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Julia Bechteler, Alfons Schäfer-Verwimp, Gaik Ee Lee, Kathrin Feldberg, Oscar Alejandro Pérez-Escobar, Tamás Pócs, Denilson F Peralta, Matthew A M Renner, Jochen Heinrichs
The evolutionary history and classification of epiphyllous cryptogams are still poorly known. Leptolejeunea is a largely epiphyllous pantropical liverwort genus with about 25 species characterized by deeply bilobed underleaves, elliptic to narrowly obovate leaf lobes, the presence of ocelli, and vegetative reproduction by cladia. Sequences of three chloroplast regions (rbcL, trnL-F, psbA) and the nuclear ribosomal ITS region were obtained for 66 accessions of Leptolejeunea and six outgroup species to explore the phylogeny, divergence times, and ancestral areas of this genus...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Lisi D P Alvarenga, Kátia C Pôrto, Maria L P Coelho, Charles E Zartman
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Leaf-inhabiting organisms offer an experimentally tractable model system within which to investigate the influence of alternative reproductive strategies on plant metapopulation dynamics. We conducted a field study to determine whether (1) threshold colony sizes exist for the onset of sexual and asexual expression, and (2) alternative reproductive strategies differentially influence within-patch dynamics of the tropical pleurocarpous moss Crossomitrium patrisiae...
November 2016: American Journal of Botany
Matthias Becker, Yvonne Becker, Kimberly Green, Barry Scott
Epichloë festucae forms a mutualistic symbiotic association with Lolium perenne. This biotrophic fungus systemically colonizes the intercellular spaces of aerial tissues to form an endophytic hyphal network. E. festucae also grows as an epiphyte, but the mechanism for leaf surface colonization is not known. Here we identify an appressorium-like structure, which we call an expressorium that allows endophytic hyphae to penetrate the cuticle from the inside of the leaf to establish an epiphytic hyphal net on the surface of the leaf...
July 2016: New Phytologist
Danillo Oliveira Alvarenga, Janaina Rigonato, Luis Henrique Zanini Branco, Itamar Soares Melo, Marli Fatima Fiore
Cyanobacteria dwelling on the salt-excreting leaves of the mangrove tree Avicennia schaueriana were isolated and characterized by ecological, morphological, and genetic approaches. Leaves were collected in a mangrove with a history of oil contamination in the coastline of São Paulo state, Brazil, and isolation was achieved by smearing leaves on the surface of solid media or by submerging leaves in liquid media. Twenty-nine strains isolated were shown to belong to four cyanobacterial orders (thirteen Synechococcales, seven Nostocales, seven Pleurocapsales, one Chroococcales, and one Oscillatoriales) according to morphological and 16S rDNA sequence evaluations...
November 17, 2015: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Qian Zhang, Jihong Li, Yalin Sang, Shiyan Xing, Qikui Wu, Xiaojing Liu
Ginkgo biloba, a dioecious plant known as a living fossil, is an ancient gymnosperm that stands distinct from other gymnosperms and angiosperms. Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla (G. biloba var. epiphylla), with ovules borne on the leaf blade, is an unusual germplasm derived from G. biloba. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional gene regulators that play critical roles in diverse biological and metabolic processes. Currently, little is known about the miRNAs involved in the key stage of partly epiphyllous ovule germination in G...
2015: PloS One
Lingyan Zhou, Fude Liu, Wenjie Yang, Hong Liu, Hongbo Shao, Zhongsheng Wang, Shuqing An
Epiphylls widely colonize vascular leaves in moist tropical forests. Understanding the effects of epiphylls on leaf traits of host plants is critical for understanding ecological function of epiphylls. A study was conducted in a rain forest to investigate leaf traits of the host plants Photinia prunifolia colonized with epiphyllous liverworts and foliicolous lichens as well as those of uncolonized leaves. Our results found that the colonization of lichens significantly decreased leaf water content (LWC), chlorophyll (Chl) a and a + b content, and Chl a/b of P...
2014: TheScientificWorldJournal
Cheng Sun, Guoliang Yu, Manzhu Bao, Bo Zheng, Guogui Ning
BACKGROUND: Odd traits in few of plant species usually implicate potential biology significances in plant evolutions. The genus Helwingia Willd, a dioecious medical shrub in Aquifoliales order, has an odd floral architecture-epiphyllous inflorescence. The potential significances and possible evolutionary origin of this specie are not well understood due to poorly available data of biological and genetic studies. In addition, the advent of genomics-based technologies has widely revolutionized plant species with unknown genomic information...
