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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128614/gene-expression-profiling-in-colon-of-mice-exposed-to-food-additive-titanium-dioxide-e171
#1
Héloïse Proquin, Marlon J Jetten, Marloes C M Jonkhout, Luis G Garduño-Balderas, Jacob J Briedé, Theo M de Kok, Yolanda I Chirino, Henk van Loveren
Dietary factors that may influence the risks of colorectal cancer, including specific supplements, are under investigation. Previous studies showed the capacity of food additive titanium dioxide (E171) to induce DNA damage in vitro and facilitate growth of colorectal tumours in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind these effects after E171 exposure. BALB/c mice were exposed by gavage to 5 mg/kgbw/day of E171 for 2, 7, 14, and 21 days. Transcriptome changes were studied by whole genome mRNA microarray analysis on the mice's distal colons...
November 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122676/a-six-gene-expression-toolbox-for-the-glands-epithelium-and-chondrocytes-in-the-mouse-nasal-cavity
#2
Yong Wan, Matthew B Rogers, Heather L Szabo-Rogers
The nose is the central feature of the amniote face. In adults, the nose is a structurally and functionally complex organ that consists of bone, cartilage, glands and ducts. In an ongoing expression screen in our lab, we found several novel markers for specific tissues in the nasal region. Here, using in situ hybridization expression experiments, we report that Alx1, Ap-2β, Crispld1, Eya4, Moxd1, and Penk have tissue specific expression during murine nasal development. At E11.5, we observed that Alx1, Ap-2β, Crispld1, and Eya4 are expressed in the medial and lateral nasal prominences...
November 6, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118104/conditional-deletion-of-ric-8b-in-olfactory-sensory-neurons-leads-to-olfactory-impairment
#3
Cleiton F Machado, Maíra H Nagai, Cassandra S Lyra, Thiago M Reis-Silva, André Machado Xavier, Isaias Glezer, Luciano F Felicio, Bettina Malnic
The olfactory system can discriminate a vast number of odorants. This ability derives from the existence of a large family of odorant receptors expressed in the cilia of the olfactory sensory neurons. Odorant receptors signal through the olfactory-specific G-protein subunit, Gαolf. Ric-8b, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, interacts with Gαolf and can amplify odorant receptor signal transduction in vitro To explore the function of Ric-8b in vivo, we generated a tissue specific knockout mouse by crossing OMP-Cre transgenic mice to Ric-8b floxed mice...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116664/unraveling-the-biology-of-bipolar-disorder-using-induced-pluripotent-stem-derived-neurons
#4
REVIEW
Nathaniel D Miller, John R Kelsoe
OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder has been studied from numerous angles, from pathological studies to large-scale genomic studies, overall making moderate gains toward an understanding of the disorder. With the advancement of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology, in vitro models based on patient samples are now available that inherently incorporate the complex genetic variants that largely are the basis for this disorder. A number of groups are starting to apply iPS technology to the study of bipolar disorder...
November 8, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107942/differential-expression-of-micrornas-among-cell-populations-in-the-regenerating-adult-mouse-olfactory-epithelium
#5
Sarah Kurtenbach, Wen Ding, Garrett M Goss, Joshua M Hare, Bradley J Goldstein, Lina A Shehadeh
Despite a robust capacity for adult neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium (OE), olfactory sensory losses are common. Identification of mechanisms regulating adult OE neurogenesis is, therefore, of interest. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are broadly important in regulating vertebrate neurodevelopment, and are required in embryonic olfactory differentiation. We report here that a panel of miRNAs is differentially expressed by either progenitor or progeny cells in the regenerating mouse OE. Progenitor cells were purified from lesioned OE based on c-Kit expression, and miRNA expression was assayed in c-Kit (+) and c-Kit (-) cell populations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107844/the-mechanisms-underlying-olfactory-deficits-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice-focus-on-olfactory-epithelium-and-olfactory-bulb
#6
Jiajia Zhang, Caiyuan Hao, Jinxiang Jiang, Yangjian Feng, Xi Chen, Ying Zheng, Jiawei Liu, Zhilin Zhang, Cheng Long, Li Yang
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is highly expressed in the central nervous system including the olfactory epithelium (OE) and olfactory bulb (OB). ApoE induction is beneficial for Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment, whereas ApoE deficiency results in impaired olfaction, but the timing and underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of these effects remain unclear. Uncovering the mechanisms underlying olfactory dysfunction in ApoE-deficient mice might provide a potential avenue for the early diagnosis of AD. We used an ApoE knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mouse model and a cookie-finding test to reveal an olfactory deficit in 3- to 5-month-old, but not 1- to 2-month-old, ApoE(-/-) mice...
October 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106072/regulation-of-continuous-but-complex-expression-pattern-of-six1-during-early-sensory-development
#7
Shigeru Sato, Yasuhide Furuta, Kiyoshi Kawakami
BACKGROUND: In vertebrates, cranial sensory placodes give rise to neurosensory and endocrine structures such as the olfactory epithelium, inner ear and anterior pituitary. We report here the establishment of a transgenic mouse line that expresses Cre recombinase under the control of Six1-21, a major placodal enhancer of the homeobox gene Six1. RESULTS: In the new Cre-expressing line, mSix1-21-NLSCre, the earliest Cre-mediated recombination was induced at embryonic day 8...
