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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719101/neuronal-degeneration-and-regeneration-induced-by-axotomy-in-the-olfactory-epithelium-of-xenopus-laevis
#1
A S Cervino, D A Paz, J L Frontera
The olfactory epithelium (OE) has the remarkable capability to constantly replace olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) due to the presence of neural stem cells (NSCs). For this reason, the OE provides an excellent model to study neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation. In the present work, we induced neuronal degeneration in the OE of Xenopus laevis larvae by bilateral axotomy of the olfactory nerves. We found that axotomy induces specific- neuronal death through apoptosis between 24 and 48h post-injury. In concordance, there was a progressive decrease of the mature-ORN marker OMP until it was completely absent 72h post-injury...
July 18, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717156/patterned-arrangements-of-olfactory-receptor-gene-expression-in-zebrafish-are-established-by-radial-movement-of-specified-olfactory-sensory-neurons
#2
Xalid Bayramli, Yiğit Kocagöz, Uğurcan Sakizli, Stefan H Fuss
Spatial restriction of olfactory receptor (OR) gene expression in peripheral sense organs is a common phenomenon across species, suggesting that zonal OR expression somehow contributes to olfactory function. In zebrafish OR expression patterns reminiscent of zones occur as concentric domains with preferred diameters for different ORs. However, the function and the developmental origin of the pattern are unknown. Here we investigate olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) neurogenesis in the adult zebrafish olfactory epithelium (OE) to understand how the zonally organized OR pattern is established and maintained during the lifetime of the animal...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696292/acute-inflammation-regulates-neuroregeneration-through-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-olfactory-epithelium
#3
Mengfei Chen, Randall R Reed, Andrew P Lane
Adult neural stem cells/progenitor cells residing in the basal layer of the olfactory epithelium are capable of reconstituting the neuroepithelium even after severe damage. The molecular events underlying this regenerative capacity remain elusive. Here we show that the repair of neuroepithelium after lesioning is accompanied by an acute, but self-limited, inflammatory process. Attenuation of inflammatory cell recruitment and cytokine production by dexamethasone impairs proliferation of progenitor horizontal basal cells (HBCs) and subsequent neuronal differentiation...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684540/suppression-of-ciliary-movements-by-a-hypertonic-stress-in-the-newt-olfactory-receptor-neuron
#4
Yoshihiko Wakazono, Takashi Sakurai, Susumu Terakawa
Olfactory receptor neurons isolated from the newt maintain a high activity of the ciliary beat. A cilium of neuron is so unique that only little is known about regulatory factors for its beat frequency. We examined the olfactory receptor neuron immersed in various extracellular media under the video-enhanced differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope. The activation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels by K+-depolarization or by application of Ca2+ to membrane-permeabilized olfactory cells did not affect the ciliary movement, suggesting that a Ca2+ influx through the cell membrane has no direct effect on the movement...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681530/clarification-of-the-terminology-of-the-olfactory-lamellae-in-chondrichthyes
#5
Sara Ferrando, Lorenzo Gallus, Laura Ghigliotti, Andrea Amaroli, Ghulam Abbas, Marino Vacchi
Several papers regard the anatomy of the peripheral olfactory organ, the olfactory rosette, in the class of Chondrichtyes. The complex shape of this organ and the differences among species give clues to functional, evolutionary, and ecological observations; data on a larger number of species are needed in order to have a more complete insight. The rosette is made up of a central support and of numerous lamellae, which are lined by the sensory epithelium. The size, shape and number of these lamellae, which are highly variable among species, are noteworthy because they affect the sensory surface area, the water dynamic within the olfactory chamber, and the organization of the olfactory bulb...
