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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193234/differential-timing-of-neurogenesis-underlies-dorsal-ventral-topographic-projection-of-olfactory-sensory-neurons
#1
Eerdunfu, Naoki Ihara, Bao Ligao, Yuji Ikegaya, Haruki Takeuchi
BACKGROUND: The mammalian primary olfactory system has a spatially-ordered projection in which olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) located in the dorsomedial (DM) and ventrolateral (VL) region of the olfactory epithelium (OE) send their axons to the dorsal and ventral region of the olfactory bulb (OB), respectively. We previously found that OSN axonal projections occur sequentially, from the DM to the VL region of the OE. The differential timing of axonal projections is important for olfactory map formation because early-arriving OSN axons secrete guidance cues at the OB to help navigate late-arriving OSN axons...
February 13, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188885/trpm5-expression-in-the-olfactory-epithelium
#2
Martina Pyrski, Eugenia Eckstein, Andreas Schmid, Bernd Bufe, Jan Weiss, Vladimir Chubanov, Ulrich Boehm, Frank Zufall
The Ca(2+)-activated monovalent cation channel Trpm5 is a key element in chemotransduction of taste receptor cells of the tongue, but the extent to which Trpm5 channels are expressed in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) of the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of adult mice as part of a specific pheromonal detection system is debated. Here, we used a novel Trpm5-IRES-Cre knockin strain to drive Cre recombinase expression, employed previously validated Trpm5 antibodies, performed in situ hybridization experiments to localize Trpm5 RNA, and searched extensively for Trpm5 splice variants in genetically-labeled, Trpm5-expressing MOE cells...
February 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183864/odorant-organization-in-the-olfactory-bulb-of-the-sea-lamprey
#3
Warren W Green, Karl Boyes, Charrie McFadden, Gheylen Daghfous, François Auclair, Huiming Zhang, Weiming Li, Réjean Dubuc, Barbara S Zielinski
Olfactory sensory neurons innervate the olfactory bulb, where responses to different odorants generate a chemotopic map of increased neural activity within different bulbar regions. In this study, insight into the basal pattern of neural organization of the vertebrate olfactory bulb was gained by investigating the lamprey. Retrograde labeling established that lateral and dorsal bulbar territories receive the axons of sensory neurons broadly distributed in the main olfactory epithelium and that the medial region receives sensory neuron input only from neurons projecting from the accessory olfactory organ...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168398/olfactory-neuroblastoma-with-divergent-differentiation-an-unusual-histologic-finding-in-a-rare-tumor
#4
Charles Meyer, Erin R S Hamersley, Rodolfo E Manosalva, Kevin Torske, Nicole McIntyre, Allen Mitchell
Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the sinonasal tract that arises from olfactory epithelium. There have been reports, mainly in tumors treated with chemoradiation or with distant metastases, describing focal histologic changes of divergent cell populations within archetypal ONB. Only three cases have been reported of ONB coexisting with non-neuroendocrine tumors. We describe our experience with a 35-year-old male with a nasal cavity mass extending into the anterior cranial fossa...
February 6, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154525/deletion-of-type-3-adenylyl-cyclase-perturbs-the-postnatal-maturation-of-olfactory-sensory-neurons-and-olfactory-cilium-ultrastructure-in-mice
#5
Zhe Zhang, Dong Yang, Mengdi Zhang, Ning Zhu, Yanfen Zhou, Daniel R Storm, Zhenshan Wang
Type 3 adenylyl cyclase (Adcy3) is localized to the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and is an essential component of the olfactory cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway. Although the role of this enzyme in odor detection and axonal projection in OSNs was previously characterized, researchers will still have to determine its function in the maturation of postnatal OSNs and olfactory cilium ultrastructure. Previous studies on newborns showed that the anatomic structure of the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of Adcy3 knockout mice (Adcy3(-/-)) is indistinguishable from that of their wild-type littermates (Adcy3(+/+)), whereas the architecture and associated composition of MOE are relatively underdeveloped at this early age...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152579/5htr3a-driven-gfp-labels-immature-olfactory-sensory-neurons
#6
Thomas E Finger, Dianna L Bartel, Nicole Shultz, Noah B Goodson, Charles Greer
The ionotropic serotonin receptor, 5-HT3 , is expressed by many developing neurons within the central nervous system. Since the olfactory epithelium continues to generate new olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) throughout life, we investigated the possibility that 5-HT3 is expressed in the adult epithelium. Using a transgenic mouse in which the promoter for the 5-HT3a subunit drives expression of GFP, we assessed the expression of this marker in the olfactory epithelium of adult mice. Both the native 5-HT3a mRNA and GFP are expressed within globose basal cells of the olfactory and vomeronasal epithelium in adult mice...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127759/parasites-and-a-host-s-sense-of-smell-reduced-chemosensory-performance-of-fathead-minnows-pimephales-promelas-infected-with-a-monogenean-parasite
#7
Ebrahim Lari, Cameron P Goater, David K Cone, Greg G Pyle
1.Parasites residing within the central nervous system of their hosts have the potential to reduce various components of host performance, but such effects are rarely evaluated. 2.We assessed the olfactory acuity of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) infected experimentally with the monogenean Dactylogyrus olfactorius, the adults of which live within the host's olfactory chambers. 3.Olfactory acuity was compared between infected and uninfected hosts by assessing electro-olfactography (EOG) neural responses to chemical stimuli that indicate the presence of food (L-alanine) or the presence of conspecifics (taurocholic acid)...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112682/nasal-neuron-pet-imaging-quantifies-neuron-generation-and-degeneration
