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Shannon M Conroy, Salma Shariff-Marco, Juan Yang, Andrew Hertz, Myles Cockburn, Yurii B Shvetsov, Christina A Clarke, Cheryl L Abright, Christopher A Haiman, Loïc Le Marchand, Laurence N Kolonel, Kristine R Monroe, Lynne R Wilkens, Scarlett Lin Gomez, Iona Cheng
PURPOSE: We characterized the neighborhood obesogenic environment in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) by examining the associations of obesity with attributes of the social and built environment, establishing a multi-level infrastructure for future cancer research. METHODS: For 102,906 African American, Japanese American, Latino, and white MEC participants residing predominately in Los Angeles County, baseline residential addresses (1993-1996) were linked to census and geospatial data, capturing neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES), population density, commuting, food outlets, amenities, walkability, and traffic density...
December 8, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Claudia Nau, David Bishai
We investigate whether communities with improving population health will subsequently experience rising real estate prices. Home price indices (HPIs) for 371 MSAs from 1990 to 2010 are regressed against life-expectancy five years prior. HPIs come from the Federal Housing Finance Agency. Life expectancy estimates come from the Institute of Health Metrics. Our analysis uses random and fixed effect models with a comprehensive set of controls. Life expectancy predicted increases in the HPI controlling for potential confounders...
December 4, 2017: Health & Place
Adriana Pérez, Lung-Chang Chien, Melissa B Harrell, Keryn E Pasch, Udoka C Obinwa, Cheryl L Perry
Introduction: To identify the geospatial association between the presence of tobacco retail outlets (TRO) around schools' neighborhoods, and current use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes among adolescents in four counties in Texas. Methods: Students in grades 6, 8 and 10th were surveyed in their schools in 2014-2015. The schools' addresses was geocoded to determine the presence of at least one TRO within half a mile of the school. Two outcomes were considered: past 30-day use of (a) cigarettes and (b) e-cigarettes...
October 2017: Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics
François Rouet, Janin Nouhin, Du-Ping Zheng, Benjamin Roche, Allison Black, Sophearot Prak, Marie Leoz, Catherine Gaudy-Graffin, Laurent Ferradini, Chandara Mom, Sovatha Mam, Charlotte Gautier, Gérard Lesage, Sreymom Ken, Kerya Phon, Alexandra Kerleguer, Chunfu Yang, William Killam, Masami Fujita, Chhivun Mean, Didier Fontenille, Francis Barin, Jean-Christophe Plantier, Trevor Bedford, Artur Ramos, Vonthanak Saphonn
Background: In 2014-2015, 242 individuals aged 2-89 were newly HIV-1 diagnosed in Roka, a rural commune in Cambodia. A case-control study attributed the outbreak to unsafe injections. We aimed to reconstruct the likely transmission history of the outbreak. Methods: We assessed in 209 (86.4%) HIV-infected cases the presence of hepatitis C and B viruses (HCV, HBV). We identified recent infections using antibody (Ab) avidity testing for HIV and HCV, and HBcIgM Ab for HBV...
December 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Emerson M A Xavier, Francisco J Ariza-López, Manuel A Ureña-Cámara
This article presents datasets prepared with the aim of helping the evaluation of geospatial matching methods for vector data. These datasets were built up from mapping data produced by official Spanish mapping agencies. The testbed supplied encompasses the three geometry types: point, line and area. Initial datasets were submitted to geometric transformations in order to generate synthetic datasets. These transformations represent factors that might influence the performance of geospatial matching methods, like the morphology of linear or areal features, systematic transformations, and random disturbance over initial data...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Data
Lu Zhang, Hongru Du, Yannan Zhao, Rongwei Wu, Xiaolei Zhang
"The Belt and Road" initiative has been expected to facilitate interactions among numerous city centers. This initiative would generate a number of centers, both economic and political, which would facilitate greater interaction. To explore how information flows are merged and the specific opportunities that may be offered, Chinese cities along "the Belt and Road" are selected for a case study. Furthermore, urban networks in cyberspace have been characterized by their infrastructure orientation, which implies that there is a relative dearth of studies focusing on the investigation of urban hierarchies by capturing information flows between Chinese cities along "the Belt and Road"...
