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Torres Woolley, Fortunato Cristobal, Jusie Siega-Sur, Simone Ross, Andre-Jacques Neusy, Servando Halili, Carole Reeve
INTRODUCTION: Hundreds of millions of people worldwide lack access to quality health services, largely because of geographic and socioeconomic maldistribution of qualified practitioners. This study describes differences between the practice locations of Philippines medical graduates from two 'socially accountable, community-engaged' health professional education (SAHPE) schools and the practice locations of graduates from two 'conventionally trained' medical schools located in the same respective geographic regions...
February 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Yuri Gori, Ana Stradiotti, Federica Camin
BACKGROUND: Local timber is still one of the main sources of work and income for mountain communities. However, illegal logging is a major cause of deforestation in many countries and has significant impacts on local communities and biodiversity. Techniques for tracing timber would provide a useful tool to protect local timber industries and contribute to the fight against illegal logging. Although considerable progress has been made in food traceability, timber provenance is still a somewhat neglected research area...
2018: PloS One
H M Beccacece, G San Blas, M E Drewniak, M J Barrionuevo, E R Krauczuk, A E Chalup, A I Zapata
A taxonomical rearrangement of "Aemilia" pagana species-group is proposed: Leucanopsis pagana (Schaus in Proc Zool Soc London 1894:225-243, 1894) comb. nov. and L. ninae (Orfila in Rev Soc Entomol Argent 21:67-70, 1959) comb. nov. A new endemic species from Pampa de Achala, Córdoba, Argentina, closer to both species, is described: Leucanopsis navarroi sp. nov. These three species can be recognized because the color pattern is the darkest among species of Leucanopsis. Characteristics of male genitalia suggest the nomenclatural rearrangement proposed...
February 15, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
Fabio Dell'Acqua, Gianni Cristian Iannelli, Marco A Torres, Mario L V Martina
Cash crops are agricultural crops intended to be sold for profit as opposed to subsistence crops, meant to support the producer, or to support livestock. Since cash crops are intended for future sale, they translate into large financial value when considered on a wide geographical scale, so their production directly involves financial risk. At a national level, extreme weather events including destructive rain or hail, as well as drought, can have a significant impact on the overall economic balance. It is thus important to map such crops in order to set up insurance and mitigation strategies...
February 14, 2018: Sensors
Erwan Monier, Sergey Paltsev, Andrei Sokolov, Y-H Henry Chen, Xiang Gao, Qudsia Ejaz, Evan Couzo, C Adam Schlosser, Stephanie Dutkiewicz, Charles Fant, Jeffery Scott, David Kicklighter, Jennifer Morris, Henry Jacoby, Ronald Prinn, Martin Haigh
Efforts to estimate the physical and economic impacts of future climate change face substantial challenges. To enrich the currently popular approaches to impact analysis-which involve evaluation of a damage function or multi-model comparisons based on a limited number of standardized scenarios-we propose integrating a geospatially resolved physical representation of impacts into a coupled human-Earth system modeling framework. Large internationally coordinated exercises cannot easily respond to new policy targets and the implementation of standard scenarios across models, institutions and research communities can yield inconsistent estimates...
February 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Rachit Kashyap, K S Verma, Sanjay Kr Uniyal, S K Bhardwaj
The study focused on analyzing concentrations of metal(loid)s, their geospatial distribution in groundwater around an industrial hub of northern India. Human health risk posed due to the intake of contaminated groundwater was also evaluated. For this, 240 samples were assayed using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometer. For risk assessment, the methodology proposed by US Environmental Protection Agency was adopted. Geometric mean of Al, As, Mo, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn was 193...
