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Camila Gómez, Thomas Larsen, Brian Popp, Keith A Hobson, Carlos Daniel Cadena
Tools to study seasonal changes in animal diets are needed to address a wide range of ecological questions. This is especially true of migratory animals that experience distinct environments where diets may be substantially different. However, tracking diets of individuals that move vast distances has proven difficult. Compound-specific isotope analysis has emerged as a valuable tool to study diets but has been little used to study dietary changes of migratory animals. Using this technique, we quantify seasonal variation in the annual diet of a migratory songbird (gray-cheeked thrush, Catharus minimus) and test the hypothesis that migrants change their diet in response to the energetic requirements of different periods of the annual cycle...
March 22, 2018: Oecologia
Kerstin Zwirner, Daniela Thorwarth, René M Winter, Stefan Welz, Jakob Weiss, Nina F Schwenzer, Holger Schmidt, Christian la Fougère, Konstantin Nikolaou, Daniel Zips, Sergios Gatidis
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of voxel-wise multiparametric characterization of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) using hybrid multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography with [18 F]-fluorodesoxyglucose (FDG-PET/MRI) in a radiation treatment planning setup. METHODS: Ten patients with locally advanced HNSCC were examined with a combined FDG-PET/MRI in an irradiation planning setup...
March 21, 2018: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
Asit Kumar Sikary, Sumit Dixit, Om P Murty
Background: Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, and nonirritating gas which makes it difficult for those who are exposed, to detect it, leading to unexpected death. This study was undertaken to see the pattern of fatal CO poisoning and to discuss preventive aspect. Materials and Methods: It was a retrospective descriptive study of fatal CO cases which were autopsied at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, from the year 2010 to the year 2015...
October 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Fatemeh Janani, Farahnaz Changaee
Introduction: Hypertension in pregnancy is one of the three factors of maternal mortality. Etiology of the disease is unknown, but the many factors contributing to the identification and control of it can be taken a step to prevent and reduce the symptoms of the disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of preeclampsia (high-blood pressure) in different seasons of the year. Methods: The present retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on more than 8,000 pregnant women visiting Assali specialized hospital from 2011 to 2013...
October 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Jéssica Arribas Arranz, Dalia Nilufar Winter, Hans Günter Drexler, Sonja Eberth
Background: Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a transcription factor that plays an important role during all stages of B cell differentiation. Several studies reported upregulation of YY1 in B cell derived lymphoma, indicating that it might act as an oncogene. Furthermore, aberrant YY1 expression has been associated with survival in some entities of B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL), suggesting that YY1 could be a valuable biomarker in B-NHL. However, studies are controversial and methodologically disparate, partially because some studies are based on transcript levels while others rely on YY1 protein data...
2018: Biomarker Research
J M M Adams, A L Winters, E M Hodgson, J A Gallagher
Background: Energy crops including Miscanthus provide a storable, portable energy source which can be used to complement a wide range of products and energy generation systems. Miscanthus is predominantly used in Europe as a combustion material for electricity generation but also has the potential for biochemical conversion due to its high yield and low-nutrient requirements. The ratio of holocellulose (hemicellulose and cellulose combined) to acid detergent lignin (H:L) within the senesced material has previously been shown to indicate the relative suitability of Miscanthus accessions for thermochemical conversion...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Bita Hajian, Jan De Backer, Wim Vos, Wouter H van Geffen, Paul De Winter, Omar Usmani, Tony Cahn, Huib Am Kerstjens, Massimo Pistolesi, Wilfried De Backer
Introduction: Severe exacerbations associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that require hospitalization significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality. Definitions for exacerbations are very broad, and it is unclear whether there is one predominant underlying mechanism that leads to them. Functional respiratory imaging (FRI) with modeling provides detailed information about airway resistance, hyperinflation, and ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) mismatch during and following an acute exacerbation...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Meredith M Course, Anna I Scott, Carmen Schoor, Chung-Han Hsieh, Amanda M Papakyrikos, Dominic Winter, Tina M Cowan, Xinnan Wang
PINK1 is a mitochondria-targeted kinase, whose mutations are a cause of Parkinson's disease. We set out to better understand PINK1's effects on mitochondrial proteins in vivo Using an unbiased phosphoproteomic screen in Drosophila , we found that PINK1 mediates the phosphorylation of MCAD, a mitochondrial matrix protein critical to fatty acid metabolism. By mimicking phosphorylation of this protein in a PINK1 null background, we restored PINK1 null's climbing, flight, thorax, and wing deficiencies. Due to MCAD's role in fatty acid metabolism, we examined the metabolic profile of PINK1 null flies, where we uncovered significant disruptions in both acylcarnitines and amino acids...
March 21, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Magda Cepeda, Chantal M Koolhaas, Frank J A van Rooij, Henning Tiemeier, Mònica Guxens, Oscar H Franco, Josje D Schoufour
INTRODUCTION: Physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) have seasonal patterns. It remains unclear how these patterns are associated with sleep, meteorological factors, and health. METHODS: Activity levels were continuously measured with an accelerometer for seven days between July 2011 and May 2016, among middle-aged (50-64 years), young-elderly (65-74 years) and old-elderly (≥75 years) participants of a population-based Dutch cohort study (n = 1116)...