2017: PloS One
M S R Murthy, Hammad Gilani, Bhaskar Singh Karky, Eklabya Sharma, Marieke Sandker, Upama Ashish Koju, Shiva Khanal, Mohan Poudel
BACKGROUND: The reliable monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of carbon emissions and removals from the forest sector is an important part of the efforts on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). Forest-dependent local communities are engaged to contribute to MRV through community-based monitoring systems. The efficiency of such monitoring systems could be improved through the rational integration of the studies at permanent plots with the geospatial technologies...
December 1, 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
Jangwon Suh, Sung-Min Kim, Huiuk Yi, Yosoon Choi
In this study, current geographic information system (GIS)-based methods and their application for the modeling and assessment of mining-induced hazards were reviewed. Various types of mining-induced hazard, including soil contamination, soil erosion, water pollution, and deforestation were considered in the discussion of the strength and role of GIS as a viable problem-solving tool in relation to mining-induced hazards. The various types of mining-induced hazard were classified into two or three subtopics according to the steps involved in the reclamation procedure, or elements of the hazard of interest...
November 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Clemens Havas, Bernd Resch, Chiara Francalanci, Barbara Pernici, Gabriele Scalia, Jose Luis Fernandez-Marquez, Tim Van Achte, Gunter Zeug, Maria Rosa Rosy Mondardini, Domenico Grandoni, Birgit Kirsch, Milan Kalas, Valerio Lorini, Stefan Rüping
In the first hours of a disaster, up-to-date information about the area of interest is crucial for effective disaster management. However, due to the delay induced by collecting and analysing satellite imagery, disaster management systems like the Copernicus Emergency Management Service (EMS) are currently not able to provide information products until up to 48-72 h after a disaster event has occurred. While satellite imagery is still a valuable source for disaster management, information products can be improved through complementing them with user-generated data like social media posts or crowdsourced data...
November 29, 2017: Sensors
Elisabetta Napolitano, Ivan Marchesini, Paola Salvati, Marco Donnini, Cinzia Bianchi, Fausto Guzzetti
Information on historical landslides and floods - collectively called "geo-hydrological hazards - is key to understand the complex dynamics of the events, to estimate the temporal and spatial frequency of damaging events, and to quantify their impact. A number of databases on geo-hydrological hazards and their consequences have been developed worldwide at different geographical and temporal scales. Of the few available database structures that can handle information on both landslides and floods some are outdated and others were not designed to store, organize, and manage information on single phenomena or on the type and monetary value of the damages and the remediation actions...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Tshokey Tshokey, John Stenos, David N Durrheim, Keith Eastwood, Chelsea Nguyen, Stephen R Graves
BACKGROUND: With few studies conducted to date, very little is known about the epidemiology of rickettsioses in Bhutan. Due to two previous outbreaks and increasing clinical cases, scrub typhus is better recognized than other rickettsial infections and Q fever. METHODOLOGY: A descriptive cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted from January to March 2015 in eight districts of Bhutan. Participants were 864 healthy individuals from an urban (30%) and a rural (70%) sampling unit in each of the eight districts...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Christos G Karydas, Panos Panagos
A detailed description of the G2 erosion model is presented, in order to support potential users. G2 is a complete, quantitative algorithm for mapping soil loss and sediment yield rates on month-time intervals. G2 has been designed to run in a GIS environment, taking input from geodatabases available by European or other international institutions. G2 adopts fundamental equations from the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and the Erosion Potential Method (EPM), especially for rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, and sediment delivery ratio...
November 20, 2017: Environmental Research
K Nagalaksmi, Madri Pramod Kumar, N Jayaraju, T Lakshmi Prasad, B Lakshmanna, G Sreenivasulu
Pulicat Lake is one of the major wetlands in India. It is the second largest brackish water lagoon in India next to Chilika Lake in Orissa state. Pulicat Lake sits beside the Bay of Bengal so, the study on the mouth is vital. The investigations were carried out by using multi-temporal satellite imageries of IRS P6, LISS III data for four years viz., 2009, 2011, 2012 and 2013. Subsequent changes in the width of the lake at the southern side were measured. It is found that the lake mouth is not static but dynamic predominantly fluctuating year by year...
