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Jasna Neumann, Olof Beck, Norbert Dahmen, Michael Böttcher
BACKGROUND: Oral fluid (OF) is being developed as a specimen for the determination of drug intake as an alternative to serum and plasma. It is generally considered as an attractive specimen due to the noninvasive nature of the sampling procedure and the relation to the free fraction of drug in the blood. These features are of particular value in drug treatment of psychiatric disorders. To establish OF for the purpose of monitoring drug therapy, the relationship between concentrations in OF and serum/plasma must be documented...
April 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Manish K Jha, Shereen Wakhlu, Neha Dronamraju, Abu Minhajuddin, Tracy L Greer, Madhukar H Trivedi
BACKGROUND: Currently, there are no valid clinical or biological markers to personalize the treatment of depression. Recent evidence suggests that body mass index (BMI) may guide the selection of antidepressant medications with different mechanisms of action. METHODS: Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes (CO-MED) trial participants with BMI measurement (n = 662) were categorized as normal- or underweight (<25), overweight (25-<30), obese I (30-<35), and obese II+ (≥35)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Anna Petruczynik, Karol Wroblewski, Malgorzata Szultka-Mlynska, Boguslaw Buszewsk, Hanna Karakula-Juchnowicz, Jacek Gajewski, Justyna Morylowska-Topolska, Monika Waksmundzka-Hajnosi
A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for simultaneous analysis of venlafaxine and its major metabolite 0-desmethylvenlafaxine and vilazodone and its methabolite M10 have been devel- oped and validated. Chromatography was performed on the Phenyl-Hexyl column with mobile phase containing methanol, acetate buffer at pH 3.5 and diethylamine. The application of stationary phase with 7r-7c moieties and mobile phase containing diethylamine as silanol blocker lets to obtain double protection against silanols and thus very high theoretical plate numbers were obtained...
May 2017: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica
David A Kahn
In this issue of the journal, 2 case reports are presented that describe rare but serious side effects of commonly used medications. These cases illustrate dilemmas in clinical decision-making. The first describes the induction of seizures by low-dose venlafaxine in a predisposed individual, and the second describes the development of mild but significant leukopenia with sequential trials of olanzapine and risperidone. The association between a drug and a rare but potentially serious side effect in an individual patient can be difficult to determine with precision, and the decision to press ahead and try to work around the reaction, versus stopping the likely offender and finding a substitute, is a matter for seasoned clinical judgment...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Chuanzhong Ye, Megan Ninneman, Judd S Christian, Fanglin Zhang, Dominique Musselman
Venlafaxine is a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor commonly used for the treatment of depression. Although listed as an adverse reaction, seizure activity associated with a therapeutic dose of venlafaxine has rarely been documented. A review of the literature reveals only 2 cases of venlafaxine-induced seizures, both of which were generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients on doses at the higher end of the therapeutic range. We report the case of a 44-year-old woman undergoing antituberculosis therapy who suffered complex partial seizures after ingestion of a low therapeutic dose of venlafaxine extended release (ER)...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Clinton G Lauritsen, Abigail L Chua, Stephanie J Nahas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Menopause is a life-changing event in numerous ways. Many women with migraine hold hope that the transition to the climacteric state will coincide with a cessation or improvement of migraine. This assumption is based mainly on common lay perceptions as well as assertions from many in the healthcare community. Unfortunately, evidence suggests this is far from the rule. Many women turn to a general practitioner or a headache specialist for prognosis and management. A natural instinct is to manipulate the offending agent, but in some cases, this approach backfires, or the concern for adverse events outweighs the desire for a therapeutic trial, and other strategies must be pursued...
March 6, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Andrea N Goldstein-Piekarski, Brooke R Staveland, Tali M Ball, Jerome Yesavage, Mayuresh S Korgaonkar, Leanne M Williams
Default mode network (DMN) dysfunction (particularly within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)) has been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD); however, its contribution to treatment outcome has not been clearly established. Here we tested the role of DMN functional connectivity as a general and differential biomarker for predicting treatment outcomes in a large, unmedicated adult sample with MDD. Seventy-five MDD outpatients completed fMRI scans before and 8 weeks after randomization to escitalopram, sertraline, or venlafaxine-XR...
