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Åse Marit Leere Øiestad, Ritva Karinen, Sidsel Rogde, Stian Nilsen, Kari-Beate Boye Eldor, Gerd-Wenche Brochmann, Marianne Arnestad, Elisabeth Leere Øiestad, Mariana Dadalto Peres, Lena Kristoffersen, Vigdis Vindenes
Peripheral blood (PB) is considered to be the golden standard for measuring postmortem drug concentrations. In several cases, PB is however not available, but information regarding drug findings might still be crucial in order to determine the cause of death. Antidepressants are frequently detected in postmortem samples from forensic toxicology cases, but the literature investigating concentrations in other matrices than peripheral and heart blood is limited.We here describe a study for comparison of concentrations for a large number of different drugs in six different matrices...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Mahdi Ghorbani, Mahmoud Chamsaz, Mohsen Aghamohammadhasan, Alireza Shams
A simple and sensitive ultrasonic assisted magnetic dispersive solid phase microextraction method (UAMDSPME) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was developed to determine serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor drugs including duloxetine (DUL), venlafaxine (VEN) and atomoxetine (ATO) in human urine, river water and well water samples. A novel and efficient SPME sorbent, magnetic p-Phenylenediamine functionalized reduced graphene oxide Quantum Dots@ Ni nanocomposites (MrGOQDs-PD@ Ni), was prepared and applied for extraction of the analytes...
May 8, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Katharina Ebert, Elena Maurice, Richard Lukačin, Christian Fleischhaker, Eberhard Schulz, Dieter Ebert, Hans-Willi Clement
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic drug monitoring has become increasingly important in psychiatric therapy. However, it is not yet implemented as a daily routine in clinical settings. To evaluate new, noninvasive procedures, we compared blood and saliva venlafaxine, quetiapine, and citalopram concentrations in samples collected from psychiatric patients. METHODS: We collected blood and saliva samples from 75 psychiatric patients (39 venlafaxine, 19 quetiapine, and 17 citalopram)...
June 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Pavla Sehonova, Zdenka Svobodova, Petra Dolezelova, Petra Vosmerova, Caterina Faggio
After application, antidepressants, like other pharmaceuticals, are excreted from human body in their native form or as metabolites and enter the aquatic environment via different pathways. As concentrations of antidepressant residues in water continue to increase, their effects on non-target animals are being discussed. The aim of this study is to summarize current knowledge about the effects of wateborne antidepressants on non-target animals living in surface waters - invertebrates, fish and amphibians. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as fluoxetine, sertraline, and citalopram have been found to effect behavior, reproduction, and development in both invertebrates and vertebrates...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Allie J Skees, Katelyn S Foppe, Bommanna Loganathan, Bikram Subedi
In this study, residues of the neuropsychiatric and illicit drugs including stimulants, opioids, hallucinogens, antischizophrenics, sedatives, and antidepressants were determined in influent and effluent samples from a small wastewater treatment plant, a receiving creek, and river waters in the Four Rivers region of the Midwestern United States. Nineteen neuropsychiatric drugs, eight illicit drugs, and three metabolites of illicit drugs were detected and quantitated in the water samples using HPLC-MS/MS. Residual concentrations of the drugs varied from below the detection limit to sub-μg/L levels...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jordan F Karp, Xiaotian Gao, Abdus S Wahed, Jennifer Q Morse, Bruce L Rollman, Debra K Weiner, Charles F Reynolds
OBJECTIVE: Testing stepped-care approaches that address both depression and low back pain are needed to optimize outcomes in older adults. METHODS: This university-based late-life depression research center assessed 227 adults aged ≥ 60 years with chronic low back pain and depression. In Phase 1 participants received 6 weeks of low-dose venlafaxine (≤150 mg/day). Nonresponders were randomized to 10 weeks of high-dose venlafaxine (up to 300 mg/day) plus problem-solving therapy (PST) or high-dose venlafaxine with supportive management...