December 2017: Data in Brief
Connor D Carlton, Samantha Mitchell, Patrick Lewis
Over the past decade, Structure from Motion (SfM) has increasingly been used as a means of digital preservation and for documenting archaeological excavations, architecture, and cultural material. However, few studies have tapped the potential of using SfM to document and analyze taphonomic processes affecting burials for forensic sciences purposes. This project utilizes SfM models to elucidate specific post-depositional events that affected a series of three human cadavers deposited at the South East Texas Applied Forensic Science Facility (STAFS)...
November 2, 2017: Forensic Science International
Ana D Davidson, Kevin T Shoemaker, Ben Weinstein, Gabriel C Costa, Thomas M Brooks, Gerardo Ceballos, Volker C Radeloff, Carlo Rondinini, Catherine H Graham
Identifying which species are at greatest risk, what makes them vulnerable, and where they are distributed are central goals for conservation science. While knowledge of which factors influence extinction risk is increasingly available for some taxonomic groups, a deeper understanding of extinction correlates and the geography of risk remains lacking. Here, we develop a predictive random forest model using both geospatial and mammalian species' trait data to uncover the statistical and geographic distributions of extinction correlates...
2017: PloS One
Sarit A Golub, Corina Lelutiu-Weinberger, Anthony Surace
BACKGROUND: PrEP stigma (i.e., negative attitudes toward PrEP users) has been widely documented and is considered a significant barrier to implementation. However, few studies have examined PrEP stigma using implicit measures designed to reduce demand characteristics in responding. This study examined implicit PrEP- and HIV-related stigma among gay and bisexual men using geospatial social networking applications (i.e., "hookup apps"). METHODS: Participants were presented with four simulated online profiles (pre-tested for comparability) paired with each of the following characteristics: HIV-negative, HIV-positive, on PrEP, or Substance User...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Irene Garcia-Martí, Raúl Zurita-Milla, Arnold J H van Vliet, Willem Takken
BACKGROUND: Tick populations and tick-borne infections have steadily increased since the mid-1990s posing an ever-increasing risk to public health. Yet, modelling tick dynamics remains challenging because of the lack of data and knowledge on this complex phenomenon. Here we present an approach to model and map tick dynamics using volunteered data. This approach is illustrated with 9 years of data collected by a group of trained volunteers who sampled active questing ticks (AQT) on a monthly basis and for 15 locations in the Netherlands...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
Nasser Bagheri, Kinley Wangdi, Nicolas Cherbuin, Kaarin J Anstey
We have a poor understanding of whether dementia clusters geographically, how this occurs, and how dementia may relate to socio-demographic factors. To shed light on these important questions, this study aimed to compute a dementia risk score for individuals to assess spatial variation of dementia risk, identify significant clusters (hotspots), and explore their association with socioeconomic status. We used clinical records from 16 general practices (468 Statistical Area level 1 s, N = 14,746) from the city of west Adelaide, Australia for the duration of 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2014...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Niels N Rossing, Diana Stentoft, Alexander Flattum, Jean Côté, Dan S Karbing
Previous studies have found significant differences in the likelihood of becoming an elite athlete depending on community population sizes and densities, an effect known as the place of early development, or birthplace effect. However, the results have not been consistent between sports or European countries. Since both professional and voluntary clubs are vital to the talent development systems in Europe, the proximity of an athlete's place of early development to the location of talent clubs may be an important predictor of the likelihood of becoming an elite athlete...
November 8, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Betsy Ruffle, James Henderson, Clare Murphy-Hagan, Gemma Kirkwood, Frederick Wolf, Deborah A Edwards
A probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) was performed to evaluate the range of potential baseline and post-remedy health risks to fish consumers at the Portland Harbor Superfund Site (Site). The analysis focused on risks of consuming fish resident to the Site containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), as this exposure scenario and contaminant are the primary basis for USEPA's selected remedy per the January 2017 Record of Decision (ROD). The PRA used probability distributions fit to the same data sets used in the deterministic baseline human health risk assessment (BHHRA) as well as recent sediment and fish tissue data to evaluate the range and likelihood of current baseline cancer risks and non-cancer hazards for anglers...
November 3, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
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