2014: BMC Research Notes
Ying Yu, Jochen Heinrichs, Rui-Liang Zhu, Harald Schneider
Cryptic species are frequently recovered in plant lineages, and considered an important cause for divergent of morphological disparity and species diversity. The identification of cryptic species has important implications for the assessment of conservation needs of species aggregates. The mechanisms and processes of the origin of cryptic species diversity are still poorly understand based on the lack of studies especially in context of environment factors. Here we explored evidence for cryptic species within the epiphyllous liverworts Cololejeunea lanciloba complex based on two loci, the plastid trnL-F region and the nuclear ribosomal ITS region...
2013: PloS One
Richard S Barclay, Jennifer C McElwain, Jeffrey G Duckett, Maarten H van Es, Anika S Mostaert, Silvia Pressel, Bradley B Sageman
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Epiphyllous bryophytes are a highly characteristic feature of many humid tropical forest ecosystems. In contrast to the extensive fossil record for the leaves of their host plants, the record is virtually nonexistent for the epiphylls themselves, despite a fossil record for mosses that begins in the Middle Carboniferous Period, 330 million years ago. METHODS: Epifluorescence optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were employed to investigate an intimate association between a newly discovered epiphyllous moss and a Lauraceae plant host from the middle Cretaceous...
December 2013: American Journal of Botany
J P Roskoski
Nitrogen fixation (C2H2 reduction) by epiphylls on coffee,Coffea arabica, grown in sites with different degrees of shade, was determined. Coffee leaves with nitrogen-fixing epiphylls were found in all sites in approximately equal numbers. Rates of C2H2 reduction were similar for all sites and throughout the year, averaging 3.21 nmoles C2H2 reduced leaf with epiphylls(-1) day(-1). Apparently, neither rates of activity nor abundance of leaves with nitrogen-fixing epiphylls is related to the degree of shade in a site...
December 1980: Microbial Ecology
B L Bentley, E J Carpenter
Nitrogen fixation rates by epiphyllous microorganisms are affected by desiccation. Rates from leaf samples which had been dried for 12 h were 0.66 ng N/10 cm(2)/h. In contrast, rates from leaves which had been kept continuously wet were 18.69 ng N/10 cm(2)/h. Leaf samples which had been rehydrated for 2 and 4 h showed intermediate fixation rates (4.26 and 9.76 ng N/10 cm(2)/h, respectively). Epiphyllous bryophytes maintain moist conditions on the leaf surface and thus create a microenvironment suitable for prolonged fixation by the microorganisms...
June 1980: Microbial Ecology
L Rico, R Ogaya, J Terradas, J Peñuelas
Biological nitrogen (N) fixation is a key pathway in terrestrial ecosystems and is therefore critical for understanding the responses of ecosystems to global environmental changes. The free-living diazotrophic community is distributed along the canopy-to-soil profile, but the ecological significance of epiphyllic N2 fixers, despite their functional relevance, on plant foliar surfaces remains very poorly understood compared with the N2 -fixing community in forest litter and soils. We assessed the community structure of N2 fixers and overall bacteria by genetic fingerprinting (t-RFLP) to explore the seasonal successional patterns of the microbial community in the natural phyllosphere of a Holm oak (Quercus ilex) forest submitted to 12-year field experiment of rain exclusion mimicking the conditions of drought projected for the coming decades...
May 2014: Plant Biology
Marco Fambrini, Claudio Pugliesi
Morphological diversity exhibited by higher plants is essentially related to the tremendous variation of leaf shape. With few exceptions, leaf primordia are initiated postembryonically at the flanks of a group of undifferentiated and proliferative cells within the shoot apical meristem (SAM) in characteristic position for the species and in a regular phyllotactic sequence. Auxin is critical for this process, because genes involved in auxin biosynthesis, transport, and signaling are required for leaf initiation...
June 2013: Plant Cell Reports
Hiroshi Tobe
Phyllonoma, a small tree genus of four species distributed from Mexico to Peru, has been placed in various families (mainly in Saxifragaceae), but now, based on molecular evidence, is placed in a distinct family Phyllonomaceae in Aquifoliales. To better understand the morphological relationships of the genus and family, I studied its floral morphology, anatomy, and vasculature using P. tenuidens. Most of the external and internal floral characteristics were described more than 120 years ago. Although some of them were confirmed, some were substantially revised, mainly those concerning the gynoecial structure...
