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Buddhika Gayani, Ayomi Dilhari, Gayan Kanchana Wijesinghe, Sajeewani Kumarage, Gayani Abayaweera, Sameera R Samarakoon, Inoka C Perera, Nilwala Kottegoda, Manjula M Weerasekera
The study aimed to determine the antibacterial/antibiofilm effect and mechanism of interaction of curcuminoids-intercalated Mg/Al layered double hydroxide (curcuminoids-LDH) against three different bacteria. Antimicrobial effect of curcuminoids-LDH nanohybrid was investigated against P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and E. faecalis (for both standard strains and clinical isolates), using agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of planktonic bacteria were determined using the broth microdilution method...
September 17, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Woosuk Choi, Alina X Yang, Michelle A Waltenburg, Shawn Choe, Madeline Steiner, Ahmed Radwan, Jingjun Lin, Carrol W Maddox, Adam W Stern, Richard L Fredrickson, Gee W Lau
Because of exposure to environmental pollutants, infectious agents and genetic predisposition, companion animals develop respiratory illnesses similar to those in humans. Older dogs of smaller breeds develop canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD), chronic bronchitis (CB), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with chronic lung infection, airway goblet cell hyperplasia and metaplasia (GCHM) and mucus hypersecretion. Excessive mucus clogs airways, reduces gas exchanges, disables the mucociliary clearance and reduces drug penetration...
September 16, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Tibor Benedek, Flóra Szentgyörgyi, István Szabó, Balázs Kriszt, Fruzsina Révész, Júlia Radó, Gergely Maróti, András Táncsics
Due to their high resistance against environmental challenges, bacterial biofilms are ubiquitous and are frequently associated with undesired phenomena in environmental industry (e. g. biofouling). However, because of the high phylogenetic and functional diversity, bacterial biofilms are important sources of biotechnologically relevant microorganisms, e.g. those showing bioremediation potential. In our previous work, the high phylogenetic and metabolic diversity of a clogging biofilm, developed in a simple aromatic hydrocarbon (BTEX)-contaminated groundwater well was uncovered...
September 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Mariana Castanheira, Lalitagauri M Deshpande, Leah N Woosley, Alisa W Serio, Kevin M Krause, Robert K Flamm
Background: Plazomicin is a next-generation aminoglycoside that was developed to overcome common aminoglycoside-resistance mechanisms. Objectives: We evaluated the activity of plazomicin and comparators against clinical isolates collected from 26 European and adjacent countries during 2014 and 2015 as part of the Antimicrobial Longitudinal Evaluation and Resistance Trends (ALERT) global surveillance programme. Methods: All 4680 isolates collected from 45 hospitals were tested for susceptibility to antimicrobials using the reference broth microdilution method...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Michael M Tunney, Joanna E Payne, Stephanie J McGrath, Gisli G Einarsson, Rebecca J Ingram, Deirdre F Gilpin, Victor Juarez-Perez, J Stuart Elborn
Objectives: To determine the antimicrobial activity of ALX-009, a combination of bovine lactoferrin and hypothiocyanite, in sputum against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), key pathogens causing infection in the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Methods: The antimicrobial activity of ALX-009 against clinical respiratory P. aeruginosa isolates was determined by time-kill assay. Sputum from CF patients was treated with ALX-009, either alone or in combination with tobramycin, and the effect on P...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Haifeng Zhuang, Hao Zhu, Shengdao Shan, Liting Zhang, Chengran Fang, Yun Shi
Waste sewage sludge was converted into the novel conductive material of nitrogen doped sewage sludge carbon (N-SC) to enhance anaerobic degradation of coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that N-SC played a significant role in enhanced efficiencies, with chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency increased by 25.4%, methane production rate improved by 68.1% and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) decreased by 37.5% than that of controlled reactor. The conductivity, activity of electron transport, and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of anaerobic sludge were remarkably enhanced with N-SC, which promoted sludge granulation and supplied better conductive environment for microorganisms...
