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Thandi Kapwata, Natashia Morris, Angela Campbell, Thuli Mthiyane, Primrose Mpangase, Kristin N Nelson, Salim Allana, James C M Brust, Pravi Moodley, Koleka Mlisana, Neel R Gandhi, N Sarita Shah
BACKGROUND: KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa, has among the highest burden of XDR TB worldwide with the majority of cases occurring due to transmission. Poor access to health facilities can be a barrier to timely diagnosis and treatment of TB, which can contribute to ongoing transmission. We sought to determine the geographic distribution of XDR TB patients and proximity to health facilities in KwaZulu-Natal. METHODS: We recruited adults and children with XDR TB diagnosed in KwaZulu-Natal...
2017: PloS One
Stephen Adams, William T Scherer, K Preston White, Jason Payne, Oved Hernandez, Mathew S Gerber, N Peter Whitehead
The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) is plagued by abnormally high no-show and cancellation rates that reduce the productivity and efficiency of its medical outpatient clinics. We address this issue by developing a dynamic scheduling system that utilizes mobile computing via geo-location data to estimate the likelihood of a patient arriving on time for a scheduled appointment. These likelihoods are used to update the clinic's schedule in real time. When a patient's arrival probability falls below a given threshold, the patient's appointment is canceled...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
Julio A Ramirez, Timothy L Wiemken, Paula Peyrani, Forest W Arnold, Robert Kelley, William A Mattingly, Raul Nakamatsu, Senen Pena, Brian E Guinn, Stephen P Furmanek, Annuradha K Persaud, Anupama Raghuram, Francisco Fernandez, Leslie Beavin, Rahel Bosson, Rafael Fernandez-Botran, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Jose Bordon, Claudia Valdivieso, Joann Schulte, Ruth M Carrico
Background: Understanding the burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is critical to allocate resources for prevention, management, and research. The objectives of this study were to define incidence, epidemiology, and mortality of adult patients hospitalized with CAP in the city of Louisville, and to estimate burden of CAP in the United States (U.S.) adult population. Methods: This was a prospective population-based cohort study of adult residents in Louisville, Kentucky from June 1, 2014 to May 31, 2016...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Karen R Ryberg
Attribution of the causes of trends in nutrient loading is often limited to correlation, qualitative reasoning, or references to the work of others. This paper represents efforts to improve causal attribution of water-quality changes. The Red River of the North basin provides a regional test case because of international interest in the reduction of total phosphorus loads and the availability of long-term total phosphorus data and ancillary geospatial data with the potential to explain changes in water quality over time...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Cary Chen Parker, Crystal McKenna, Matthew Wise, Christopher Gezon, Karl C Klontz
From 1998 to 2008, produce-related illness outbreaks accounted for roughly one-half of reported foodborne outbreaks in the United States. In 2013, Mexico accounted for approximately 50 and 30% of the monetary value of all vegetables and fruits, respectively, imported into the United States. We used historical import data to examine the correlation between the port of entry for five implicated produce vehicles from five multistate outbreaks and the geospatial and temporal distribution of illnesses in the corresponding outbreaks in the United States...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Azarakhsh Rafiee, Pim Van der Male, Eduardo Dias, Henk Scholten
Wind turbine site planning is a multidisciplinary task comprising of several stakeholder groups from different domains and with different priorities. An information system capable of integrating the knowledge on the multiple aspects of a wind turbine plays a crucial role on providing a common picture to the involved groups. In this study, we have developed an interactive and intuitive 3D system (Falcon) for planning wind turbine locations. This system supports iterative design loops (wind turbine configurations), based on the emerging field of geodesign...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Debebe Shaweno, James M Trauer, Justin T Denholm, Emma S McBryde
BACKGROUND: Reported tuberculosis (TB) incidence globally continues to be heavily influenced by expert opinion of case detection rates and ecological estimates of disease duration. Both approaches are recognised as having substantial variability and inaccuracy, leading to uncertainty in true TB incidence and other such derived statistics. METHODS: We developed Bayesian binomial mixture geospatial models to estimate TB incidence and case detection rate (CDR) in Ethiopia...