July 6, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680971/hendra-and-nipah-virus-infection-in-cultured-human-olfactory-epithelial-cells
#6
Viktoriya Borisevich, Mehmet Hakan Ozdener, Bilal Malik, Barry Rockx
Henipaviruses are emerging zoonotic viruses and causative agents of encephalitis in humans. However, the mechanisms of entry into the central nervous system (CNS) in humans are not known. Here, we evaluated the possible role of olfactory epithelium in virus entry into the CNS. We characterized Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) infection of primary human olfactory epithelial cultures. We show that henipaviruses can infect mature olfactory sensory neurons. Henipaviruses replicated efficiently, resulting in cytopathic effect and limited induction of host responses...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637956/cd36-involvement-in-the-olfactory-perception-of-oleic-aldehyde-an-odour-active-volatile-compound-in-mice
#7
Shinhye Lee, Satoshi Tsuzuki, Takahiko Amitsuka, Daisaku Masuda, Shizuya Yamashita, Kazuo Inoue
Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is a broadly expressed transmembrane receptor that has multiple ligands. It has been found to occur abundantly on the surface of the olfactory epithelium in mice and postulated to play a role in mammalian olfaction. However, there have been no ethological analyses of the mammalian behaviour showing CD36 involvement in the olfactory perception of a distinct odour-active volatile compound. In this study, we aimed to assess whether mammals perceive oleic aldehyde, an odour-active volatile that serves as a potential CD36 ligand, and if so, whether CD36 is involved in the sensing by following measurements using CD36-knockout mice and their wild-type littermates...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637720/notch1-maintains-dormancy-of-olfactory-horizontal-basal-cells-a-reserve-neural-stem-cell
#8
Daniel B Herrick, Brian Lin, Jesse Peterson, Nikolai Schnittke, James E Schwob
The remarkable capacity of the adult olfactory epithelium (OE) to regenerate fully both neurosensory and nonneuronal cell types after severe epithelial injury depends on life-long persistence of two stem cell populations: the horizontal basal cells (HBCs), which are quiescent and held in reserve, and mitotically active globose basal cells. It has recently been demonstrated that down-regulation of the ΔN form of the transcription factor p63 is both necessary and sufficient to release HBCs from dormancy. However, the mechanisms by which p63 is down-regulated after acute OE injury remain unknown...
June 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634722/three-novel-bile-alcohols-of-mature-male-sea-lamprey-petromyzon-marinus-act-as-chemical-cues-for-conspecifics
#9
Ke Li, Anne M Scott, Joseph J Riedy, Skye Fissette, Zoe E Middleton, Weiming Li
Sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, rely heavily on chemical cues that mediate their life history events, such as migration and reproduction. Here, we describe petromyzone A-C (1-3), three novel bile alcohols that are highly oxidized and sulfated, isolated from water conditioned with spermiated male sea lamprey. Structures of these compounds were unequivocally established by spectroscopic analyses and by comparison with spectra of known compounds. Electro-olfactogram recordings showed that 1 at 10(-11) M was stimulatory to the adult sea lamprey olfactory epithelium, while 2 and 3 were stimulatory at 10(-13) M...
June 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615477/correction-joiner-and-green-et-al-primary-cilia-on-horizontal-basal-cells-regulate-regeneration-of-the-olfactory-epithelium
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612045/lack-of-trpm5-expressing-microvillous-cells-in-mouse-main-olfactory-epithelium-leads-to-impaired-odor-evoked-responses-and-olfactory-guided-behavior-in-a-challenging-chemical-environment
#11
Kayla Lemons, Ziying Fu, Imad Aoudé, Tatsuya Ogura, Julianna Sun, Justin Chang, Kenechukwu Mbonu, Ichiro Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Arakawa, Weihong Lin
The mammalian main olfactory epithelium (MOE) modifies its activities in response to changes in the chemical environment. This process is essential for maintaining the functions of the olfactory system and the upper airway. However, mechanisms involved in this functional maintenance, especially those occurring via paracrine regulatory pathways within the multicellular MOE, are poorly understood. Previously, a population of non-neuronal, transient receptor potential M5-expressing microvillous cells (TRPM5-MCs) was identified in the MOE, and the initial characterization of these cells showed that they are cholinergic and responsive to various xenobiotics including odorants at high concentrations...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600187/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-influences-migration-and-focal-adhesions-but-not-proliferation-or-viability-of-human-neural-stem-progenitor-cells-derived-from-olfactory-epithelium
#12
Gerardo Bernabé Ramírez-Rodríguez, Gerardo Rodrigo Perera-Murcia, Leonardo Ortiz-López, Nelly Maritza Vega-Rivera, Harish Babu, Maria García-Anaya, Jorge Julio González-Olvera
In humans, new neurons are continuously added in the olfactory epithelium even in the adulthood. The resident neural stem/progenitor cells (hNS/PCs-OE) in the olfactory epithelium are influenced by several growth factors and neurotrophins. Among these modulators the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has attracted attention due its implicated in cell proliferation, survival and migration of other type of neural/stem progenitor cells. Interestingly, VEGFr2 receptor expression in olfactory epithelium has been described in amphibians but not in humans...
