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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538731/a-neural-circuit-architecture-for-angular-integration-in-drosophila
#1
Jonathan Green, Atsuko Adachi, Kunal K Shah, Jonathan D Hirokawa, Pablo S Magani, Gaby Maimon
Many animals keep track of their angular heading over time while navigating through their environment. However, a neural-circuit architecture for computing heading has not been experimentally defined in any species. Here we describe a set of clockwise- and anticlockwise-shifting neurons in the Drosophila central complex whose wiring and physiology provide a means to rotate an angular heading estimate based on the fly's angular velocity. We show that each class of shifting neurons exists in two subtypes, with spatiotemporal activity profiles that suggest different roles for each subtype at the start and end of tethered-walking turns...
May 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538233/enewborn-the-information-technology-revolution-and-challenges-for-neonatal-networks
#2
Dominique Haumont, Cuong NguyenBa, Neena Modi
Among preterm infants, 1-2% are born before 32 weeks of gestation or have a birth weight below 1,500 g. They contribute disproportionately to the burden of mortality and morbidity related to preterm birth, whether in the neonatal period or later in life. They are the target population studied in neonatal networks. Improving neonatal care and later outcome is a major issue in public health. Neonatologists, health care providers, public authorities, parents and families, industry, and all organizations dedicated to infant health must bring their efforts together and dedicate their actions in order to do so...
2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538177/chemokine-signaling-and-the-regulation-of-bidirectional-leukocyte-migration-in-interstitial-tissues
#3
Davalyn Powell, Sebastien Tauzin, Laurel E Hind, Qing Deng, David J Beebe, Anna Huttenlocher
Motile cells navigate through complex tissue environments that include both attractive and repulsive cues. In response to tissue wounding, neutrophils, primary cells of the innate immune response, exhibit bidirectional migration that is orchestrated by chemokines and their receptors. Although progress has been made in identifying signals that mediate the recruitment phase, the mechanisms that regulate neutrophil reverse migration remain largely unknown. Here, we visualize bidirectional neutrophil migration to sterile wounds in zebrafish larvae and identify specific roles for the chemokine receptors Cxcr1 and Cxcr2 in neutrophil recruitment to sterile injury and infection...
May 23, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538075/is-surgical-navigation-useful-for-treating-zygomatic-arch-fractures
#4
Min Kwan Baek, Joo Hyun Jung, Seon Tae Kim, Na Rae Oh, Yu Jin Bang, Il Gyu Kang
OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a 58-year-old man with a zygomatic arch fracture, which was well localized and reduced using a surgical navigation system. METHODS: In this clinical report, the authors suggest intraoperative surgical navigation systems are useful diagnostically and for localizing sites of zygomatic arch fractures. RESULTS: The patient underwent successful closed reduction of zygomatic arch fractures using a surgical navigation system...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538022/surgical-orthodontics
#5
Alexis M Strohl, Lauren Vitkus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article reviews some commonly used orthodontic treatments as well as new strategies to assist in the correction of malocclusion. Many techniques are used in conjunction with surgical intervention and are a necessary compliment to orthognathic surgery. Basic knowledge of these practices will aid in the surgeon's ability to adequately treat the patient. RECENT FINDINGS: Many orthodontists and surgeons are eliminating presurgical orthodontics to adopt a strategy of 'surgery first' orthodontics in orthognathic surgery...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537818/adolescent-and-young-adult-patients-with-cancer-perceptions-of-care
#6
Kayla N LaRosa, Marilyn Stern, Jennifer Bleck, Courtney Lynn, Janella Hudson, Damon R Reed, Gwendolyn P Quinn, Kristine A Donovan
BACKGROUND: Adolescent and young adults with cancer (AYACs) face unique medical, psychosocial, and supportive care needs. The purpose of this study was to identify AYACs perceptions and expectations of cancer care services on and off treatment. METHODS: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 23 AYACs aged 19-38 years (13 on and 10 off treatment), who were receiving care at a comprehensive cancer center. Verbatim transcripts were created from audiotaped interviews and hand coded using inductive content analysis methodology...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537790/lgbtq-women-appearance-negotiations-and-workplace-dress-codes
#7
Kelly L Reddy-Best
The purpose of this study was to explore LGBTQ women's experiences with unwritten or formal dress codes at work. I asked: what are LGBTQ women's experiences in the workplace with appearance management, and what are LGBTQ women's experiences navigating the written and unwritten dress codes in the workplace? To answer the research question, interviews were conducted with 24 self-identifying LGBTQ women. Six key themes emerged from the data. Themes included (1) expressed sexual identity in appearance, (2) unwritten dress codes in work environments did not always allow for expression of sexual identity in appearance, (3) motivations for pressure or desire to conceal expression of sexual identity in appearance at work, (4) negotiations of revealing or concealing sexual identity in appearance in the workplace impacted levels of comfort and confidence (5) verbal and non-verbal negative experiences related to appearance at work, and (6) received compliments about appearance at work...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535604/use-of-transcatheter-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-with-vessel-navigation-to-reduce-the-contrast-requirement-during-transarterial-chemoembolization-in-patients-with-renal-impairment
#8
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535562/isocentric-navigation-of-percutaneous-endoscopic-transforaminal-discectomy-at-the-l5-s1-level-in-difficult-puncture-cases-a-technical-note
#9
Guoxin Fan, Teng Wang, Shuo Hu, Xiaofei Guan, Xin Gu, Shisheng He
BACKGROUND: Accurate puncture during percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy at the L5/S1 level in cases with high iliac crest and narrow foramen were difficult, even though the difficulties of foraminoplasty could be overcome by advanced instruments like reamers. OBJECTIVES: The report aimed to describe an isocentric navigation technique with a definite pathway in difficult puncture cases at the L5/S1 level. STUDY DESIGN: Technical note...