March 30, 2018: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Chittaranjan Andrade
A large number of antidepressant drugs are available across the world. All have been compared against placebo, and many have been compared with some but not all other antidepressants. There is therefore little information about a hierarchy of the efficacy and acceptability of these drugs. About 9 years ago, a network meta-analysis attempted to rank the efficacy and acceptability of 12 newer antidepressant drugs in adults with major depressive disorder. Very recently, this network meta-analysis was updated to include 21 antidepressant drugs, most of which were introduced during the 1980s and afterward...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Qingchuan Hu, Peng Shen, Shunjie Bai, Meixue Dong, Zihong Liang, Zhi Chen, Wei Wang, Haiyang Wang, Siwen Gui, Pengfei Li, Peng Xie
Purpose: Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) contains diterpene ginkgolides (DGs), which have been shown to have neuroprotective effects by a number of previous studies. We previously demonstrated part of the action of DG. However, the impact of DG on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the effects of DG and venlafaxine (for comparison) on behavioral and metabolite changes in the PFC using mice models and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Materials and methods: Mice were randomly divided into control (saline), DG (12...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
A Yingyu Zhou, B Wei Song, C Yilei Fu, D Denis Baranenko, E Jiaping Wang, F Yongzhi Li, G Weihong Lu
BACKGROUND: Compared with pharmaceuticals, natural medicines are gaining acceptance as countermeasures against radiation injury because of their distinct characteristics, specifically low toxicity and multi-target effects. METHODS: The ability of a traditional Chinese medicine, Acanthopanax senticosus (AS), to reduce radiation injury following exposure of the heads of mice to 4?Gy low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation was assessed histologically, behaviorally and metabolically''...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Andrew R Garrett, Jason S Hawley
Purpose of review: Antidepressant-associated movement disorders are a well-described phenomenon. However, antidepressant-associated bruxism, jaw pain, or jaw spasm, while reported in dental literature, is less commonly recognized among neurologists. We summarize the clinical features and treatment of antidepressant-associated bruxism and associated jaw pain through a systematic review of case reports. Recent findings: Antidepressant-associated bruxism may occur in pediatric and adult patients, most commonly among female patients...
April 2018: Neurology. Clinical Practice
Han Qu, Ruixue Ma, Bin Wang, Jian Yang, Lei Duan, Gang Yu
In present study, we investigated the enantioselective behaviors of the chiral antidepressant venlafaxine and its metabolite O-desmethylvenlafaxine in loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (M. anguillicaudatus), as well as effects of microplastic on toxicity, distribution and metabolism through a 40-day co-exposure. The contents of SOD and MDA in loach liver elevated when the loach was exposed to venlafaxine and O-desmethylvenlafaxine. Moreover, co-exposure with microplastic might lead to more adverse effect against loach...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Akram Ghasemi Dastjerdi, Maryam Akhgari, Artin Kamali, Zahra Mousavi
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is one of the major problems in many countries. Herbal drugs are widely used to treat obesity. Unfortunately the majority of herbal weight loss drugs are adulterated with active pharmaceutical ingredients. The purpose of the present study was to analyse herbal weight loss drugs for the general search for pharmaceuticals. METHODS: sixty one herbal weight loss drugs that were collected from herb shops and internet in Kermanshah, Iran were analysed qualitatively using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry...
May 2018: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
Viktoriia Burkina, Sidika Sakalli, Nadezhda Pilipenko, Vladimir Zlabek, Galia Zamaratskaia
This study examined the ability of several human pharmaceuticals to modulate hepatic piscine CYP-mediated monooxygenase activities. Effects of six pharmaceuticals: diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, tramadol, carbamazepine, venlafaxine and nefazodone, were investigated in vitro in rainbow trout hepatic microsomes. The reactions of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin-O-debenzyloxylase (BFCOD), were used as markers for hepatic CYP1A and CYP3A-like activities, respectively...
