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olfactory epithelium

Umberto Crisafulli, André M Xavier, Fabiana B Dos Santos, Tavane D Cambiaghi, Seo Y Chang, Marimélia Porcionatto, Beatriz A Castilho, Bettina Malnic, Isaias Glezer
Chronic inflammatory process in the nasal mucosa is correlated with poor smell perception. Over-activation of immune cells in the olfactory epithelium (OE) is generally associated with loss of olfactory function, and topical steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been largely used for treating such condition. Whether this therapeutic strategy could directly affect the regenerative process in the OE remains unclear. In this study, we show that nasal topical application of dexamethasone (DEX; 200 or 800 ng/nostril), a potent synthetic anti-inflammatory steroid, attenuates OE lesion caused by Gram-negative bacteria lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intranasal infusion...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Daisuke Kondoh, Motoki Sasaki, Nobuo Kitamura
Receptor cells of the olfactory epithelium (OE) and vomeronasal organ (VNO) project axons to glomeruli in the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), respectively and undergo continuous turnover throughout life. Alpha1-2 fucose (α1-2Fuc) glycan mediates neurite outgrowth and synaptic plasticity and plays important roles in the formation of the olfactory system during development. We previously confirmed the localization of α1-2Fuc glycan in the olfactory system of 3- to 4-month-old mice but whether such localization persists throughout life remains unknown...
March 19, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Toshiyasu Matsui, Yasushi Kobayashi
We examined the organization of the olfactory organ and assessed the lectin histochemistry to investigate the glycoconjugate distribution of the olfactory bulb in premetamorphic larvae of Cynops ensicauda. The nasal cavity was an oval chamber that contained olfactory epithelium and a primitive vomeronasal organ. Secretory products were found in the supporting cells of the two sensory epithelia and in the respiratory cells. Ten lectins bound to the olfactory and vomeronasal nerve fibers as well as to the glomeruli in the olfactory bulb...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Deborah J Bird, William J Murphy, Lester Fox-Rosales, Iman Hamid, Robert A Eagle, Blaire Van Valkenburgh
The evolution of mammalian olfaction is manifested in a remarkable diversity of gene repertoires, neuroanatomy and skull morphology across living species. Olfactory receptor genes (ORGs), which initiate the conversion of odorant molecules into odour perceptions and help an animal resolve the olfactory world, range in number from a mere handful to several thousand genes across species. Within the snout, each of these ORGs is exclusively expressed by a discrete population of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), suggesting that newly evolved ORGs may be coupled with new OSN populations in the nasal epithelium...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Godwin Sokpor, Eman Abbas, Joachim Rosenbusch, Jochen F Staiger, Tran Tuoc
The postnatal mammalian olfactory epithelium (OE) represents a major aspect of the peripheral olfactory system. It is a pseudostratified tissue that originates from the olfactory placode and is composed of diverse cells, some of which are specialized receptor neurons capable of transducing odorant stimuli to afford the perception of smell (olfaction). The OE is known to offer a tractable miniature model for studying the systematic generation of neurons and glia that typify neural tissue development. During OE development, stem/progenitor cells that will become olfactory sensory neurons and/or non-neuronal cell types display fine spatiotemporal expression of neuronal and non-neuronal genes that ensures their proper proliferation, differentiation, survival, and regeneration...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Dewaele Aurélie, Persuy Marie-Annick, Badonnel Karine, Meunier Nicolas, Durieux Didier, Castille Johan, Favreau-Peigné Angélique, Baly Christine
Exposure to specific odorants in the womb during pregnancy or in the milk during early nursing is known to impact morpho-functional development of the olfactory circuitry of pups. This can be associated with a modification in olfactory sensitivity and behavioural olfactory-based preferences to the perinatally encountered odorants measured at birth, weaning or adult stage. Effects depend on a multitude of factors, such as odorant type, concentration, administration mode and frequency, as well as timing and mice strain...
March 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Koji Sato, Peter W Sorensen
Although it is well established that the olfactory epithelium of teleost fish detects at least 6 classes of biologically-relevant odorants using five types of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), little is understood about the specificity of individual OSNs and thus how they encode identity of natural odors. In this study we used in vivo extracellular single-unit recording to examine the odor-responsiveness and physiological characteristics of 109 individual OSNs in mature male goldfish to a broad range of biological odorants including feeding stimuli (amino acids, polyamines, nucleotides), sex pheromones (sex steroids, prostaglandins) and a putative social cue (bile acids)...