October 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Nick Golding, Roy Burstein, Joshua Longbottom, Annie J Browne, Nancy Fullman, Aaron Osgood-Zimmerman, Lucas Earl, Samir Bhatt, Ewan Cameron, Daniel C Casey, Laura Dwyer-Lindgren, Tamer H Farag, Abraham D Flaxman, Maya S Fraser, Peter W Gething, Harry S Gibson, Nicholas Graetz, L Kendall Krause, Xie Rachel Kulikoff, Stephen S Lim, Bonnie Mappin, Chloe Morozoff, Robert C Reiner, Amber Sligar, David L Smith, Haidong Wang, Daniel J Weiss, Christopher J L Murray, Catherine L Moyes, Simon I Hay
BACKGROUND: During the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) era, many countries in Africa achieved marked reductions in under-5 and neonatal mortality. Yet the pace of progress toward these goals substantially varied at the national level, demonstrating an essential need for tracking even more local trends in child mortality. With the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015, which established ambitious targets for improving child survival by 2030, optimal intervention planning and targeting will require understanding of trends and rates of progress at a higher spatial resolution...
September 25, 2017: Lancet
John D Clapp, Danielle R Madden, Douglas D Mooney, Kristin E Dahlquist
Many of the problems associated with alcohol occur after a single drinking event (e.g. drink driving, assault). These acute alcohol problems have a huge global impact and account for a large percentage of unintentional and intentional injuries in the world. Nonetheless, alcohol research and preventive interventions rarely focus on drinking at the event-level since drinking events are complex, dynamic, and methodologically challenging to observe. This exploratory study provides an example of how event-level data may be collected, analyzed, and interpreted...
2017: PloS One
Katia Vasilyeva, Michael J Widener, Samuel M Galvagno, Zachary Ginsberg
PURPOSE: The objective of this scoping review is to inform future applications of spatial research regarding transportation of critically ill patients. We hypothesized that this review would reveal gaps and limitations in the current research regarding use of spatial methods for critical care and trauma transport research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four online databases, Ovid Medline, PubMed, Embase and Scopus, were searched. Studies were selected if they used geospatial methods to analyze a patient transports dataset...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
Zach Conrad, Christian J Peters, Kenneth Chui, Lisa Jahns, Timothy S Griffin
The capacity of US agriculture to increase the output of specific foods to accommodate increased demand is not well documented. This research uses geospatial modeling to examine the capacity of the US agricultural landbase to increase the per capita availability of an example set of nutrient-dense fruits and vegetables. These fruits and vegetables were selected based on nutrient content and an increasing trend of domestic production and consumption. Geographic information system models were parameterized to identify agricultural land areas meeting crop-specific growing requirements for monthly precipitation and temperature; soil depth and type; cropland availability; and proximity to existing production centers...
September 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Luis B Epele, Luz M Manzo, Marta G Grech, Pablo Macchi, Alfredo Ñ Claverie, Leonardo Lagomarsino, M Laura Miserendino
The water quality of wetlands is governed not only by natural variability in hydrology and other factors, but also by anthropogenic activities. Patagonia is a vast sparsely-populated in which ponds are a key component of rural and urban landscapes because they provide several ecosystem services such as habitat for wildlife and watering for livestock. Integrating field-based and geospatial data of 109 ponds sampled across the region, we identified spatial trends and assessed the effects of anthropogenic and natural factors in pond water quality...
September 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Maria T Patterson, Robert L Grossman
We introduce a method called neighbor-based bootstrapping (NB2) that can be used to quantify the geospatial variation of a variable. We applied this method to an analysis of the incidence rates of disease from electronic medical record data (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes) for ∼100 million individuals in the United States over a period of 8 years. We considered the incidence rate of disease in each county and its geospatially contiguous neighbors and rank ordered diseases in terms of their degree of geospatial variation as quantified by the NB2 method...
September 2017: Big Data
Rosa Gálvez, Vicenzo Musella, Miguel A Descalzo, Ana Montoya, Rocío Checa, Valentina Marino, Oihane Martín, Giuseppe Cringoli, Laura Rinaldi, Guadalupe Miró
BACKGROUND: The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is the most prevalent flea species detected on dogs and cats in Europe and other world regions. The status of flea infestation today is an evident public health concern because of their cosmopolitan distribution and the flea-borne diseases transmission. This study determines the spatial distribution of the cat flea C. felis infesting dogs in Spain. Using geospatial tools, models were constructed based on entomological data collected from dogs during the period 2013-2015...
