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Mary D Brantley, Nicole L Davis, David A Goodman, William M Callaghan, Wanda D Barfield
BACKGROUND: Perinatal services exist today as a dyad of maternal and neonatal care. When perinatal care is fragmented or unavailable, excess morbidity and mortality may occur in pregnant women and newborns. OBJECTIVE: Describe spatial relationships between women of reproductive age, individual perinatal subspecialists (Maternal Fetal Medicine and Neonatology), and obstetric and neonatal critical care facilities in the United States to identify gaps in health care access...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Gavin Tansley, Barclay T Stewart, Adam Gyedu, Godfred Boakye, Daniel Lewis, Marius Hoogerboord, Charles Mock
BACKGROUND: Surgical disease burden falls disproportionately on individuals in low- and middle-income countries. These populations are also the least likely to have access to surgical care. Understanding the barriers to access in these populations is therefore necessary to meet the global surgical need. METHODS: Using geospatial methods, this study explores the district-level variation of two access barriers in Ghana: poverty and spatial access to care. National survey data were used to estimate the average total household expenditure (THE) in each district...
October 20, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
Isabella C C von Holstein, Penelope Walton Rogers, Oliver E Craig, Kirsty E H Penkman, Jason Newton, Matthew J Collins
We investigate the origin of archaeological wool textiles preserved by anoxic waterlogging from seven medieval archaeological deposits in north-western Europe (c. 700-1600 AD), using geospatial patterning in carbon (δ13C), nitrogen (δ15N) and non-exchangeable hydrogen (δ2H) composition of modern and ancient sheep proteins. δ13C, δ15N and δ2H values from archaeological wool keratin (n = 83) and bone collagen (n = 59) from four sites were interpreted with reference to the composition of modern sheep wool from the same regions...
2016: PloS One
Kara N Durski, Carol Tituli, Divi Ogaoga, Jennie Musto, Cynthia Joshua, Alfred Dofai, Jennie Leydon, Eric Nilles
INTRODUCTION: During May 2012, a rubella outbreak was declared in Solomon Islands. A suspected case of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) was reported from one hospital 11 months later in 2013. This report describes the subsequent CRS investigation, findings and measures implemented. METHODS: Prospective CRS surveillance was conducted at the newborn nursery, paediatric and post-natal wards, and the paediatric cardiology and ophthalmology clinics of the study hospital from April to July 2013...
January 2016: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
R J Kastner, C M Stone, P Steinmann, M Tanner, F Tediosi
In the last few years, the concepts of disease elimination and eradication have again gained consideration from the global health community, with Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) on track to become the first parasitic disease to be eradicated. Given the many complex and interlinking issues involved in committing to a disease eradication initiative, such commitments must be based on a solid assessment of a broad range of factors. In this chapter, we discuss the value and implications of undertaking a systematic and fact-based analysis of the overall situation prior to embarking on an elimination or eradication programme...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
Kacie Seil, Jennifer Marcum, Ramona Lall, Catherine Stayton
BACKGROUND: The New York City emergency department (ED) syndromic surveillance (SS) system provides near real-time data on the majority of ED visits. The utility of ED SS for injury surveillance has not been thoroughly evaluated. We created injury syndromes based on ED chief complaint information and evaluated their utility compared to administrative billing data. METHODS: Six injury syndromes were developed: traffic-related injuries to pedal cyclists, pedestrians, and motor vehicle occupants; fall-related injuries; firearm-related injuries; and assault-related stabbings...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Imelda K Moise, Marilyn O Ruiz
INTRODUCTION: Identifying at-risk groups is a challenge in post-disaster psychosocial response. Geospatial techniques can support the design and deployment of targeted and tailored interventions. This study compared spatial patterns in the distribution of hospitalizations for substance abuse disorders and associated area-level predictors before and after Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, Louisiana. METHODS: We used hospital data from the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals for 2004 (pre-Katrina) and 2008 (post-Katrina)...
October 13, 2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
Aubrey D Miller, Jerry J Vaske, John R Squires, Lucretia E Olson, Elizabeth K Roberts
Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation-often by non-motorized and motorized activity-is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers)...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Management
Jan Bauer, Julia Reinhard, Michael Boll, David Groneberg
AIMS: This study focuses on home nursing care distribution in an urban setting in Germany. BACKGROUND: A shortage of nursing care workforce is present in Germany. METHODS: A geospatial analysis was performed to examine distribution patterns at the district level in Frankfurt, Germany (n = 46 districts) and factors were analysed influencing the location choice of home nursing care providers (n = 151). Furthermore, within the analysis we focused on the population aged over 65 years to model the demand for nursing care...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Nursing Management
Leepao Khang, Swann Arp Adams, Susan E Steck, Jiajia Zhang, Sudha Xirasagar, Virginie G Daguise
PURPOSE: Although many studies have examined factors in predicting incomplete and delay in abnormal mammogram follow-up, few have used geospatial methods to examine these factors. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between travel distance to health facilities and completion of abnormal mammogram follow-up among disadvantaged women in South Carolina. METHODS: Women participating in South Carolina's Best Chance Network between 1996 and 2009 with abnormal mammogram were included in the study...
August 31, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Alexander McCumber, K A Strevett
Lead has been banned from automobile gasoline since 1995; however, lead is still used as an additive to aviation gasoline (avgas). Airports are now one of the greatest sources of lead air emission in the US. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate soil lead levels radially from three regional airports; (2) collect historical meteorological data; (3) examine the soil organic matter content and (4) develop correlation coefficients to evaluate correlations among variables. Soil samples were collected from 3 different airports in Oklahoma and the soil lead concentration was measured using x-ray fluorescence (XRF)...