February 12, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Andres Moreira-Soto, Maria Celeste Torres, Marcos Cesar Lima de Mendonça, Maria Angelica Mares-Guia, Cintia Damasceno Dos Santos Rodrigues, Allison Fabri, Carolina Cardoso Dos Santos, Eliane Saraiva Machado Araújo, Carlo Fischer, Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira, Christian Drosten, Patricia Carvalho Sequeira, Jan Felix Drexler, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis
OBJECTIVE: Since December 2016, Brazil has experienced an unusually large outbreak of yellow fever (YF). Whether urban transmission may contribute to the extent of the outbreak is unclear. The objective of this study was to characterize yellow fever virus (YFV) genomes and to identify spatial patterns to determine the distribution and origin of YF cases in Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, the most affected Brazilian states during the current YFV outbreak. METHODS: We characterized near-complete YFV genomes from 14 human cases and two non-human primates (NHP), sampled from February to April 2017, retrieved epidemiological data of cases and used a geographic information system to investigate geospatial spread of YFV...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
S J Taetzsch, A S Bertke, K R Gruszynski
Feral cats raise public health concerns due to their large population numbers and ability to harbour pathogens that cause disease in people, pets, and wildlife. Information regarding the potential for feral cats to intersect with areas frequented by humans is lacking. This study examined the potential for feral cats and human territories to overlap in the Richmond metropolitan area of Central Virginia. Feral cats (n = 275) were trapped for monthly trap-neuter-release (TNR) clinics from July to November 2016...
February 8, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Robert W Korycinski, Bethany L Tennant, Michelle A Cawley, Bonny Bloodgood, April Y Oh, David Berrigan
PURPOSE: Geospatial, contextual, and multilevel research is integral to cancer prevention and control. NCI-designated Cancer Centers are at the forefront of cancer research; therefore, this paper sought to review the geospatial, contextual, and multilevel research at these cancer centers. METHODS: Investigators used PubMed and Web of Science to compile geospatial publications from 1971 to February 2016 with cancer center-affiliated authors. Relevant abstracts were pulled and classified by six geospatial approaches, eight geospatial scales, and eight cancer sites...
February 8, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Emmy Okello, Chris T Longenecker, Amy Scheel, Twalib Aliku, Joselyn Rwebembera, Grace Mirembe, Craig Sable, Peter Lwabi, Andrea Beaton
Objectives: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a major driver of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in low-resource settings. Registry-based care for RHD has been advocated as a powerful tool to improve clinical care and track quality metrics. Data collected through an RHD registry may also reveal epidemiological and geospatial trends, as well as insight into care utilisation. Uganda established a central RHD registry at the country's only tertiary cardiac centre in 2010. In 2014 RHD care and registry enrolment expanded to the Western region and in 2015 to the North...
2018: Heart Asia
Laurence Palk, Sally Blower
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, where ~ 25 million individuals are infected with HIV and transmission is predominantly heterosexual, there is substantial geographic variation in the severity of epidemics. This variation has yet to be explained. Here, we propose that it is due to geographic variation in the size of the high-risk group (HRG): the group with a high number of sex partners. We test our hypothesis by conducting a geospatial analysis of data from Malawi, where ~ 13% of women and ~ 8% of men are infected with HIV...
February 9, 2018: BMC Medicine
Marcos Pereira-Santos, José Yure Gomes Dos Santos, Gisele Queiroz Carvalho, Djanilson Barbosa Dos Santos, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira
Studies conducted among populations of tropical countries have reported high prevalences of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. Information resulting from meta-analyses on the spatial distribution of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in tropical countries is still rare. The aim of this review was investigated the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among the Brazilian population. Observational studies were searched in eight electronically databases. Additionally, theses and dissertations and abstracts were screened...