September 2013: Journal of Plant Research
Sarita Jaiswal, Raman Chawla, Sudhir Sawhney
Leaf detachment is a common signal that triggers both the differentiation of dormant epiphyllous buds as well as the onset of foliar senescence in Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. (Pers.). The present study looked for any probable correlations among selected attributes of foliar senescence, e.g. soluble proteins, chlorophylls a and b (Chl(a+b)), and membrane stability index (MSI), and the antioxidative status, e.g. phenolics, ferric reducing ability in plasma equivalence (FRAP(eq)), and membrane protection index (MPI), during epiphyllous bud differentiation...
July 2012: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Maxim A Dubinnyi, Dmitry I Osmakov, Sergey G Koshelev, Sergey A Kozlov, Yaroslav A Andreev, Naira A Zakaryan, Igor A Dyachenko, Dmitry A Bondarenko, Alexander S Arseniev, Eugene V Grishin
A novel compound was identified in the acidic extract of Thymus armeniacus collected in the Lake Sevan region of Armenia. This compound, named "sevanol," to our knowledge is the first low molecular weight natural molecule that has a reversible inhibition effect on both the transient and the sustained current of human ASIC3 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Sevanol completely blocked the transient component (IC(50) 353 ± 23 μM) and partially (∼45%) inhibited the amplitude of the sustained component (IC(50) of 234 ± 53 μM)...
September 21, 2012: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Shanshan Dong, Alfons Schäfer-Verwimp, Philipp Meinecke, Kathrin Feldberg, Andrea Bombosch, Tamás Pócs, Alexander R Schmidt, Joachim Reitner, Harald Schneider, Jochen Heinrichs
Diplasiolejeunea is a pantropical, epiphytic genus of leafy liverworts that occurs from the lowlands to more than 4000m altitude. Phylogenetic analyses of a molecular dataset consisting of three markers (nuclear ribosomal ITS region, plastidic trnL-F region and rbcL gene) and 122 accessions (plus two outgroups, Colura and Cololejeunea) indicate that the evolutionary diversity of Diplasiolejeunea is underestimated by current morphology-based classification. Four morphologically semi-cryptic species have been recovered...
November 2012: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Marina Laura, Cristina Borghi, Cristina Regis, Arianna Cassetti, Andrea Allavena
KxhKN5 (class 1 KNOX gene) was cloned from Kalanchoe × houghtonii with strong tendency to form epiphylls on leaves. KxhKN5 appear to be homologue of BP of A. thaliana on the basis of phylogeny, expression and phenotype analysis. Beside the modification of several plant and leaf traits, the appearance of epiphylls was drastically reduced by both the silencing and the over-expression of KxhKN5 in most of the generated clones. In silenced clones, epiphyll production followed the morphogenetic pathway of the WT plants: somatic embryos outbreak in the centre of each leaf-pedestal, grown in the notch between leaf indentations and were supported by a suspensor...
February 2013: Transgenic Research
Putarak Chomnunti, Thida Win Ko Ko, Ekachai Chukeatirote, Kevin D Hyde, Lei Cai, E B Gareth Jones, Rampai Kodsueb, Bahkali Ali Hassan, Hang Chen
In a recent study unusual taxa of epiphyllous ascomycota belonging to Chaetothyriaceae (Eurotiomycetes) were collected in northern Thailand. This family is poorly understood due to morphological confusion and lack of phylogenetic studies. This paper deals with three new species, Ceramothyrium thailandicum, Chaetothyrium brischofiacola and Phaeosaccardinula ficus, which are fully described and illustrated. A DNA sequence analyses of LSU and ITS rDNA genes shows that the new species cluster in the Chaetothyriaceae...
March 2012: Mycologia
Marco Mucciarelli, Silvano Scannerini, Cinzia M Bertea, Massimo Maffei
A hyaline sterile fungus forming epiphyllous mycelial nets was isolated from meristem cultures of Mentha piperita. Histological studies indicated that the culture isolate is able to colonize stems and leaves with no damage to the host plant. In vitro-grown peppermint plants displayed enhanced vegetative growth when infected by the fungus, with mycelium extending from green tissues to growing rootlets. The production of very thin hyphae growing away from host meristems and the asymptomatic nature of the symbiosis were commonly observed in cultures, where the isolate never sporulated...
January 2002: Mycologia
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