March 3, 2018: Chemical Senses
Laura Gómez-Virgilio, Gerardo Bernabé Ramírez-Rodríguez, Carmen Sánchez-Torres, Leonardo Ortiz-López, Marco Antonio Meraz-Ríos
Neurogenesis plays a significant role during adulthood, and the observation that neural stem cells reside in the central nervous system and the olfactory epithelium has attracted attention due to their importance in neuronal regeneration. In addition, soluble factors (SFs) release by neural stem cells may modulate the neurogenic process. Thus, in this study, we identified the SFs released by olfactory human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNS/PCs-OE). These cells express Ki67, nestin, and βIII-tubulin, indicating their neural lineage...
March 1, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Rhea Choi, Bradley J Goldstein
Disorders causing a loss of the sense of smell remain a therapeutic challenge. Basic research has, however, greatly expanded our knowledge of the organization and function of the olfactory system. This review describes advances in our understanding of the cellular components of the peripheral olfactory system, specifically the olfactory epithelium in the nose. The article discusses recent findings regarding the mechanisms involved in regeneration and cellular renewal from basal stem cells in the adult olfactory epithelium, considering the strategies involved in embryonic olfactory development and insights from research on other stem cell niches...
February 2018: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
Igor V Klimenkov, Nikolay P Sudakov, Mikhail V Pastukhov, Mikhail M Svinov, Nikolay S Kositsyn
At present, it remains poorly understood how the olfactory neuron migrates through the thick neuroepithelium during its maturation from a stem cell and how it develops a specific sensitivity to environmental odorants after maturation. We investigated the cytochemical features associated with the development of olfactory cells before and after the incorporation of dendrites into the surface of the olfactory epithelium. Using cytochemical staining for the actin cytoskeleton and other cell components, we found that immature neurons acquire a streamlined shape that resembles a «hot-dog» during their migration: a dense layer of actin microfilaments forms beneath the surface membrane of the growing dendrite, and the bulk of the nuclear material moves inside this layer...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sachiko Akiyoshi, Tomohiro Ishii, Zhaodai Bai, Peter Mombaerts
The mouse vomeronasal organ is specialized in the detection of pheromones. Vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) express chemosensory receptors of two large gene repertoires, V1R and V2R, which encode G-protein coupled receptors. Phylogenetically four families of V2R genes can be discerned: A, B, C, and D. VSNs located in the basal layer of the vomeronasal epithelium coordinately coexpress V2R genes from two families: approximately half of basal VSNs coexpress Vmn2r1 of family C with a single V2R gene of family A8-10, B, or D ("C1 type of V2Rs"), and the other half coexpress Vmn2r2 through Vmn2r7 of family C with a single V2R gene of family A1-6 ("C2 type V2Rs")...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Anna-Maria Holl
The main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of an adult mouse harbors a few million mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), which are traditionally defined as mature by their expression of the olfactory marker protein (OMP). Mature OSNs differentiate in situ from stem cells at the base of the MOE. The consensus view is that mature OSNs have a defined lifespan and then undergo programmed cell death, and that the adult MOE maintains homeostasis by generating new mature OSNs from stem cells. But there is also evidence for mature OSNs that are long-lived...
February 7, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Jeffanie Wu, Rakesh K Chandra, Ping Li, Benjamin P Hull, Justin H Turner
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The etiology of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS)-associated olfactory loss is unclear, but may result from inflammatory changes in the olfactory epithelium that result in signaling dysfunction or loss of olfactory neurons. Several proinflammatory cytokines have been associated with CRS, but their expression within the olfactory cleft microenvironment and association with olfactory function is unknown. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective case-control study...
February 8, 2018: Laryngoscope
Georgia K Roberts, Cynthia J Willson, Dorian S Olivera, David E Malarkey, Daniel L Morgan
The C9 alkylbenzenes, composed mostly of ethyltoluenes and trimethylbenzenes, comprise 75-90% of the naphtha fraction of crude oil. Occupational and environmental exposure to C9 alkylbenzenes occur via inhalation. We conducted short-term inhalation studies on the ethyltoluene isomers (2-, 3- or 4-) to select one isomer for more comprehensive studies. Male Hsd:Sprague Dawley rats and female B6C3F1/N mice (n = 10) were exposed by nose-only inhalation to 2-, 3- or 4-ethyltoluene (0, 1000 or 2000 ppm) or cumene (a reference compound: 0, 500 or 1000 ppm) 3 h/day, 5 days/week, for 2 weeks...