April 2018: Maturitas
M M Xu, L Jiang, N N Feng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2018: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
A K Winter, M E Martinez, F T Cutts, W J Moss, M Ferrari, A McKee, J Lessler, K Hayford, J Wallinga, C J E Metcalf
Control efforts for measles and rubella are intensifying globally. It becomes increasingly important to identify and reach remaining susceptible populations as elimination is approached. Serological surveys for measles and rubella can potentially measure susceptibility directly, but their use remains rare. Here, using simulations, we outline key subtleties in interpretation associated with the dynamic context of age-specific immunity, highlighting how the patterns of immunity predicted from disease surveillance and vaccination coverage data may be misleading...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Alicia Donnellan Barraclough, Roman Zweifel, Jarrod Cusens, Sebastian Leuzinger
Diurnal courses of stem radial water dynamics represent the sum of all internal and external conditions affecting tree water relations. Changes in stem radius due to early morning water depletion and night time refilling of storage tissues is generally well documented. This study seeks to understand the unusual daytime refilling of stem elastic storage tissues present in the mangrove species Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh, which deviates from our traditional understanding of hydraulics in terrestrial trees...
March 17, 2018: Tree Physiology
Caitlin Black, Colin Southwell, Louise Emmerson, Daniel Lunn, Tom Hart
Polar seabirds adopt different over-wintering strategies to survive and build condition during the critical winter period. Penguin species either reside at the colony during the winter months or migrate long distances. Tracking studies and survey methods have revealed differences in winter migration routes among penguin species and colonies, dependent on both biotic and abiotic factors present. However, scan sampling methods are rarely used to reveal non-breeding behaviors during winter and little is known about presence at the colony site over this period...
2018: PloS One
Sascha D Wellig, Sébastien Nusslé, Daniela Miltner, Oliver Kohle, Olivier Glaizot, Veronika Braunisch, Martin K Obrist, Raphaël Arlettaz
Wind turbines represent a source of hazard for bats, especially through collision with rotor blades. With increasing technical development, tall turbines (rotor-swept zone 50-150 m above ground level) are becoming widespread, yet we lack quantitative information about species active at these heights, which impedes proposing targeted mitigation recommendations for bat-friendly turbine operation. We investigated vertical activity profiles of a bat assemblage, and their relationships to wind speed, within a major valley of the European Alps where tall wind turbines are being deployed...
2018: PloS One
Xiao Qi Ye, Jin Liu Meng, Bo Zeng, Ming Wu
BACKGROUND: Operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR, China) imposes a new water fluctuation regime, including a prolonged winter submergence in contrast to the natural short summer flooding of the rivers. The contrasting water temperature regimes may remarkably affect the survival of submerged plants in the TGR. Plant survival in such prolonged flooding might depend on the carbohydrate status of the plants. Therefore, we investigated the effects of water temperature on survival and carbohydrate status in a flood-tolerant plant species and predicted that both survival and carbohydrate status would be improved by lower water temperatures...
2018: PloS One
Joanna X Wu, Chad B Wilsey, Lotem Taylor, Gregor W Schuurman
Birds in U.S. national parks find strong protection from many longstanding and pervasive threats, but remain highly exposed to effects of ongoing climate change. To understand how climate change is likely to alter bird communities in parks, we used species distribution models relating North American Breeding Bird Survey (summer) and Audubon Christmas Bird Count (winter) observations to climate data from the early 2000s and projected to 2041-2070 (hereafter, mid-century) under high and low greenhouse gas concentration trajectories, RCP8...
2018: PloS One
Satyajit Patra, Christian Anders, Paul Hendrik Schummel, Roland Winter
Organisms are thriving in the deep sea at pressures of up to the 1 kbar level. To withstand such harsh conditions, they accumulate particular osmolyte mixtures to counteract the pressure stress imposed. We explored the combined effects of pressure and osmolyte mixtures known from deep sea organisms on the closed-to-open conformational transition of a DNA hairpin (Hp). To this end, single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) experiments were carried out in an optimized high-pressure capillary optical cell...
March 21, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
C Morley, K Grimwood, S Maloney, R S Ware
Evidence is emerging regarding the influence of meteorological factors on seasonal respiratory syncytial virus outbreaks. Data however, are limited for subtropical regions, especially in the southern hemisphere. We examined whether meteorological data (daily minimum and maximum temperatures, rainfall, relative humidity, dew point, daily global solar exposure) and tourist numbers were associated with the incidence of RSV in children aged <5 years for the Gold Coast region of South-East Queensland, Australia (latitude 28...
March 21, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Jacob Itzhacki, Daniel Clesse, Yannick Goumon, Eus J Van Someren, Jorge Mendoza
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), beyond mood changes, is characterized by alterations in daily rhythms of behavior and physiology. The pathophysiological conditions of SAD involve changes in day length and its first-line treatment is bright light therapy. Animal models using nocturnal rodents have been studied to elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms of depression, but might be ill suited to study the therapeutic effects of light in SAD since they exhibit light-aversive responses. Here Arvicanthis ansorgei, a diurnal rodent, was used to determine behavioral, molecular and brain dopamine changes in response to exposure to a winter-like photoperiod consisting of a light-dark cycle with 8 h of light, under diminished light intensity, and 16 h of darkness...
March 20, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Ehsan Eyshi Rezaei, Stefan Siebert, Hubert Hüging, Frank Ewert
Changing crop phenology is considered an important bio-indicator of climate change, with the recent warming trend causing an advancement in crop phenology. Little is known about the contributions of changes in sowing dates and cultivars to long-term trends in crop phenology, particularly for winter crops such as winter wheat. Here, we analyze a long-term (1952-2013) dataset of phenological observations across western Germany and observations from a two-year field experiment to directly compare the phenologies of winter wheat cultivars released between 1950 and 2006...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
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