September 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Steven Gray, Alexey Voinov, Michael Paolisso, Rebecca Jordan, Todd BenDor, Pierre Bommel, Pierre Glynn, Beatrice Hedelin, Klaus Hubacek, Josh Introne, Nagesh Kolagani, Bethany Laursen, Christina Prell, Laura Schmitt-Olabisi, Alison Singer, Eleanor Sterling, Moira Zellner
Including stakeholders in environmental model building and analysis is an increasingly popular approach to understanding ecological change. This is because stakeholders often hold valuable knowledge about socio-environmental dynamics and collaborative forms of modeling produce important boundary objects used to collectively reason about environmental problems. Although the number of participatory modeling (PM) case studies and the number of researchers adopting these approaches has grown in recent years, the lack of standardized reporting and limited reproducibility have prevented PM's establishment and advancement as a cohesive field of study...
September 18, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Chen Chen, Jason C Anderson, Haizhong Wang, Yinhai Wang, Rachel Vogt, Salvador Hernandez
Transportation agencies need efficient methods to determine how to reduce bicycle accidents while promoting cycling activities and prioritizing safety improvement investments. Many studies have used standalone methods, such as level of traffic stress (LTS) and bicycle level of service (BLOS), to better understand bicycle mode share and network connectivity for a region. However, in most cases, other studies rely on crash severity models to explain what variables contribute to the severity of bicycle related crashes...
November 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Aidan Yuen, Carla Martins Rocha, Estie Kruger, Marc Tennant
OBJECTIVES: Brazil is one of the largest countries in the world, in terms of geography and population. Most Brazilians reside in the south and south-eastern regions, with notable numbers in the regions' megacities, such as São Paulo city. Healthcare provision in such a complex environment is difficult. Thus, a clear understanding of the distribution - or rather, the maldistribution - of these services is fundamental for optimising the allocation of human and financial resources to areas of greatest privation...
September 15, 2017: International Dental Journal
Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi, Isabella Vilhena Freire Martins, Rafael Ferraço de Campos, Luiz Filippe Simão Soares, Henrique Meiroz de Souza Almeida, Luis Antonio Mathias
Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is frequently used in the control of animal diseases. In Brazil, the most impacting economical loss in the beef supply chain is bovine cysticercosis. This study focused on assessing the prevalence and geospatial distribution of bovine cysticercosis in 19 Brazilian states. To this, we gathered data from 146,346,244 bovines slaughtered between the years of 2010 and 2015. The observed prevalence was 0.62% (C.I. 0.62-0.63). In total, 30.86% cysticerci were viable, while 69...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Nick Scott, S Azfar Hussain, Rowan Martin-Hughes, Freya J I Fowkes, Cliff C Kerr, Ruth Pearson, David J Kedziora, Madhura Killedar, Robyn M Stuart, David P Wilson
BACKGROUND: The high burden of malaria and limited funding means there is a necessity to maximize the allocative efficiency of malaria control programmes. Quantitative tools are urgently needed to guide budget allocation decisions. METHODS: A geospatial epidemic model was coupled with costing data and an optimization algorithm to estimate the optimal allocation of budgeted and projected funds across all malaria intervention approaches. Interventions included long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), intermittent presumptive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp), seasonal mass chemoprevention in children (SMC), larval source management (LSM), mass drug administration (MDA), and behavioural change communication (BCC)...
September 12, 2017: Malaria Journal
Andrew Tomita, Alain M Vandormael, Diego Cuadros, Enrico Di Minin, Vuokko Heikinheimo, Frank Tanser, Rob Slotow, Jonathan K Burns
BACKGROUND: Unprecedented levels of habitat transformation and rapid urbanisation are changing the way individuals interrelate with the natural environment in developing countries with high economic disparities. Although the potential benefit of green environments for mental health has been recognised, population-level evidence to this effect is scarce. We investigated the effect of green living environment in potentially countering incident depression in a nationally representative survey in South Africa...
July 2017: The Lancet. Planetary health
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