January 29, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Annachiara Cavazzana, Sophia C Poletti, Cagdas Guducu, Maria Larsson, Thomas Hummel
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether repetitive aversive odor conditioning induced changes at the level of the peripheral olfactory system in humans. A total of 51 volunteers participated. A pair of indistinguishable odor enantiomers [(+)-rose oxide and (-)-rose oxide] were used as stimuli. During the pre-conditioning, participants' ability to discriminate between the two odors was assessed using a three-alternative, forced-choice discrimination test. In addition, electro-olfactograms (EOG) from the olfactory epithelium were recorded...
January 19, 2018: Neuroscience
Kaisa Koskinen, Johanna L Reichert, Stefan Hoier, Jochen Schachenreiter, Stefanie Duller, Christine Moissl-Eichinger, Veronika Schöpf
Olfactory function is a key sense for human well-being and health, with olfactory dysfunction having been linked to serious diseases. As the microbiome is involved in normal olfactory epithelium development, we explored the relationship between olfactory function (odor threshold, discrimination, identification) and nasal microbiome in 67 healthy volunteers. Twenty-eight subjects were found to have normal olfactory function, 29 had a particularly good sense of smell ("good normosmics") and 10 were hyposmic. Microbial community composition differed significantly between the three olfactory groups...
January 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tamilarasan K Panaliappan, Walter Wittmann, Vijay K Jidigam, Sara Mercurio, Jessica A Bertolini, Soufien Sghari, Raj Bose, Cedric Patthey, Silvia K Nicolis, Lena Gunhaga
The transcription factor Sox2 is necessary to maintain pluripotency of embryonic stem cells, and to regulate neural development. Neurogenesis in the vertebrate olfactory epithelium persists from embryonic stages through adulthood. The role Sox2 plays for the development of the olfactory epithelium and neurogenesis within has, however, not been determined. Here, by analysing Sox2 conditional knockout mouse embryos and chick embryos deprived of Sox2 in the olfactory epithelium using CRISPR-Cas9, we show that Sox2 activity is crucial for the induction of the neural progenitor gene Hes5 and for subsequent differentiation of the neuronal lineage...
January 19, 2018: Development
Jasmina Topcagic, Rebecca Feldman, Anatole Ghazalpour, Jeffrey Swensen, Zoran Gatalica, Semir Vranic
Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a rare, locally aggressive, malignant neoplasm originating in the olfactory epithelium in the nasal vault. The recurrence rate of ONB remains high and there are no specific treatment guidelines for recurrent/metastatic ONBs. This study retrospectively evaluated 23 ONB samples profiled at Caris Life Sciences (Phoenix, Arizona) using DNA sequencing (Sanger/NGS [Illumina], n = 15) and gene fusions (Archer FusionPlex, n = 6), whole genome RNA microarray (HumanHT-12 v4 beadChip, Illumina, n = 4), gene copy number assays (chromogenic and fluorescent in situ hybridization), and immunohistochemistry...
2018: PloS One
Cristina Izquierdo, José C Gómez-Tamayo, Jean-Christophe Nebel, Leonardo Pardo, Angel Gonzalez
Pungent chemical compounds originating from decaying tissue are strong drivers of animal behavior. Two of the best-characterized death smell components are putrescine (PUT) and cadaverine (CAD), foul-smelling molecules produced by decarboxylation of amino acids during decomposition. These volatile polyamines act as 'necromones', triggering avoidance or attractive responses, which are fundamental for the survival of a wide range of species. The few studies that have attempted to identify the cognate receptors for these molecules have suggested the involvement of the seven-helix trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs), localized in the olfactory epithelium...
January 11, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Fengyi Liang
The mammalian olfactory epithelium (OE) sustains persistent neurogenesis even in the adult. Sustentacular cells therein play both epithelial and neuroglial roles, although their relation with olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and their function in ORN maturation remain insufficiently understood. Sustentacular wrapping of ORN dendrites has been long known but always considered a minor presence, as opposed to the supposedly unwrapped majority of ORN dendrites at inter-sustentacular borderlines. Using immunofluorescence, confocal and immuno-electron microscopy, the current study examined cytoarchitectonic organization and maturation of ORN dendrites at the rat OE apical layer...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
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