September 4, 2018: Bioresource Technology
João R Pereira, Diana Araújo, Ana C Marques, Luísa A Neves, Christian Grandfils, Chantal Sevrin, Vítor D Alves, Elvira Fortunato, Maria A M Reis, Filomena Freitas
Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca (DSM 19603) was grown on crude glycerol from biodiesel production to produce a medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA), composed of 3-hydroxydodecanoate (43 ± 1.8 mol%), 3-hydroxydecanoate (29 ± 3.1 mol%), 3-hydroxytetradecanoate (12 ± 0.4 mol%), 3-hydroxyoctanoate (10 ± 1.5 mol%) and 3-hydroxyhexanoate (6 ± 0.3 mol%). The biopolymer had an average molecular weight of 1.1 × 105  Da, with a polydispersity index of 1...
September 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Rong Xu, Kai Zhang, Pu Liu, Huawen Han, Shuai Zhao, Apurva Kakade, Aman Khan, Daolin Du, Xiangkai Li
Lignin compound wastes are generated as a result of agricultural and industrial practices. Microorganism-mediated bio-catalytic processes can depolymerize and utilize lignin eco-friendly. Although fungi have been studied since several decades for their ability to depolymerize lignin, strict growth conditions of fungus limit it's industrial application. Compared with fungi, bacteria can tolerate wider pH, temperature, oxygen ranges and are easy to manipulate. Several studies have focused on bacteria involved in the process of lignin depolymerization and utilization...
August 30, 2018: Bioresource Technology
C Hernández-Avilés, R Serafini, C C Love, S R Teague, K A LaCaze, S D Lawhon, J Wu, T L Blanchard, D D Varner
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of antibiotic-containing extender of on sperm quality and control of bacterial growth. In Experiment 1, ejaculates were diluted in extender containing no antibiotics, potassium penicillin G-amikacin disulfate (PEN-AMIK), ticarcillin disodium-potassium clavulanate (TICAR-CLAV), piperacillin sodium/tazobactam sodium (PIP-TAZ), or meropenem (MERO). In freshly extended semen, only slight differences were detected among some antibiotic treatments for total sperm motility, curvilinear velocity, and viable acrosome-intact sperm (P < 0...
August 28, 2018: Theriogenology
Omid Zarei, Leili Shokoohizadeh, Hadi Hossainpour, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility, virulence factors and clonal relationship among Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from environmental sources, hospitalized patients and the surfaces of cockroaches in the ICUs of four hospitals in Hamadan, west of Iran. A total of 237, 286 and 156 bacterial isolates were collected from clinical, environmental and cockroach sources respectively from May to September, 2017. The antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using disk diffusion method...
September 15, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Lei Tian, Ziyong Sun, Zhen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Data on the pathogens responsible for nosocomial bloodstream infection (BSI) and their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Hubei province are limited. This study was conducted to determine the major pathogens causing BSI and to characterize their AMR. METHODS: Data from the China Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (CARSS) from 2014 to 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most common pathogens responsible for nosocomial BSI...
September 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
Xiao-Jing Fan, Shan-Zhi Liu, Huan-Huan Li, Jun He, Jun-Tao Feng, Xing Zhang, He Yan
The study explored the preservation effect of Portulaca oleracea L. extract (POE) on pork meat under refrigerated conditions for 9 days. POE was tested for antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity in vitro and the results showed that POE has strong antioxidant activity and has antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus to some extent. Effect of POE in different levels (0.25%, 0.50% and 1.0%) on quality and shelflife of pork meat storage were evaluated...
August 27, 2018: Meat Science
Satoru Mitsuboshi, Masami Tsugita
There are limited data available on the relationship between multidrug-resistant bacteria and infection control activities in small to medium-sized hospitals. Therefore, we collected data on the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHSs), personal protective equipment, antibiotics, and the levels of detectable bacteria between April 2014 and March 2015 in 11 Japanese hospitals. Average total antibiotic consumption was 100 defined daily doses per 1000 patient-days (PD), and average use of ABHSs, masks, plastic aprons, and gloves was 5 L per 1000 PD, and 1, 2, and 26 pieces per 1 PD, respectively...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Jingming Zhao, Wei Cheng, Xigang He, Yanli Liu
PURPOSE: The co-colonization prevalence of P. aeruginosa and A. fumigatus in cystic fibrosis (CF) has been inconsistently reported. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the overall co-colonization prevalence of P. aeruginosa and A. fumigatus in CF. METHODS: The Embase, PubMed and Web of Science databases were systematically searched for studies reporting the co-colonization prevalence of P. aeruginosa and A. fumigatus in CF. The co-colonization prevalence of two pathogenic microorganisms in the individual studies was assessed by calculating the proportion and 95% confidence interval (CI)...