May 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535474/peer-navigators-to-promote-engagement-of-homeless-african-americans-with-serious-mental-illness-in-primary-care
#10
Patrick W Corrigan, Susan Pickett, Annie Schmidt, Edward Stellon, Erin Hantke, Dana Kraus, Rachel Dubke
Homeless African Americans with serious mental illness experience higher rates of morbidity and mortality than adults with severe mental illness alone. Peer navigators, individuals with similar lived experiences, may help these individuals navigate the healthcare system to improve healthcare utilization. This study examined whether the Peer Navigator Program (PNP) improved scheduling and achieving healthcare appointments compared to treatment as usual (TAU) over the course of 12 months, including three periods within that timeframe: engagement (first three months), impact (middle six months), and maintenance (final six months)...
May 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534857/optimization-based-sensor-fusion-of-gnss-and-imu-using-a-moving-horizon-approach
#11
Fabian Girrbach, Jeroen D Hol, Giovanni Bellusci, Moritz Diehl
The rise of autonomous systems operating close to humans imposes new challenges in terms of robustness and precision on the estimation and control algorithms. Approaches based on nonlinear optimization, such as moving horizon estimation, have been shown to improve the accuracy of the estimated solution compared to traditional filter techniques. This paper introduces an optimization-based framework for multi-sensor fusion following a moving horizon scheme. The framework is applied to the often occurring estimation problem of motion tracking by fusing measurements of a global navigation satellite system receiver and an inertial measurement unit...
May 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534774/a-fast-ellipse-detector-using-projective-invariant-pruning
#12
Qi Jia, Xin Fan, Zhongxuan Luo, Lianbo Song, Tie Qiu
Detecting elliptical objects from an image is a central task in robot navigation and industrial diagnosis where the detection time is always a critical issue. Existing methods are hardly applicable to these real-time scenarios of limited hardware resource due to the huge number of fragment candidates (edges or arcs) for fitting ellipse equations. In this paper, we present a fast algorithm detecting ellipses with high accuracy. The algorithm leverages a newly developed projective invariant to significantly prune the undesired candidates and to pick out elliptical ones...
May 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533550/coral-larvae-are-poor-swimmers-and-require-fine-scale-reef-structure-to-settle
#13
Tom Hata, Joshua S Madin, Vivian R Cumbo, Mark Denny, Joanna Figueiredo, Saki Harii, Christopher J Thomas, Andrew H Baird
Reef coral assemblages are highly dynamic and subject to repeated disturbances, which are predicted to increase in response to climate change. Consequently there is an urgent need to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying different recovery scenarios. Recent work has demonstrated that reef structural complexity can facilitate coral recovery, but the mechanism remains unclear. Similarly, experiments suggest that coral larvae can distinguish between the water from healthy and degraded reefs, however, whether or not they can use these cues to navigate to healthy reefs is an open question...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533140/3d-interactive-surgical-visualization-system-using-mobile-spatial-information-acquisition-and-autostereoscopic-display
#14
Zhencheng Fan, Yitong Weng, Guowen Chen, Hongen Liao
Three-dimensional (3D) visualization of preoperative and intraoperative medical information becomes more and more important in minimally invasive surgery. We develop a 3D interactive surgical visualization system using mobile spatial information acquisition and autostereoscopic display for surgeons to observe surgical target intuitively. The spatial information of regions of interest (ROIs) is captured by the mobile device and transferred to a server for further image processing. Triangular patches of intraoperative data with texture are calculated with a dimension-reduced triangulation algorithm and a projection-weighted mapping algorithm...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533004/validation-of-navigation-ultrasound-for-clavicular-length-measurement
#15
Anders Thorsmark Høj, Chiara Villa, Ole M Christensen, Søren Torp-Pedersen, Søren Overgaard, Lars H Frich
Accurate clavicular length measurement is considered important for the selection of patients requiring surgical treatment after a midclavicular fracture. As radiographic length measurements can be inaccurate to varying degrees, new measurement methods are needed. Use of novel technology, navigation ultrasound, to deliver accurate measurements seems promising. To examine the reliability and validity of navigation ultrasound for length measurements of the clavicle, a study was performed using length measurements performed before forensic autopsies from 2012 to 2013...