June 7, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598844/combustion-derived-nanoparticles-in-key-brain-target-cells-and-organelles-in-young-urbanites-culprit-hidden-in-plain-sight-in-alzheimer-s-disease-development
#13
Angélica González-Maciel, Rafael Reynoso-Robles, Ricardo Torres-Jardón, Partha S Mukherjee, Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas
Millions of children and young adults are exposed to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone, associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. Mexico City (MC) children exhibit systemic and brain inflammation, low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ1-42, breakdown of nasal, olfactory, alveolar-capillary, duodenal, and blood-brain barriers, volumetric and metabolic brain changes, attention and short-term memory deficits, and hallmarks of AD and Parkinson's disease. Airborne iron-rich strongly magnetic combustion-derived nanoparticles (CDNPs) are present in young urbanites' brains...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597915/dissecting-lsd1-dependent-neuronal-maturation-in-the-olfactory-epithelium
#14
Julie H Coleman, Brian Lin, James E Schwob
Neurons in the olfactory epithelium (OE) each express a single dominant olfactory receptor (OR) allele from among roughly 1000 different OR genes. While monogenic and monoallelic OR expression has been appreciated for over two decades, regulators of this process are still being described; most recently, epigenetic modifiers have been of high interest as silent OR genes are decorated with transcriptionally-repressive trimethylated histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3) whereas active OR genes are decorated with transcriptionally-activating trimethylated histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3)...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593111/phantosmia-and-dysgeusia-following-endoscopic-transcribriform-approaches-to-olfactory-groove-meningiomas
#15
Andrew S Venteicher, Jay I Kumar, Emma A Murphy, Stacey T Gray, Eric H Holbrook, William T Curry
The endoscopic, endonasal transcribriform approach (EETA) is an important technique used to directly access the anterior skull base and is increasingly being used in the management of olfactory groove meningiomas (OGMs). As this approach requires removal of the cribriform plate and olfactory epithelium en route to the tumor, patients are anosmic postoperatively. Here, we report the development of phantosmia and dysgeusia in two patients who underwent EETAs for OGMs, which has not yet been reported in the literature...
June 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592157/correlation-between-nasal-epithelial-injury-and-in-vitro-cytotoxicity-using-a-series-of-small-molecule-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-inhibitors-investigated-for-reversal-of-leptin-resistance-in-obesity
#16
Alan P Brown, Chandrassegar Saravanan, Patrick Devine, Maria Magnifico, Jiaping Gao, Valerie Beaulieu, Fupeng Ma, Kayo Yasoshima, David Barnes-Seeman, Ken Yamada
This research provides a cautionary example when evaluating changes in behavioral end points with respect to postulated pharmacologic activity. Various small molecule substrate mimetic protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors were investigated as pharmacologic agents for decreasing food consumption using intranasal (IN) dosing as a means for direct nose-to-brain delivery along the olfactory/trigeminal nerve pathways. Although food consumption was decreased in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, nasal discharge was observed...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588085/an-adenosine-receptor-for-olfaction
#17
Annalisa M VanHook
Extracellular processing of ATP in the fish olfactory epithelium produces adenosine that is perceived by olfactory neurons.
June 6, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542812/modulating-nasal-mucosal-permeation-using-metabolic-saturation-and-enzyme-inhibition-techniques
#18
Varsha Dhamankar, Maureen D Donovan
OBJECTIVE: Presystemic elimination resulting from local enzymatic degradation can play a key role in limiting the bioavailability of intranasally administered drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the transfer of a metabolically susceptible drug across the nasal mucosa to illustrate the relative contributions of drug diffusivity and metabolic susceptibility on overall nasal mucosal permeation and to understand the effects of changes in enzymatic activity on the transfer across nasal epithelial and submucosal tissues...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525560/activity-dependent-gene-expression-in-the-mammalian-olfactory-epithelium
#19
Qiang Wang, William B Titlow, Declan A McClintock, Arnold J Stromberg, Timothy S McClintock
Activity-dependent processes are important to olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in several ways, such as cell survival and the specificity of axonal convergence. The identification of activity-dependent mRNAs has contributed to our understanding of OSN axon convergence, but has revealed surprisingly little about other processes. Published studies of activity-dependent mRNAs in olfactory mucosae overlap poorly, but by combining these agreements with meta-analysis of existing data we identify 443 mRNAs that respond to methods that alter OSN activity...
May 19, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521670/intranasal-drug-delivery-a-non-invasive-approach-for-the-better-delivery-of-neurotherapeutics
#20
Umesh Gupta, Hitesh Kumar, Gaurav Mishra, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Avinash Gothwal, Prashant Kesharwani
BACKGROUND: The convoluted pathophysiology of brain disorders along with penetration issue of drugs to brain represents major hurdle that requires some novel therapies. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) denotes a rigid barrier for delivery of therapeutics in vivo, to overcome this barrier intranasal delivery is an excellent strategy to deliver the drug directly to brain via olfactory and trigeminal nerve pathways that originate as olfactory neuro-epithelium in the nasal cavity and terminate in brain...
May 14, 2017: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
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