March 6, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Marlijn Vermeiden, Astrid M Kamperman, Witte J G Hoogendijk, Walter W van den Broek, Tom K Birkenhäger
BACKGROUND: In patients suffering from major depressive disorder, non-response to initial antidepressant monotherapy is relatively common. The use of treatment algorithms may optimize and enhance treatment outcome. METHODS: A single-center 3-phase treatment algorithm was evaluated for inpatients with major depressive disorder, i.e. phase I (n = 85): 7 weeks optimal antidepressant monotherapy (imipramine or venlafaxine); phase II (n = 39): 4 weeks subsequent plasma level-targeted dose lithium addition in case of insufficient improvement of antidepressant monotherapy; and phase III (n = 8): subsequent electroconvulsive therapy in case of insufficient improvement of antidepressant‑lithium treatment...
March 2, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: Both venlafaxine and olanzapine have been previously found to have anxiolytic properties, however no study examined the effect of their combination on anxiety in anxious MDD. The aim of this study was to reveal if and when venlafaxine/olanzapine combination (VOC) can reduce the anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients with severe MDD at the level of patients with moderate-severe depression treated with venlafaxine monotherapy. METHODS: Fifty seven patients were included into the study...
February 5, 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
David B Miklos, Rebecca Hartl, Philipp Michel, Karl G Linden, Jörg E Drewes, Uwe Hübner
This study investigated the removal of 15 trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) occurring at ambient concentrations from municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent by advanced oxidation using UV/H2 O2 at pilot-scale. Pseudo first-order rate constants (kobs ) for photolytic as well as combined oxidative and photolytic degradation observed at pilot-scale were validated with results from a bench-scale collimated beam device. No significant difference was determined between pilot- and lab-scale performance. During continuous pilot-scale operation at constant UV fluence of 800 mJ/cm2 and H2 O2 dosage of 10 mg/L, the removal of various TOrCs was investigated...
February 21, 2018: Water Research
Maximilian Gahr, Bernhard J Connemann, René Zeiss, Albrecht Fröhlich
OBJECTIVE:  Psychopharmacotherapy is essential in the treatment of many mental disorders. Adverse drug reactions (ADR) have impact on compliance and tolerability. Sleep disorders or impaired sleep may occur as ADRs of psychopharmacotherapy. Sleep disorders are associated with an increased risk for physical and mental illness and may impair cognition, impulse control, emotion regulation and mood. Objective of the following study was the systematic presentation of type and risk of sleep disorders/impairments of sleep of frequently prescribed psychotropic drugs...
March 2, 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Rudolf A Werner, Ryohei Kobayashi, Mehrbod Som Javadi, Zoe Koeck, Hiroshi Wakabayashi, Stefan Unterecker, Kenichi Nakajima, Constantin Lapa, Andreas Menke, Takahiro Higuchi
Background: 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) provides independent prognostic value for risk stratification among heart failure patients, but the use of concomitant medication should not impact its quantitative information. We aimed to evaluate the four most-prescribed antidepressants currently used as a first‑line treatment for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and their potential on altering mIBG imaging results. Methods: The inhibition effect of four different types of antidepressants (desipramine, escitalopram, venlafaxine and bupropion) for MDD treatment on131 I-mIBG uptake was assessed by in-vitro cell uptake assays using human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Andrea Cipriani, Toshi A Furukawa, Georgia Salanti, Anna Chaimani, Lauren Z Atkinson, Yusuke Ogawa, Stefan Leucht, Henricus G Ruhe, Erick H Turner, Julian P T Higgins, Matthias Egger, Nozomi Takeshima, Yu Hayasaka, Hissei Imai, Kiyomi Shinohara, Aran Tajika, John P A Ioannidis, John R Geddes
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder is one of the most common, burdensome, and costly psychiatric disorders worldwide in adults. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments are available; however, because of inadequate resources, antidepressants are used more frequently than psychological interventions. Prescription of these agents should be informed by the best available evidence. Therefore, we aimed to update and expand our previous work to compare and rank antidepressants for the acute treatment of adults with unipolar major depressive disorder...