May 19, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532997/the-influence-of-varus-and-valgus-deviation-on-patellar-kinematics-in-healthy-knees-an-exploratory-cadaver-study
#16
Michael Worlicek, Benedikt Moser, Günther Maderbacher, Raphael Zentner, Florian Zeman, Joachim Grifka, Armin Keshmiri
BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral instability may lead to osteoarthritis, anterior knee pain, and patellar luxation. The purpose of this study was to conduct an exploratory investigation into the difference of patellar kinematics of healthy knees during extension/flexion cycles in neutral, varus and valgus alignment. METHODS: The three-dimensional patellar kinematics of 10 lower extremities of whole body cadavers were examined during passive motion, in neutral position, and under valgus and varus stress...
May 19, 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532855/long-term-influence-of-prenatal-high-sucrose-intake-on-learning-and-memory-of-aged-rat-offspring-with-oxidative-stress-and-disruptions-in-nmdars-wnt-signaling-in-hippocampus
#17
Axin He, Yingying Zhang, Lingjun Li, Xueqin Feng, Bin Wei, Di Zhu, Yanping Liu, Lei Wu, Lubo Zhang, Zhice Xu, Miao Sun
Maternal over-nutrition may increase risks of various diseases in the offspring. Our recent work demonstrated that prenatal high sucrose (HS) could impair spatial acquisitionin the adolescentoffspringrats. This study investigated whether prenatal HS has a long-term impact on cognitive capabilities in the aged offspring rats. The aged HS offspring showed impaired glucose tolerance, significantly increased fasting insulin and insulin resistance index, with unchanged plasma glucose. In the navigation test, the aged HS offspring exhibited longer escape latency and longer swimming path length to the platform...
May 19, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532733/a-theory-for-aftercare-of-human-trafficking-survivors-for-nursing-practice-in-low-resource-settings
#18
R L Curran, J R Naidoo, G Mchunu
Research on aftercare for human trafficking survivors highlights the limited knowledge of the needs of survivors; the evaluation of current aftercare; and the process of recovery navigated by the survivor in aftercare (Oram et al., 2012; Locke, 2010; Hacker & Cohen, 2012). Furthermore there has been a transition in aftercare where the victim or survivor, who before was seen as a passive victim of circumstance of their life and in need of therapeutic intervention, is now seen as having an active role in their recovery, thus facilitating recovery (Hacker & Cohen, 2012)...
June 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532547/calcium-dynamics-regulating-the-timing-of-decision-making-in-c-elegans
#19
Yuki Tanimoto, Akiko Yamazoe-Umemoto, Kosuke Fujita, Yuya Kawazoe, Yosuke Miyanishi, Shuhei J Yamazaki, Xianfeng Fei, Karl Emanuel Busch, Keiko Gengyo-Ando, Junichi Nakai, Yuichi Iino, Yuishi Iwasaki, Koichi Hashimoto, Koutarou D Kimura
Brains regulate behavioral responses with distinct timings. Here we investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the timing of decision-making during olfactory navigation in Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that, based on subtle changes in odor concentrations, the animals appear to choose the appropriate migratory direction from multiple trials as a form of behavioral decision-making. Through optophysiological, mathematical and genetic analyses of neural activity under virtual odor gradients, we further find that odor concentration information is temporally integrated for a decision by a gradual increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), which occurs via L-type voltage-gated calcium channels in a pair of olfactory neurons...
May 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532482/-ensure-that-you-are-well-aware-of-the-risks-you-are-taking%C3%A2-actions-and-activities-medical-tourists-informal-caregivers-can-undertake-to-protect-their-health-and-safety
#20
Valorie A Crooks, Rebecca Whitmore, Jeremy Snyder, Leigh Turner
BACKGROUND: When seeking care at international hospitals and clinics, medical tourists are often accompanied by family members, friends, or other caregivers. Such caregiver-companions assume a variety of roles and responsibilities and typically offer physical assistance, provide emotional support, and aid in decision-making and record keeping as medical tourists navigate unfamiliar environments. While traveling abroad, medical tourists' caregiver-companions can find themselves confronted with challenging communication barriers, financial pressures, emotional strain, and unsafe environments...
May 22, 2017: BMC Public Health
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