show the use of geospatial analysis by pediatric nurse practitioners for policy advocacy...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686475/integration-of-the-social-environment-in-a-mobility-ontology-for-people-with-motor-disabilities
#14
Amin Gharebaghi, Mir-Abolfazl Mostafavi, Geoffrey Edwards, Patrick Fougeyrollas, Stéphanie Gamache, Yan Grenier
BACKGROUND: Our contemporary understanding of disability is rooted in the idea that disability is the product of human-environment interaction processes. People may be functionally limited, but this becomes a disability only when they engage with their immediate social and physical environments. Any attempt to address issues of mobility in relation to people with disabilities should be grounded in an ontology that encompasses this understanding. PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to provide a methodology to integrate the social and physical environments in the development of a mobility ontology for people with motor disabilities (PWMD)...
July 7, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683931/filling-the-gap-using-fishers-knowledge-to-map-the-extent-and-intensity-of-fishing-activity
#15
Claire L Szostek, Lee G Murray, Ewen Bell, Michel J Kaiser
Knowledge of the extent and intensity of fishing activities is critical to inform management in relation to fishing impacts on marine conservation features. Such information can also provide insight into the potential socio-economic impacts of closures (or other restrictions) of fishing grounds that could occur through the future designation of Marine Conservation Zones (MCZs). We assessed the accuracy and validity of fishing effort data (spatial extent and relative effort) obtained from Fishers' Local Knowledge (LK) data compared to that derived from Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) data for a high-value shellfish fishery, the king scallop (Pecten maximus L...
June 20, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674462/a-global-meta-analysis-of-the-value-of-ecosystem-services-provided-by%C3%A2-lakes
#16
Arnaud Reynaud, Denis Lanzanova
This study presents the first meta-analysis on the economic value of ecosystem services delivered by lakes. A worldwide data set of 699 observations drawn from 133 studies combines information reported in primary studies with geospatial data. The meta-analysis explores antagonisms and synergies between ecosystem services. This is the first meta-analysis to incorporate simultaneously external geospatial data and ecosystem service interactions. We first show that it is possible to reliably predict the value of ecosystem services provided by lakes based on their physical and geographic characteristics...
July 2017: Ecological Economics: the Journal of the International Society for Ecological Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674015/limits-of-brazil-s-forest-code-as-a-means-to-end-illegal-deforestation
#17
Andrea A Azevedo, Raoni Rajão, Marcelo A Costa, Marcelo C C Stabile, Marcia N Macedo, Tiago N P Dos Reis, Ane Alencar, Britaldo S Soares-Filho, Rayane Pacheco
The 2012 Brazilian Forest Code governs the fate of forests and savannas on Brazil's 394 Mha of privately owned lands. The government claims that a new national land registry (SICAR), introduced under the revised law, could end illegal deforestation by greatly reducing the cost of monitoring, enforcement, and compliance. This study evaluates that potential, using data from state-level land registries (CAR) in Pará and Mato Grosso that were precursors of SICAR. Using geospatial analyses and stakeholder interviews, we quantify the impact of CAR on deforestation and forest restoration, investigating how landowners adjust their behaviors over time...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668467/identification-of-a-pvl-negative-sccmec-iva-sub-lineage-of-the-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-cc80-lineage-understanding-the-clonal-origin-of-ca-mrsa
#18
Sofie Marie Edslev, Henrik Torkil Westh, Paal Skytt Andersen, Robert Skov, Nobumichi Kobayashi, Mette Damkjær Bartels, Francois Vandenesh, Andreas Petersen, Peder Worning, Anders Rhod Larsen, Marc Stegger
OBJECTIVES: Community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) isolates belonging to clonal complex 80 (CC80) are recognized as the European CA-MRSA. The prevailing European CA-MRSA clone carries a type IVc staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and expresses Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). Recently, a significant increase of PVL-negative CC80 MRSA has been observed in Denmark. The aim of this study was to examine the genetics and the epidemiology of these, and to compare them to the European CA-MRSA clone in order to understand the emergence of PVL-negative CC80 MRSA...
June 28, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662646/effect-of-transmission-intensity-on-hotspots-and-micro-epidemiology-of-malaria-in-sub-saharan-africa
#19
Polycarp Mogeni, Irene Omedo, Christopher Nyundo, Alice Kamau, Abdisalan Noor, Philip Bejon
BACKGROUND: Malaria transmission intensity is heterogeneous, complicating the implementation of malaria control interventions. We provide a description of the spatial micro-epidemiology of symptomatic malaria and asymptomatic parasitaemia in multiple sites. METHODS: We assembled data from 19 studies conducted between 1996 and 2015 in seven countries of sub-Saharan Africa with homestead-level geospatial data. Data from each site were used to quantify spatial autocorrelation and examine the temporal stability of hotspots...
June 30, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661712/out-of-hospital-and-inter-hospital-under-triage-to-designated-tertiary-trauma-centers-among-injured-older-adults-a-10-year-statewide-geospatial-adjusted-analysis
#20
Tabitha Garwe, Kenneth Stewart, Julie Stoner, Craig D Newgard, Melissa Scott, Ying Zhang, Timothy Cathey, John Sacra, Roxie M Albrecht
OBJECTIVE: While out-of-hospital under-triage of seriously injured older adults to tertiary trauma centers has long been acknowledged, no study has adjusted for place of injury or evaluated the extent of inter-facility under-triage. We sought to determine distance and confounder adjusted odds of treatment at a tertiary trauma center (TTC) for older adult trauma patients compared to younger trauma patients, for patients transported from the scene of injury and those transferred from a non-tertiary trauma (NTTC) center...
June 29, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
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