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M Hernández-Restrepo, J Gené, R F Castañeda-Ruiz, J Mena-Portales, P W Crous, J Guarro
During a survey of saprophytic microfungi on decomposing woody, herbaceous debris and soil from different regions in Southern Europe, a wide range of interesting species of asexual ascomycetes were found. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial gene sequences of SSU, LSU and ITS proved that most of these fungi were related to Sordariomycetes and Dothideomycetes and to lesser extent to Leotiomycetes and Eurotiomycetes. Four new monotypic orders with their respective families are proposed here, i.e. Lauriomycetales, Lauriomycetaceae; Parasympodiellales, Parasympodiellaceae; Vermiculariopsiellales, Vermiculariopsiellaceae and Xenospadicoidales, Xenospadicoidaceae...
March 2017: Studies in Mycology
P W Crous, M J Wingfield, D M Richardson, J J Le Roux, D Strasberg, J Edwards, F Roets, V Hubka, P W J Taylor, M Heykoop, M P Martín, G Moreno, D A Sutton, N P Wiederhold, C W Barnes, J R Carlavilla, J Gené, A Giraldo, V Guarnaccia, J Guarro, M Hernández-Restrepo, M Kolařík, J L Manjón, I G Pascoe, E S Popov, M Sandoval-Denis, J H C Woudenberg, K Acharya, A V Alexandrova, P Alvarado, R N Barbosa, I G Baseia, R A Blanchette, T Boekhout, T I Burgess, J F Cano-Lira, A Čmoková, R A Dimitrov, M Yu Dyakov, M Dueñas, A K Dutta, F Esteve-Raventós, A G Fedosova, J Fournier, P Gamboa, D E Gouliamova, T Grebenc, M Groenewald, B Hanse, G E St J Hardy, B W Held, Ž Jurjević, T Kaewgrajang, K P D Latha, L Lombard, J J Luangsa-Ard, P Lysková, N Mallátová, P Manimohan, A N Miller, M Mirabolfathy, O V Morozova, M Obodai, N T Oliveira, M E Ordóñez, E C Otto, S Paloi, S W Peterson, C Phosri, J Roux, W A Salazar, A Sánchez, G A Sarria, H-D Shin, B D B Silva, G A Silva, M Th Smith, C M Souza-Motta, A M Stchigel, M M Stoilova-Disheva, M A Sulzbacher, M T Telleria, C Toapanta, J M Traba, N Valenzuela-Lopez, R Watling, J Z Groenewald
Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Vermiculariopsiella eucalypti, Mulderomyces natalis (incl. Mulderomyces gen. nov.), Fusicladium paraamoenum, Neotrimmatostroma paraexcentricum, and Pseudophloeospora eucalyptorum on leaves of Eucalyptus spp., Anungitea grevilleae (on leaves of Grevillea sp.), Pyrenochaeta acaciae (on leaves of Acacia sp.), and Brunneocarpos banksiae (incl. Brunneocarpos gen. nov.) on cones of Banksia attenuata. Novel foliicolous taxa from South Africa include Neosulcatispora strelitziae (on Strelitzia nicolai), Colletotrichum ledebouriae (on Ledebouria floridunda), Cylindrosympodioides brabejum (incl...
June 2016: Persoonia
William B Sanders, Sergio Pérez-Ortega, Matthew P Nelsen, Robert Lücking, Asunción de Los Ríos
Foliicolous lichens are formed by diverse, highly specialized fungi that establish themselves and complete their life cycle within the brief duration of their leaf substratum. Over half of these lichen-forming fungi are members of either the Gomphillaceae or Pilocarpaceae, and associate with Trebouxia-like green algae whose identities have never been positively determined. We investigated the phylogenetic affinities of these photobionts to better understand their role in lichen establishment on an ephemeral surface...