April 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Guodong Gu, Michelle Black, Colt Cookson, Anna Fiorella, Yinghe Li, Steven H Gorman, Ray Bakhtiar
A sensitive, selective, and reliable LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of venlafaxine (VEN) and its 5 metabolites (ODV, NDV, NNDDV, OHV and NODDV) in rat plasma. The calibration ranges are 15.0 to 6000 ng/mL for VEN, 1.00 to 400 ng/mL for ODV, 5.00 to 2000 ng/mL for NDV, 1.00 to 400 ng/mL for NNDDV, 10.0 to 4000 ng/mL for OHV, and 0.200 to 20.0 ng/mL for NODDV. Briefly, 50 μL of rat plasma was extracted using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Marina P Valerio, Alejandro G Szmulewicz, Diego J Martino
The aim of this study was to explore outcome to antidepressants profile in melancholic unipolar depression. We conducted a systematic review of electronic databases and meta-analysis of randomized and nonrandomized trials comparing: 1) outcome to antidepressants and placebo between melancholic and non-melancholic depression; 2) outcome to different antidepressant classes in melancholic depression. Two outcomes were considered: clinical remission and response. Significant lower odds of remission to antidepressants in melancholic than in non-melancholic depressions were found...
April 13, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Michael Paulzen, Georgios Schoretsanitis, Christoph Hiemke, Gerhard Gründer, Ekkehard Haen, Marc Augustin
Venlafaxine and the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine are often administered concomitantly. Both drugs share several metabolic hepatic pathways. However, pharmacokinetic interactions between venlafaxine and quetiapine have not been studied yet. A therapeutic drug monitoring database containing serum concentrations of venlafaxine (VEN) and its active metabolite O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODVEN) was analyzed. Two groups of patients were compared: venlafaxine monotherapy V0 (n = 153) and co-medication with quetiapine, VQUE (n = 71)...
April 24, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Fabrizio Schifano, Stefania Chiappini, John M Corkery, Amira Guirguis
Recently, a range of prescription and over-the-counter drugs have been reportedly used as Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS), due to their potential for abuse resulting from their high dosage/idiosyncratic methods of self-administration. This paper provides a systematic review of the topic, focusing on a range of medications which have emerged as being used recreationally, either on their own or in combination with NPS. Among gabapentinoids, pregabalin may present with higher addictive liability levels than gabapentin, with pregabalin being mostly identified in the context of opioid, polydrug intake...
April 22, 2018: Brain Sciences
Mark W Miller
Progress in PTSD pharmacotherapy has lagged far behind that of other major mental illnesses. Unfortunately, due to the enormous costs and lengthy process involved in bringing drugs to market, delivering new treatments to patients with PTSD in the near future will remain a challenge. However, by capitalizing on recent advances in the pharmacogenetics of antidepressants, precision psychiatry approaches can be leveraged to optimize the delivery of currently-available medications in a fraction of the time and cost required to develop novel therapeutics...
April 21, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Roberta Agabio, Emanuela Trogu, Pier Paolo Pani
BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence is a major public health problem characterized by recidivism, and medical and psychosocial complications. The co-occurrence of major depression in people entering treatment for alcohol dependence is common, and represents a risk factor for morbidity and mortality, which negatively influences treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and risks of antidepressants for the treatment of people with co-occurring depression and alcohol dependence...
April 24, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lei Duan, Yizhe Zhang, Bin Wang, Shubo Deng, Jun Huang, Yujue Wang, Gang Yu
The occurrence, eliminations, enantiomeric distribution and intra-day variations of five chiral pharmaceuticals (three beta-blockers and two antidepressants) were investigated in eight major WWTPs in Beijing, China. The results revealed that metoprolol (MTP) and venlafaxine (VFX) were of the highest concentrations among the five determined pharmaceuticals with mean concentrations of 803 ng L-1 and 408 ng L-1 , respectively in influents, and 354 ng L-1 and 165 ng L-1 in effluents, respectively...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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