October 3, 2016: Chemosphere
Catherine Bulka, Loretta J Nastoupil, Jean L Koff, Leon Bernal-Mizrachi, Kevin C Ward, Jessica N Williams, A Rana Bayakly, Jeffrey M Switchenko, Lance A Waller, Christopher R Flowers
OBJECTIVES: Examining the spatial patterns of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) incidence and residential proximity to toxic release locations may provide insight regarding environmental and sociodemographic risk factors. METHODS: We linked and geocoded cancer incidence data for the period 1999-2008 from the Georgia Comprehensive Cancer Registry with population data from the US Census and the Environmental Protection Agency's Toxics Release Inventory. We conducted cluster analyses and constructed Poisson regression models to assess DLBCL incidence as a function of mean distance to the toxic release sites...
October 2016: Southern Medical Journal
Ry Marcattilio-McCracken
Though only one component product of the larger eugenics movement, the eugenic family study proved to be, by far, its most potent ideological tool. The Kallikak Family, for instance, went through eight editions between 1913 and 1931. This essay argues that the current scholarship has missed important ways that the architects of the eugenic family studies theorized and described the subjects of their investigation. Using one sparsely interrogated work (sociologist Frank Wilson Blackmar's "The Smoky Pilgrims") and one previously unknown eugenic family study (biologist Frank Gary Brooks' untitled analysis of the flood-zone Oklahomans) from the Southern Plains, this essay aims to introduce "environment" as a schema that allows for how the subjects of the eugenic family study were conceptualized with respect to their surroundings...
September 29, 2016: Journal of the History of Biology
Mohit Sharma, G Areendran, Krishna Raj, Ankita Sharma, P K Joshi
Forests in the mountains are a treasure trove; harbour a large biodiversity; and provide fodder, firewood, timber and non-timber forest products; all of these are essential for human survival in the highest mountains on earth. The present paper attempts a spatiotemporal assessment of forest fragmentation and changes in land use land cover (LULC) pattern using multitemporal satellite data over a time span of around a decade (2000-2009), within the third highest protected area (PA) in the world. The fragmentation analysis using Landscape Fragmentation Tool (LFT) depicts a decrease in large core, edge and patches areas by 5...
October 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Todd E Katzner, David M Nelson, Melissa A Braham, Jacqueline M Doyle, Nadia B Fernandez, Adam E Duerr, Peter H Bloom, Matthew C Fitzpatrick, Tricia A Miller, Renee C E Culver, Loan Braswell, J Andrew DeWoody
Renewable energy production is expanding rapidly despite mostly unknown environmental effects on wildlife and habitats. We used genetic and stable isotope data collected from Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) killed at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) in California in demographic models to test hypotheses about the geographic extent and demographic consequences of fatalities caused by renewable energy facilities. Geospatial analyses of δ(2) H values obtained from feathers showed that ≥25% of these APWRA-killed eagles were recent immigrants to the population, most from long distances away (>100 km)...
September 27, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Sayantan Das, Priyank Pravin Patel, Somasis Sengupta
BACKGROUND: With myriad geospatial datasets now available for terrain information extraction and particularly streamline demarcation, there arises questions regarding the scale, accuracy and sensitivity of the initial dataset from which these aspects are derived, as they influence all other parameters computed subsequently. In this study, digital elevation models (DEM) derived from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER V2), Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM V4, C-Band, 3 arc-second), Cartosat -1 (CartoDEM 1...
2016: SpringerPlus
Anahid Basiri, Pouria Amirian, Peter Mooney
The concept of crowdsourcing is nowadays extensively used to refer to the collection of data and the generation of information by large groups of users/contributors. OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a very successful example of a crowd-sourced geospatial data project. Unfortunately, it is often the case that OSM contributor inputs (including geometry and attribute data inserts, deletions and updates) have been found to be inaccurate, incomplete, inconsistent or vague. This is due to several reasons which include: (1) many contributors with little experience or training in mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS); (2) not enough contributors familiar with the areas being mapped; (3) contributors having different interpretations of the attributes (tags) for specific features; (4) different levels of enthusiasm between mappers resulting in different number of tags for similar features and (5) the user-friendliness of the online user-interface where the underlying map can be viewed and edited...
2016: Sensors
Frank Winde, Ewald Erasmus, Gerhard Geipel
The paper presents results of a follow-up to an earlier study which established a geospatial link between naturally elevated uranium (U) levels in borehole water and haematological abnormalities in local residents serving as a proxy for leukaemia prevalent in the area. While the original study focussed on drinking water only, this paper also explores alternative exposure pathways including the inhalation of dust and the food chain. U-levels in grass and tissue of sheep generally reflect U-levels in nearby borehole water and exceed background concentrations by 20 to nearly 500 times...
September 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Matthew Hansen, William Loker, Craig Warden
INTRODUCTION: The association between geographic factors, including transport distance, and pediatric emergency medical services (EMS) run clustering on out-of-hospital pediatric endotracheal intubation is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if endotracheal intubation procedures are more likely to occur at greater distances from the hospital and near clusters of pediatric calls. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study including all EMS runs for patients less than 18 years of age from 2008 to 2014 in a geographically large and diverse Oregon county that includes densely populated urban areas near Portland and remote rural areas...
September 2016: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Bin Hou, Yunhong Wang, Qingjie Liu
Characterizations of up to date information of the Earth's surface are an important application providing insights to urban planning, resources monitoring and environmental studies. A large number of change detection (CD) methods have been developed to solve them by utilizing remote sensing (RS) images. The advent of high resolution (HR) remote sensing images further provides challenges to traditional CD methods and opportunities to object-based CD methods. While several kinds of geospatial objects are recognized, this manuscript mainly focuses on buildings...
2016: Sensors
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