November 6, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097202/distinct-amyloid-precursor-protein-processing-machineries-of-the-olfactory-system
#8
Jae Yeon Kim, Ameer Rasheed, Seung-Jun Yoo, So Yeun Kim, Bongki Cho, Gowoon Son, Seong-Woon Yu, Keun-A Chang, Yoo-Hun Suh, Cheil Moon
Processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) occurs through sequential cleavages first by β-secretase and then by the γ-secretase complex. However, abnormal processing of APP leads to excessive production of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the central nervous system (CNS), an event which is regarded as a primary cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, gene mutations of the γ-secretase complex-which contains presenilin 1 or 2 as the catalytic core-could trigger marked Aβ accumulation. Olfactory dysfunction usually occurs before the onset of typical AD-related symptoms (eg, memory loss or muscle retardation), suggesting that the olfactory system may be one of the most vulnerable regions to AD...
October 31, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076871/olfactory-epithelial-hamartoma-a-new-subtype-of-sinonasal-hamartoma
#9
Myriam Kossai, Sophie El Zein, Michel Wassef, Jean-Pierre Guichard, Christelle Pouliquen, Philippe Herman, Benjamin Vérillaud, Marion Classe
Sinonasal epithelial hamartomas occurring in adults are classified as seromucinous hamartoma (SMH) or respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma (REAH). We describe herein a novel subtype of adult sinonasal hamartoma that contains olfactory epithelium, a histologic feature not previously reported in the literature. Our pathology department database was retrospectively searched for sinonasal hamartomas containing areas of olfactory epithelium. Six relevant cases (3 male and 3 female patients; age, 30 to 77 y) were retrieved, and available pathology slides and clinical and imaging data from patient charts were reviewed...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075337/intranasal-application-of-glucocorticoid-alleviates-olfactory-dysfunction-in-mice-with-allergic-rhinitis
#10
Xiaowei Wang, Yingying Zhu, Daofeng Ni, Wei Lv, Zhiqiang Gao, Fang Qi
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of glucocorticoid intervention on olfactory dysfunction in mice with allergic rhinitis (AR). An AR animal model was established by intraperitoneal injection and intranasal application of ovalbumin to mice. The olfactory function of the mice was evaluated using a buried food test, and morphological changes in the nasal mucosa were determined using hematoxylin and eosin staining. The expression of olfactory marker protein (OMP) in the olfactory mucosa was tested by immunohistochemistry, and was observed on days 7 and 14 after the application of glucocorticoid...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071018/a-90-day-inhalation-toxicity-study-of-ethyl-formate-in-rats
#11
Mi Ju Lee, Hyeon-Yeong Kim
Ethyl formate, a volatile solvent, has insecticidal and fungicidal properties and is suggested as a potential fumigant for stored crop and fruit. Its primary contact route is through the respiratory tract; however, reliable repeated toxicological studies focusing on the inhalation route have not been published to date. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the safety of a 90-day repeated inhalation exposure in rats. Forty male and 40 female rats were exposed to ethyl formate vapor via inhalation at concentrations of 0, 66, 330, and 1,320 ppm for 6 hr/day, 5 days a week for 13 weeks...
October 2017: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061510/in-vivo-comparisons-of-silver-nanoparticle-and-silver-ion-transport-after-intranasal-delivery-in-mice
#12
Jonathan L Falconer, David W Grainger
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely available as consumer goods, and over-the-counter or nutraceutical products used for alleged therapeutic and antibacterial properties. Among these products, AgNP topical therapy is proposed for treating patients with upper airway bacterial rhinosinusitis. While silver ion release from AgNPs in biological systems is well known, limited investigations actually characterize this silver ion release and their subsequent biological effects distinct from delivered particulate metallic silver...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054567/hydrogen-sulfide-specifically-alters-nad-p-h-quinone-dehydrogenase-1-nqo1-olfactory-neurons-in-the-rat
#13
Fumiaki Imamura, Timothy K Cooper, Sanae Hasegawa-Ishii, Takashi Sonobe, Philippe Haouzi
The regions of the olfactory epithelium affected by hydrogen sulfide (H2S) toxicity in the rat present a striking similarity with the developmental olfactory zone 1 described in the mouse. This zone which is the only region containing neurons expressing NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1) is involved in complex behavioral responses in rodents, and other mammals, triggered by specific olfactory stimuli. We therefore sought to determine whether (1) olfactory neurons expressing NQO1 are located in the same regions in the rats and in the mice and (2) there is an overlap between olfactory neurons expressing this protein and those affected by the toxicity of H2S...