February 8, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Jennifer Z Qin, Clarissa P Diniz, Jenell S Coleman
BACKGROUND: Addressing record high rates of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) incidence in the United States (U.S.) requires the utilization of effective strategies, such as expedited partner therapy (EPT), to reduce reinfection and further transmission. EPT, which can be given as a prescription or medication, is a strategy to treat the sexual partners of index patients diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) without prior medical evaluation of the partners. OBJECTIVE: There are multiple steps in the prescription-EPT cascade and we sought to identify pharmacy-level barriers to implementing prescription-EPT for Ct treatment...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
N Bagheri, K Wangdi, N Cherbuin, K J Anstey
Geographical information systems (GIS) and geospatial analysis techniques will help to identify significant dementia risk clusters (hotspots) across communities and will enable policy makers to target prevention interventions to the right place. This review synthesises the published literature on geospatial analysis techniques for quantifying and mapping dementia risk, and reviews available dementia risk assessment tools. A systematic literature review was undertaken in four medical and life sciences databases (PubMed, Cochrane Central, Embase, and Web of Sciences) from their inception to March 2017 for all articles relating to dementia...
2018: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
Brittany Corley, Shannon Bartelt-Hunt, Eleanor Rogan, Donald Coulter, John Sparks, Lorena Baccaglini, Madeline Howell, Sidra Liaquat, Rex Commack, Alan S Kolok
In 2009, a paper was published suggesting that watersheds provide a geospatial platform for establishing linkages between aquatic contaminants, the health of the environment, and human health. This article is a follow-up to that original article. From an environmental perspective, watersheds segregate landscapes into geospatial units that may be relevant to human health outcomes. From an epidemiologic perspective, the watershed concept places anthropogenic health data into a geospatial framework that has environmental relevance...
2018: Environmental Health Insights
Masoud Ghandehari, Thorsten Emig, Milad Aghamohamadnia
Despite decades of research seeking to derive the urban energy budget, the dynamics of thermal exchange in the densely constructed environment is not yet well understood. Using New York City as a study site, we present a novel hybrid experimental-computational approach for a better understanding of the radiative heat transfer in complex urban environments. The aim of this work is to contribute to the calculation of the urban energy budget, particularly the stored energy. We will focus our attention on surface thermal radiation...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michael A Irvine, James W Kazura, T Deirdre Hollingsworth, Lisa J Reimer
It is well known that individuals in the same community can be exposed to a highly variable number of mosquito bites. This heterogeneity in bite exposure has consequences for the control of vector-borne diseases because a few people may be contributing significantly to transmission. However, very few studies measure sources of heterogeneity in a way which is relevant to decision-making. We investigate the relationship between two classic measures of heterogeneity, spatial and individual, within the context of lymphatic filariasis, a parasitic mosquito-borne disease...
January 31, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Khurshaid Khan, Sobia Wahid, Nazma Habib Khan, Safeer Ullah Shah, Bakht Sarwar, Naheed Ali
We provide a comprehensive and updated review on the effects of elevation and climatic factors on distribution of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) across Pakistan. Our study was undertaken in view of the increasing risk of leishmaniasis, particularly resulting from climatic deviations and political instability in the region. Literature (published and unpublished) on suspected vectors of CL (Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot and Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli) and VL (Phlebotomus major Yakimoff and Schokhor and Phlebotomus hindustanicus Theodor) was collected, sorted, and utilized in geospatial analysis...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Jun Wang, Rongbo Zhu, Shubo Liu, Zhaohui Cai
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are widely applied in industrial application with the rapid development of Industry 4.0. Combining with centralized cloud platform, the enormous computational power is provided for data analysis, such as strategy control and policy making. However, the data analysis and mining will bring the issue of privacy leakage since sensors will collect varieties of data including sensitive location information of monitored objects. Differential privacy is a novel technique that can prevent compromising single record benefits...
January 31, 2018: Sensors
Salah Uddin Khan, Terri L O'Sullivan, Zvonimir Poljak, Janet Alsop, Amy L Greer
BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases in farmed animals have economic, social, and health consequences. Foreign animal diseases (FAD) of swine are of significant concern. Mathematical and simulation models are often used to simulate FAD outbreaks and best practices for control. However, simulation outcomes are sensitive to the population structure used. Within Canada, access to individual swine farm population data with which to parameterize models is a challenge because of privacy concerns...
January 30, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
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