#8
Genevieve C Van de Bittner, Misha M Riley, Luxiang Cao, Janina Ehses, Scott P Herrick, Emily L Ricq, Hsiao-Ying Wey, Michael J O'Neill, Zeshan Ahmed, Tracey K Murray, Jaclyn E Smith, Changning Wang, Frederick A Schroeder, Mark W Albers, Jacob M Hooker
Olfactory dysfunction is broadly associated with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases and predicts increased mortality rates in healthy individuals. Conventional measurements of olfactory health assess odor processing pathways within the brain and provide a limited understanding of primary odor detection. Quantification of the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), which detect odors within the nasal cavity, would provide insight into the etiology of olfactory dysfunction associated with disease and mortality...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108112/the-olfactory-neural-epithelium-as-a-tool-in-neuroscience
#9
Joëlle Lavoie, Patricia Gassó Astorga, Hadar Segal-Gavish, YeeWen Candace Wu, Youjin Chung, Nicola G Cascella, Akira Sawa, Koko Ishizuka
Capturing both dynamic changes (state) and persistent signatures (trait) directly associated with disease at the molecular level is crucial in modern medicine. The olfactory neural epithelium, easily accessible in clinical settings, is a promising surrogate model in translational brain medicine, complementing the limitations in current engineered cell models.
January 17, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105714/gyrodactylus-salmonis-infection-impairs-the-olfactory-system-of-rainbow-trout
#10
E Lari, G G Pyle
Monogenean worms are ectoparasites that are known to be infectious to a wide variety of fish. Few species of monogenean parasites have been reported in the olfactory chamber of fish in current peer-reviewed literature. However, the impacts of these parasites on the olfactory system are not well understood. In this study, the effects of Gyrodactylus salmonis on the olfactory system structure and performance were investigated in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The olfactory performance of the infected fish was examined using an electro-olfactography (EOG) technique, while the ultrastructure of the olfactory rosette was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM)...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094781/ultrastructure-of-sensilla-of-antennae-and-ovipositor-of-sitotroga-cerealella-lepidoptera-gelechiidae-and-location-of-female-sex-pheromone-gland
#11
Min Ma, Meng-Meng Chang, Yan Lu, Chao-Liang Lei, Feng-Lian Yang
The Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella, is a serious pest of stored grains worldwide. Presently, the best effective control against the moth is to disrupt the sexual communication between sexes. Sexual communication in moths includes two processes in which females produce and release pheromones from the sex pheromone gland and males detect and respond to them with a relatively sophisticated olfactory system in their antennae. To better understand these processes, we studied the ultrastructure of antennal and ovipositor sensilla of S...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077705/processing-of-intraoral-olfactory-and-gustatory-signals-in-the-gustatory-cortex-of-awake-rats
#12
Chad L Samuelsen, Alfredo Fontanini
: The integration of gustatory and olfactory information is essential to the perception of flavor. Human neuroimaging experiments have pointed to the gustatory cortex (GC) as one of the areas involved in mediating flavor perception. Although GC's involvement in encoding the chemical identity and hedonic value of taste stimuli is well studied, it is unknown how single GC neurons process olfactory stimuli emanating from the mouth. In this study, we relied on multielectrode recordings to investigate how single GC neurons respond to intraorally delivered tastants and tasteless odorants dissolved in water and whether/how these two modalities converge in the same neurons...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057532/odorant-receptor-proteins-in-the-mouse-main-olfactory-epithelium-and-olfactory-bulb
#13
Victoria F Low, Peter Mombaerts
In the mouse, odorant receptor proteins (ORs) are G-protein-coupled receptors expressed in mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) of the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). ORs mediate odorant reception at the level of the OSN cilia. Most of the ∼1100 OR genes in the mouse genome are expressed, at the RNA level, in mature OSNs. The literature on antibodies against ORs is limited, and most reports are with antibodies that are not commercially available. Here we have screened 40 commercial antibodies against human and mouse ORs by immunofluorescence staining of coronal cryosections of the MOE of 21-day-old C57BL/6J mice...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011307/the-olfactory-bulb-as-the-entry-site-for-prion-like-propagation-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#14
Nolwen L Rey, Daniel W Wesson, Patrik Brundin
Olfactory deficits are present in numerous neurodegenerative disorders and are accompanied by pathology in related brain regions. In several of these disorders, olfactory disturbances appear early and are considered as prodromal symptoms of the disease. In addition, pathological protein aggregates affect olfactory regions prior to other regions, suggesting that the olfactory system might be particularly vulnerable to neurodegenerative diseases. Exposed to the external environment, the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb allow pathogen and toxin penetration into the brain, a process that has been proposed to play a role in neurodegenerative diseases...