October 2016: Journal of Phycology
William B Sanders, Sherzod A Tokamov, Galen I Papkov
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Some common leaf-dwelling lichen fungi produce asexual spores (conidia) within curved, dorsiventral structures called campylidia. Their shape and tendency to face in the same direction have generated speculation about how dispersal is accomplished. Here we tested the hypothesis that campylidia orient their spore-producing surface against runoff currents and examined the effects of hydration to better understand the spore dispersal mechanism. METHODS: Palm leaves bearing lichens (Calopadia) were surveyed with a dissecting microscope for campylidia with fibrous debris entangled around the base...
April 2016: American Journal of Botany
Meiriele da Silva, Danilo B Pinho, Olinto L Pereira, Fernando M Fernandes, Robert W Barreto
A survey of foliicolous fungi associated with Dimorphandra wilsonii and Dimorphandra mollis (Fabaceae) was conducted in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Dimorphandra wilsonii is a tree species native to the Brazilian Cerrado that is listed as critically endangered. Fungi strictly depending on this plant species may be on the verge of co-extinction. Here, results of the pioneering description of this mycobiota are provided to contribute to the neglected field of microfungi conservation. The mycobiota of D...
2016: PloS One
P W Crous, M J Wingfield, J J Le Roux, D M Richardson, D Strasberg, R G Shivas, P Alvarado, J Edwards, G Moreno, R Sharma, M S Sonawane, Y P Tan, A Altés, T Barasubiye, C W Barnes, R A Blanchette, D Boertmann, A Bogo, J R Carlavilla, R Cheewangkoon, R Daniel, Z W de Beer, M de Jesús Yáñez-Morales, T A Duong, J Fernández-Vicente, A D W Geering, D I Guest, B W Held, M Heykoop, V Hubka, A M Ismail, S C Kajale, W Khemmuk, M Kolařík, R Kurli, R Lebeuf, C A Lévesque, L Lombard, D Magista, J L Manjón, S Marincowitz, J M Mohedano, A Nováková, N H Oberlies, E C Otto, N D Paguigan, I G Pascoe, J L Pérez-Butrón, G Perrone, P Rahi, H A Raja, T Rintoul, R M V Sanhueza, K Scarlett, Y S Shouche, L A Shuttleworth, P W J Taylor, R G Thorn, L L Vawdrey, R Solano-Vidal, A Voitk, P T W Wong, A R Wood, J C Zamora, J Z Groenewald
Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Neoseptorioides eucalypti gen. & sp. nov. from Eucalyptus radiata leaves, Phytophthora gondwanensis from soil, Diaporthe tulliensis from rotted stem ends of Theobroma cacao fruit, Diaporthe vawdreyi from fruit rot of Psidium guajava, Magnaporthiopsis agrostidis from rotted roots of Agrostis stolonifera and Semifissispora natalis from Eucalyptus leaf litter. Furthermore, Neopestalotiopsis egyptiaca is described from Mangifera indica leaves (Egypt), Roussoella mexicana from Coffea arabica leaves (Mexico), Calonectria monticola from soil (Thailand), Hygrocybe jackmanii from littoral sand dunes (Canada), Lindgomyces madisonensis from submerged decorticated wood (USA), Neofabraea brasiliensis from Malus domestica (Brazil), Geastrum diosiae from litter (Argentina), Ganoderma wiiroense on angiosperms (Ghana), Arthrinium gutiae from the gut of a grasshopper (India), Pyrenochaeta telephoni from the screen of a mobile phone (India) and Xenoleptographium phialoconidium gen...
December 2015: Persoonia
Hans-Otto Baral, Martin Bemmann
Five species of Hymenoscyphus that fruit on black stromatized parts of dead leaves of deciduous trees are presented, giving details on their morphological and ecological characteristics. Several of these species have previously been misplaced in rutstroemiaceous genera because of the presence of a substratal stroma. However, the heteropolar, scutuloid ascospores with an often hook-like lateral protrusion at the rounded apex and the ascus apical ring of the Hymenoscyphus-type represent two reliable morphological characteristics that, together with molecular data, provide clear evidence for their placement in the genus Hymenoscyphus (Helotiaceae)...