February 20, 2018: Lancet
Hyungkun Yoon, Dong Jae Oh, Ho-Suk Suh, Kyoung-Uk Lee, Se-Won Lim, Jun-Yeob Lee, Jong-Chul Yang, Jae-Hon Lee, Juwon Ha, Bun-Hee Lee, Seung-Gul Kang, Ho-Kyoung Yoon, Jihyun Moon, Seung-Min Bae, Youngdo Kwon, Hyun-Chung Kim, Kang Seob Oh
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to provide clinical consensus and evidence regarding initial treatment strategies for the pharmacological treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in Korea. METHODS: We prepared a questionnaire to derive a consensus from clinicians regarding their preference for the pharmacological treatment of SAD in Korea. Data regarding medication regimens and psychotropic drugs used during initial treatment, the doses used, and the pharmacological treatment duration were obtained...
February 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Tine M Hansen, Dina Lelic, Anne E Olesen, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes, Jens B Frøkjaer
AIM: Different mechanisms may be involved in the antinociceptive effects of oxycodone (opioid) and venlafaxine (serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor), and the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these drugs on brain functional connectivity. METHODS: Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired in 20 healthy volunteers before and after a 5-day treatment with oxycodone, venlafaxine, or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study...
February 21, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Gudrun Hefner, Martina Hahn, Matthias Hohner, Sybille C Roll, Ansgar Klimke, Christoph Hiemke
INTRODUCTION: Many antidepressants cause QT prolongation but the classification of cardiac risk of these drugs varies markedly in different published lists. This retrospective study analyzed the correlation of QTc time with amitriptyline and venlafaxine serum level in elderly psychiatric inpatients. METHODS: Elderly inpatients aged≥65 years for whom venlafaxine or amitriptyline serum level had been measured were selected retrospectively from a therapeutic drug monitoring database and screened for an electrocardiogram measurement at the time of blood withdrawal...
February 21, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Albert Serra-Compte, Ana Luisa Maulvault, Carolina Camacho, Diana Álvarez-Muñoz, Damià Barceló, Sara Rodríguez-Mozaz, António Marques
Warming and acidification are expected impacts of climate change to the marine environment. Besides, organisms that live in coastal areas, such as bivalves, can also be exposed to anthropogenic pollutants like pharmaceuticals (PhACs) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). In this study, the effects of warming and acidification on the bioconcentration, metabolization and depuration of five PhACs (sotalol, sulfamethoxazole, venlafaxine, carbamazepine and citalopram) and two EDCs (methylparaben and triclosan) were investigated in the mussel species (Mytilus galloprovincialis), under controlled conditions...
February 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Sarah C O S Padilha, Suzane Virtuoso, Fernanda S Tonin, Helena H L Borba, Roberto Pontarolo
The aim of this study is to gather evidence of head-to-head double-blind randomized-controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of available treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. A systematic review was conducted by two independent reviewers in ten electronic databases (PROSPERO register CRD42016043239). Methodological quality of included studies was evaluated according to the Jadad scale. Network meta-analyses were performed including double-blinded head-to-head trials comparing active allopathic drugs in patients (0-18 years old) diagnosed with ADHD...
February 19, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Petr Silhan, Romana Urinovska, Ivana Kacirova, Martin Hyza, Milan Grundmann, Eva Ceskova
INTRODUCTION: The evaluation of plasma levels of antidepressants may improve the treatment outcome. The aim was to verify adherence and adequacy of administered doses of antidepressants among patients hospitalized for inadequate outpatient therapeutic response. METHODS: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or venlafaxine plasma levels were assessed on the first day of hospitalization and after 3 days of controlled administration. The patients were considered adherent if the plasma level on admission was within the interval of the minimum and maximum plasma level on the fourth day, expanded by 30%...
February 19, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Chunyong Li, Fuda Liu, Haiyan Peng, Yongjun Huang, Xuezhu Song, Qi Xie, Yingkai Li, Yan Liu
OBJECTIVES: Using the triple stimulation technique (TST) and conventional transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), this study was designed to investigate the effect of venlafaxine on central motor conduction in healthy adults. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this crossover, self-controlled trial, eight healthy adult volunteers were randomly divided into groups A and B. In group A, the volunteers were administered 1 venlafaxine capsule once daily for 7 consecutive days, followed by a 3-day break...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
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