September 11, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Qiongzhen Chen, Yan Huang, Yajuan Duan, Zhoukun Li, Zhongli Cui, Weidong Liu
p-Nitrophenol 4-monooxygenase PnpA, the key enzyme in the hydroquinone pathway of p-nitrophenol (PNP) degradation, catalyzes the monooxygenase reaction of PNP to p-benzoquinone in the presence of FAD and NADH. Here, we determined the first crystal structure of PnpA from Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4 in its apo and FAD-complex forms to a resolution of 2.04 Å and 2.48 Å, respectively. The PnpA structure shares a common fold with hydroxybenzoate hydroxylases, despite a low amino sequence identity of 14-18%, confirming it to be a member of the Class A flavoprotein monooxygenases...
September 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Lyssa Y Baker, Chelsea R Hobby, Andrew W Siv, William C Bible, Michael S Glennon, Derek M Anderson, Steven J Symes, David K Giles
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common opportunistic pathogen, is known to cause infections in a variety of compromised human tissues. An emerging mechanism for microbial survival is the incorporation of exogenous fatty acids to alter the cell's membrane phospholipid profile. With these findings, we show that exogenous fatty acid exposure leads to changes in bacterial membrane phospholipid structure, membrane permeability, virulence phenotypes and consequent stress responses that may influence survival and persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
September 14, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Nor Fadhilah Kamaruzzaman, Li Peng Tan, Khairun Anisa Mat Yazid, Shamsaldeen Ibrahim Saeed, Ruhil Hayati Hamdan, Siew Shean Choong, Weng Kin Wong, Alexandru Chivu, Amanda Jane Gibson
Infectious disease caused by pathogenic bacteria continues to be the primary challenge to humanity. Antimicrobial resistance and microbial biofilm formation in part, lead to treatment failures. The formation of biofilms by nosocomial pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus ), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa ), and Klebsiella pneumoniae ( K. pneumoniae ) on medical devices and on the surfaces of infected sites bring additional hurdles to existing therapies. In this review, we discuss the challenges encountered by conventional treatment strategies in the clinic...
September 13, 2018: Materials
Irina Zarafu, Ioana Turcu, Daniela C Culiță, Simona Petrescu, Marcela Popa, Mariana C Chifiriuc, Carmen Limban, Alexandra Telehoiu, Petre Ioniță
(1) Background: Graphene oxide is a new carbon-based material that contains functional groups (carboxyl, hydroxyl, carbonyl, epoxy) and therefore can be easily functionalized with organic compounds of interest, yielding hybrid materials with important properties and applications. (2) Methods: Graphene oxide has been obtained by a modified Hummers method and activated by thionyl chloride in order to be covalently functionalized with amines. Thus obtained hybrid materials were characterized by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, elemental analysis and scanning electron microscopy and then tested for their antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity...
September 13, 2018: Materials
Shijun Zhu, Jiguo Qiu, Hui Wang, Xiang Wang, Wen Jin, Yingkun Zhang, Chenfei Zhang, Gang Hu, Jian He, Qing Hong
Carbamate hydrolase is the initial and key enzyme for degradation of carbamate pesticides. In the present study, we report the isolation of a carbaryl-degrading strain Pseudomonas sp. XWY-1, the cloning of its carbaryl hydrolase gene (mcbA) and the characterization of McbA. Strain XWY-1 was able to utilize carbaryl as a sole carbon source and degrade it using 1-naphthol as an intermediate. Transposon mutagenesis identified a mutant of XWY-1M that was unable to hydrolyze carbaryl. The transposon-disrupted gene mcbA was cloned by self-formed adaptor PCR, then expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and purified...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Molly Gabaza, Marie Joossens, Margo Cnockaert, Maud Muchuweti, Katleen Raes, Peter Vandamme
Maize, sorghum and millet fermented porridges are important as complementary foods for young children in Africa. The objective of the present study was to gain some insights into the bacterial communities of fermented slurries prepared from maize, sorghum and millets originating from different locations in Zimbabwe, and prepared either at household or laboratory level. A deep sequencing approach targeting the hypervariable V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was used and yielded about 100,000 sequences per sample...
September 3, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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