October 2, 2014: Mycology
Onésimo Moreno-Rico, Johannes Z Groenewald, Pedro W Crous
Arctostaphylos pungens "Manzanita" is an important shrub in the southwestern USA, and northern and central Mexico. Manzanita bears apple-like fruit that is utilised for a range of edible products. Over the past two years, several foliar disease problems were noted on this host in the San José de Gracia region of Mexico. The aim of the present study was to elucidate their identity through the analysis of morphological characters and DNA phylogeny (based on the large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene and the ITS spacers and the intervening 5...
June 2014: IMA Fungus
Lingyan Zhou, Fude Liu, Wenjie Yang, Hong Liu, Hongbo Shao, Zhongsheng Wang, Shuqing An
Epiphylls widely colonize vascular leaves in moist tropical forests. Understanding the effects of epiphylls on leaf traits of host plants is critical for understanding ecological function of epiphylls. A study was conducted in a rain forest to investigate leaf traits of the host plants Photinia prunifolia colonized with epiphyllous liverworts and foliicolous lichens as well as those of uncolonized leaves. Our results found that the colonization of lichens significantly decreased leaf water content (LWC), chlorophyll (Chl) a and a + b content, and Chl a/b of P...
2014: TheScientificWorldJournal
Udeni Jayalal, Soon Ok Oh, Robert Lücking, Santosh Joshi, Jung A Kim, Jung-Shin Park, Jae-Seoun Hur
South Korea is covered primarily by temperate vegetation; therefore, foliicolous lichens may not be expected to play an important role in its lichen flora. However, this study describes four foliicolous lichen species, Strigula concreta, S. macrocarpa, S. melanobapha, and S. subelegans, which are new to South Korea. These findings will lead to further research on foliicolous lichens and provide a better understanding of their distribution within the East Asian region. This is the first detailed report on foliicolous lichens and their distribution in South Korea...
December 2013: Mycobiology
William B Sanders
The vegetative cycle of the foliicolous lichen Phyllophiale, from propagule germination to propagule production, was studied by light microscope observation of thalli colonizing plastic cover slips placed within a lowland tropical forest. Discoid propagules germinated by growth of radially arranged fungal cells and developed directly into lichen thalli. The young lichen comprised a single disc of closely branched, radiating filaments of the algal symbiont Phycopeltis, covered by a network of fungal hyphae extending onto the substrate as a prothallus...
November 2002: American Journal of Botany
James D Lawrey, Paul Diederich, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Patrick M Gillevet
Fungi in the basidiomycete order Corticiales are remarkably diverse nutritionally, including a variety of saprotrophs, plant and fungal pathogens, and lichen-forming fungi. Tracing the origin of this diversity depends on a clearer understanding of the phylogenetic relationships of fungi in the order. One of its core members is the genus Marchandiomyces, originally established for lichen pathogens that form orange or coral bulbils. We describe here a new species in the genus, M. marsonii sp. nov., which is unusual in its appearance, habit, and geographic provenance...
July 2008: American Journal of Botany
Fabiano B Rocha, Robert W Barreto, José L Bezerra, João Augusto A Meira Neto
We studied the foliicolous mycobiota associated with Coussapoa floccosa. This is a tree belonging to the Cecropiaceae, endemic to the Brazilian tropical seasonal semideciduous montane forest. It is listed as an endangered species because of habitat destruction. Until now no fungus has been recorded in association with this plant species. This paper describes six foliicolous fungi associated with this plant that were collected during a survey of the mycobiota occurring in a locality where a small population of C...
November 2010: Mycologia
P W Crous, B A Summerell, L Mostert, J Z Groenewald
Species of Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria represent important foliicolous pathogens of Proteaceae. Presently approximately 40 members of these genera (incl. anamorphs) have been recorded from Proteaceae, though the majority are not known from culture, and have never been subjected to DNA sequence analysis. During the course of this study, epitypes were designated for several important species, namely Batcheloromyces leucadendri, B. proteae, Catenulostroma macowanii, Mycosphaerella marksii, Teratosphaeria bellula, T...