December 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044184/zebrafish-aversive-taste-co-receptor-is-expressed-in-both-chemo-and-mechanosensory-cells-and-plays-a-role-in-lateral-line-development
#14
Nazia Mojib, Jin Xu, Zinka Bartolek, Barry Imhoff, Nael A McCarty, Chong Hyun Shin, Julia Kubanek
Fishes rely on both chemical and tactile senses to orient themselves to avoid predators, and to detect and taste food. This is likely achieved by highly coordinated reception of signals by mechano- and chemosensory receptors in fish. A small co-receptor from zebrafish, receptor activity modifying protein (RAMP)-like triterpene glycoside receptor (RL-TGR), was previously found to be involved in recognition of triterpene glycosides, a family of naturally occurring compounds that act as chemical defenses in various prey species...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037596/attenuated-chemosensory-responsiveness-of-the-grueneberg-ganglion-in-mouse-pups-at-warm-temperatures
#15
Rosolino Bumbalo, Marilena Lieber, Esther Lehmann, Ines Wolf, Heinz Breer, Joerg Fleischer
Neurons of the Grueneberg ganglion (GG) in the anterior nasal region of mice respond to a small set of odorous compounds, including given dimethylpyrazines present in mouse urine. Consequently, mouse pups living in murine colonies are presumably commonly exposed to such GG-activating substances. Since stimulation of the GG elicits alarm and stress reactions in mice, the question arises whether such a GG activation potentially inducing stress could be reduced when pups might rather feel secure in the presence of their mother...
October 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020985/olfactory-sensory-axons-target-specific-protoglomeruli-in-the-olfactory-bulb-of-zebrafish
#16
Xin Shao, Vanisha Lakhina, Puneet Dang, Ryan P Cheng, Christina L Marcaccio, Jonathan A Raper
BACKGROUND: The axons of Olfactory Sensory Neurons (OSNs) project to reproducible target locations within the Olfactory Bulb (OB), converting odorant experience into a spatial map of neural activity. We characterized the initial targeting of OSN axons in the zebrafish, a model system suitable for studying axonal targeting early in development. In this system the initial targets of OSN axons are a small number of distinct, individually identifiable neuropilar regions called protoglomeruli...
October 11, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981825/the-influence-of-sniffing-on-airflow-and-odorant-deposition-in-the-canine-nasal-cavity
#17
Alex D Rygg, Blaire Van Valkenburgh, Brent A Craven
Nasal airflow plays a critical role in olfaction by transporting odorant from the environment to the olfactory epithelium, where chemical detection occurs. Most studies of olfaction neglect the unsteadiness of sniffing and assume that nasal airflow and odorant transport are "quasi-steady," wherein reality most mammals "sniff." Here, we perform computational fluid dynamics simulations of airflow and odorant deposition in an anatomically accurate model of the coyote (Canis latrans) nasal cavity during quiet breathing, a notional quasi-steady sniff, and unsteady sniffing to: quantify the influence of unsteady sniffing, assess the validity of the quasi-steady assumption, and investigate the functional advantages of sniffing compared to breathing...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974641/adenohypophysis-placodal-precursors-exhibit-distinctive-features-within-the-rostral-preplacodal-ectoderm
#18
Luisa Sanchez-Arrones, África Sandonís, Marcos Julián Cardozo, Paola Bovolenta
Placodes are discrete thickenings of the vertebrate cranial ectoderm that generate morpho-functionally distinct structures, such as the adenohypophysis, olfactory epithelium and lens. All placodes arise from a horseshoe-shaped preplacodal ectoderm in which the precursors of individual placodes are intermingled. However, fate-map studies indicated that cells positioned at the preplacodal midline give rise to only the adenohypophyseal placode, suggesting a unique organization of these precursors within the preplacode...
October 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969258/esthesioneuroblastoma-presenting-with-bilateral-proptosis-and-blindness-in-a-child-a-case-report
#19
Mahdi Shahriari, Nader Shakibazad, Mehrpour Moradi
Esthesioneuroblastoma is a rare malignant tumour of the olfactory epithelium. The most common symptom is related to unilateral nasal obstruction. It rarely presents with bilateral proptosis and blindness. We report a 21-month-old girl with esthesioneuroblastoma in sphenoid and ethmoid sinus in a child presenting with bilateral proptosis, blindness, and irritability. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology.
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964734/behavioral-and-molecular-analyses-of-olfaction-mediated-avoidance-responses-of-rana-lithobates-catesbeiana-tadpoles-sensitivity-to-thyroid-hormones-estrogen-and-treated-municipal-wastewater-effluent
#20
Jody L Heerema, Kevin W Jackman, Rachel C Miliano, Linda Li, Tristan S M Zaborniak, Nik Veldhoen, Graham van Aggelen, Wayne J Parker, Gregory G Pyle, Caren C Helbing
Olfaction is critical for survival, facilitating predator avoidance and food location. The nature of the olfactory system changes during amphibian metamorphosis as the aquatic herbivorous tadpole transitions to a terrestrial, carnivorous frog. Metamorphosis is principally dependent on the action of thyroid hormones (THs), l-thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), yet little is known about their influence on olfaction during this phase of postembryonic development. We exposed Taylor Kollros stage I-XIII Rana (Lithobates) catesbeiana tadpoles to physiological concentrations of T4, T3, or 17-beta-estradiol (E2) for 48h and evaluated a predator cue avoidance response...
October 4, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
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