December 20, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993691/effects-of-znso4-induced-peripheral-anosmia-on-zebrafish-behavior-and-physiology
#15
Murilo S Abreu, Ana C V V Giacomini, Rubens Rodriguez, Allan V Kalueff, Leonardo J G Barcellos
Olfaction plays a key role in modulating behavioral and physiological responses of various animal species, including fishes. Olfactory deficits can be induced in fish experimentally, and utilized to examine the role of olfaction in their normal and pathological behaviors. Here, we examine whether experimental anosmia, evoked by ZnSO4 in adult zebrafish can be associated with behavioral and/or physiological responses. We show that experimental ZnSO4-induced anosmia caused acute, but not prolonged, anxiogenic-like effects on zebrafish behavior tested in the novel tank test...
December 16, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992776/differential-response-of-olfactory-sensory-neuron-populations-to-copper-ion-exposure-in-zebrafish
#16
Maurizio Lazzari, Simone Bettini, Liliana Milani, Maria Gabriella Maurizii, Valeria Franceschini
The peripheral olfactory system of fish is in direct contact with the external aqueous environment, so dissolved contaminants can easily impair sensory functions and cause neurobehavioral injuries. The olfactory epithelium of fish is arranged in lamellae forming a rosette in the olfactory cavity and contains three main types of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs): ciliated (cOSNs) and microvillous olfactory sensory neurons (mOSNs), common to all vertebrates, and a third minor group of olfactory neurons, crypt cells, absent in tetrapods...
February 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990576/coordinated-shift-of-olfactory-amino-acid-responses-and-v2r-expression-to-an-amphibian-water-nose-during-metamorphosis
#17
Adnan S Syed, Alfredo Sansone, Thomas Hassenklöver, Ivan Manzini, Sigrun I Korsching
All olfactory receptors identified in teleost fish are expressed in a single sensory surface, whereas mammalian olfactory receptor gene families segregate into different olfactory organs, chief among them the main olfactory epithelium expressing ORs and TAARs, and the vomeronasal organ expressing V1Rs and V2Rs. A transitional stage is embodied by amphibians, with their vomeronasal organ expressing more 'modern', later diverging V2Rs, whereas more 'ancient', earlier diverging V2Rs are expressed in the main olfactory epithelium...
December 18, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979773/zinc-gluconate-toxicity-in-wild-type-vs-mt1-2-deficient-mice
#18
Heidi Hsieh, Michael C Horwath, Mary Beth Genter
Previous studies have suggested that oral zinc supplementation can help reduce the duration of the common cold; however, the use of intranasal (IN) zinc is strongly associated with anosmia, or the loss of the sense of smell, in humans. Prior studies from this lab showed that upregulation of metallothioneins (MT) is a rapid and robust response to zinc gluconate (ZG). Therefore, we assessed the role of MT in the recovery of nasal epithelial damage resulting from IN zinc administration. The main studies in this investigation used a high dose of ZG (170mM) to ensure ablation of the olfactory mucosa, so that the progression of histological and functional recovery could be assessed...
December 12, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943232/distinct-presence-of-the-tight-junction-protein-claudin-3-in-olfactory-bulb-and-fila-olfactoria-of-the-mouse
#19
Elisabeth Eppler, Magdalena Müller-Gerbl, I Piotr Maly
The tight junction protein claudin-3 is overexpressed in diverse epithelial tumours and is associated with increased survival, progression and motility of tumour cells. Claudin-3 expression profiles are being increasingly used for diagnostic and prognostic tumour classification. Claudin-3 has been identified as a receptor for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin, which is under consideration for selective lysis of claudin-3-expressing tumours, particularly brain metastases, and other translational medicine uses...
December 12, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939274/helional-induced-activation-of-human-olfactory-receptor-2j3-promotes-apoptosis-and-inhibits-proliferation-in-a-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cell-line
#20
Benjamin Kalbe, Viola Maria Schulz, Marian Schlimm, Stathis Philippou, Nikolina Jovancevic, Fabian Jansen, Paul Scholz, Hermann Lübbert, Marvin Jarocki, Andreas Faissner, Erich Hecker, Sophie Veitinger, Teresa Tsai, Sabrina Osterloh, Hanns Hatt
Studies within the last decade have localized the functional expression of olfactory receptors (ORs) to cells outside of the olfactory epithelium. In human hepatocarcinoma and prostate cancer cells, the activation of ORs by odors modulates elementary physiological processes and leads to an inhibitory effect on proliferation. Cells of the respiratory tract are in direct contact with the surrounding air, in which a myriad of volatile molecules, especially odors, are present. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has a high prevalence, a high mortality rate and is difficult to treat...
January 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
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