June 2008: Persoonia
P W Crous, A R Wood, G Okada, J Z Groenewald
Species of Encephalartos, commonly known as bread trees, bread palms or cycads are native to Africa; the genus encompasses more than 60 species and represents an important component of the indigenous African flora. Recently, a leaf blight disease was noted on several E. altensteinii plants growing at the foot of Table Mountain in the Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens of South Africa. Preliminary isolations from dead and dying leaves of E. alten-steinii, E. lebomboensis and E. princeps, collected from South Africa, revealed the presence of several novel microfungi on this host...
December 2008: Persoonia
K Schubert, A Greslebin, J Z Groenewald, P W Crous
Two new species of Cladosporium found on necrotic needles of Pinus ponderosa trees in Patagonia, Argentina, are described as C. chubutense and C. pini-ponderosae. An additional isolate from dead leaves of Cortaderia collected in Colombia, which is a sister taxon to the species occurring on Pinus, is described as Cladosporium colombiae. These species are phylogenetically closely related, but differ from each other and other known species by multilocus sequence data, phenetic characters and culture characteristics...
June 2009: Persoonia
Elisabeth Baloch, Martin Grube
Lowland tropical habitats harbour an unexplored genetic diversity of epiphyllous fungi. In the shade of rainforest understoreys, lichenized fungi are specialized to an ephemeral habitat where they produce little vegetative biomass and develop reproductive structures early. In a first population genetic study of epiphyllous lichen fungi, we analysed the intraspecific genetic diversity of five leaf-colonizing lichen mycobiont species. Sampling focused on a lowland perhumid forest plot in Costa Rica, with additional collections from other localities throughout the country...
May 2009: Molecular Ecology
S J Hughes
Heteroconium citharexyli, the type species of this genus, is illustrated and redescribed as a sooty mold bearing acropetal chains of conidia showing a basifugal sequence of septation. Heteroconium neriifoliae, H. glutinosa and the Heteroconium synanamorph of Antennulariella concinna are congeneric. The latter species is neotypified, illustrated and described. Pirozynskiella new genus, typified by P. solaninum comb. nov. (-Helminthosporium solaninum), differs from Heteroconium in having an obligate association with asterinaceous fungi and in the centrifugal sequence of conidium transseptation after the initial median septum...
July 2007: Mycologia
Pedro W Crous, Hans-Josef Schroers, Johannes Z Groenewald, Uwe Braun, Konstanze Schubert
Cladosporium musae, a widespread leaf-spotting hyphomycete on Musa spp., is genetically and morphologically distinct from Cladosporium s. str. (Davidiella anamorphs, Mycosphaerellaceae, Dothideales). DNA sequence data derived from the ITS and LSU gene regions of C. musae isolates show that this species is part of a large group of hyphomycetes in the Chaetothyriales with dematiaceous blastoconidia in acropetal chains. Cladosporium adianticola, a foliicolous hyphomycete known from leaf litter in Cuba is also a member of this clade and is closely related to C...
March 2006: Mycological Research
María de los Angeles Herrera-Campos, Sabine Huhndorf, Robert Lücking
Pyrenothrix mexicana Herrera-Campos, Huhndorf & Lücking spec. nova is described from leaves in the upper montane rainforest of Oaxaca State, Mexico. It is the second species in the genus Pyrenothrix Riddle, established at the beginning of the twentieth century for the single species, P. nigra Riddle, a corticolous lichen restricted to southeastern United States. Both taxa have the same thallus and perithecial morphology and anatomy, but P. mexicana differs by its longer, transversally septate ascospores. The perithecial anatomy of Pyrenothrix is documented and its systematic affinities are discussed, and we conclude that the family Pyrenothrichaceae Zahlbr...
March 2005: Mycologia
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