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olfactory epithelium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333692/application-of-olfactory-tissue-and-its-neural-progenitors-to-schizophrenia-and-psychiatric-research
#1
Joëlle Lavoie, Akira Sawa, Koko Ishizuka
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review article is to introduce olfactory epithelium-derived cell/tissue models as a promising surrogate system to study the molecular mechanisms implicated in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we particularly focus on the utility of their neural progenitors. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent investigations of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia using olfactory epithelium-derived tissue/cell models have provided insights about schizophrenia-associated alterations in neurodevelopment, stress response, and gene/protein expression regulatory pathways...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333390/epithelial-crypts-a-complex-and-enigmatic-olfactory-organ-in-african-and-south-american-lungfish-lepidosireniformes-dipnoi
#2
Carolin Wittmer, Christine Nowack
African lungfish (Protopterus) seem unique among osteognathostomes in possessing a potential vomeronasal organ homolog in form of accessory epithelial crypts within their nasal cavity. Many details regarding structural and functional properties of these crypts are still unexplored. In this study, we reinvestigate the issue and also present the first data on epithelial crypts in the South American lungfish Lepidosiren paradoxa. The nasal cavities of L. paradoxa and Protopterus annectens were studied using histology, scanning electron microscopy, and alcian blue and PAS staining...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299654/roles-of-runx-genes-in-nervous-system-development
#3
Jae Woong Wang, Stefano Stifani
Runt-related (Runx) transcription factors play essential roles during development and adult tissue homeostasis and are responsible for several human diseases. They regulate a variety of biological mechanisms in numerous cell lineages. Recent years have seen significant progress in our understanding of the functions performed by Runx proteins in the developing and postnatal mammalian nervous system. In both central and peripheral nervous systems, Runx1 and Runx3 display remarkably specific expression in mostly non-overlapping groups of postmitotic neurons...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270833/regulatory-features-for-odorant-receptor-genes-in-the-mouse-genome
#4
REVIEW
Andrea Degl'Innocenti, Anna D'Errico
The odorant receptor genes, seven transmembrane receptor genes constituting the vastest mammalian gene multifamily, are expressed monogenically and monoallelicaly in each sensory neuron in the olfactory epithelium. This characteristic, often referred to as the one neuron-one receptor rule, is driven by mostly uncharacterized molecular dynamics, generally named odorant receptor gene choice. Much attention has been paid by the scientific community to the identification of sequences regulating the expression of odorant receptor genes within their loci, where related genes are usually arranged in genomic clusters...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268047/gross-anatomy-and-histology-of-the-olfactory-rosette-of-the-shark-heptranchias-perlo
#5
Sara Ferrando, Lorenzo Gallus, Andrea Amaroli, Chiara Gambardella, Baradi Waryani, Davide Di Blasi, Marino Vacchi
Sharks belonging to the family Hexanchidae have six or seven gill slits, unlike all other elasmobranchs, which have five gill slits. Their olfactory organs have a round shape, which is common for holocephalans, but not for elasmobranchs. Thus, the shape of the olfactory organ represents a further, less striking, peculiarity of this family among elasmobranchs. Despite that, the microscopic anatomy and histology of the olfactory organ have not yet been studied in any species of this family. Here, an anatomical and histological description of the olfactory organ of the sharpnose sevengill shark Heptranchias perlo is given...
February 17, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251320/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-cigarette-smoking-on-the-olfactory-neuroepithelium-of-new-zealand-white-rabbit-using-scanning-electron-microscope
#6
Nagi M Iskander, Diaa M El-Hennawi, Tarek F Yousef, Mohammed T El-Tabbakh, Tarek A Elnahriry
To detect ultra-structural changes of Rabbit's olfactory neuro-epithelium using scanning electron microscope after exposure to cigarette smoking. Sixty six rabbits (Pathogen free New Zealand white rabbits weighing 1-1.5 kg included in the study were randomly assigned into one of three groups: control group did not expose to cigarette smoking, study group 1 was exposed to cigarette smoking for 3 months and study group 2 was exposed to cigarette smoking 3 months and then stopped for 2 months. Olfactory neuro-epithelium from all rabbits were dissected and examined under Philips XL-30 scanning electron microscope...
March 1, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193234/differential-timing-of-neurogenesis-underlies-dorsal-ventral-topographic-projection-of-olfactory-sensory-neurons
#7
Eerdunfu, Naoki Ihara, Bao Ligao, Yuji Ikegaya, Haruki Takeuchi
BACKGROUND: The mammalian primary olfactory system has a spatially-ordered projection in which olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) located in the dorsomedial (DM) and ventrolateral (VL) region of the olfactory epithelium (OE) send their axons to the dorsal and ventral region of the olfactory bulb (OB), respectively. We previously found that OSN axonal projections occur sequentially, from the DM to the VL region of the OE. The differential timing of axonal projections is important for olfactory map formation because early-arriving OSN axons secrete guidance cues at the OB to help navigate late-arriving OSN axons...
February 13, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188885/trpm5-expression-in-the-olfactory-epithelium
#8
Martina Pyrski, Eugenia Eckstein, Andreas Schmid, Bernd Bufe, Jan Weiss, Vladimir Chubanov, Ulrich Boehm, Frank Zufall
The Ca(2+)-activated monovalent cation channel Trpm5 is a key element in chemotransduction of taste receptor cells of the tongue, but the extent to which Trpm5 channels are expressed in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) of the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of adult mice as part of a specific pheromonal detection system is debated. Here, we used a novel Trpm5-IRES-Cre knockin strain to drive Cre recombinase expression, employed previously validated Trpm5 antibodies, performed in situ hybridization experiments to localize Trpm5 RNA, and searched extensively for Trpm5 splice variants in genetically-labeled, Trpm5-expressing MOE cells...
February 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183864/odorant-organization-in-the-olfactory-bulb-of-the-sea-lamprey
#9
Warren W Green, Karl Boyes, Charrie McFadden, Gheylen Daghfous, François Auclair, Huiming Zhang, Weiming Li, Réjean Dubuc, Barbara S Zielinski
Olfactory sensory neurons innervate the olfactory bulb, where responses to different odorants generate a chemotopic map of increased neural activity within different bulbar regions. In this study, insight into the basal pattern of neural organization of the vertebrate olfactory bulb was gained by investigating the lamprey. Retrograde labeling established that lateral and dorsal bulbar territories receive the axons of sensory neurons broadly distributed in the main olfactory epithelium and that the medial region receives sensory neuron input only from neurons projecting from the accessory olfactory organ...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168398/olfactory-neuroblastoma-with-divergent-differentiation-an-unusual-histologic-finding-in-a-rare-tumor
#10
Charles Meyer, Erin R S Hamersley, Rodolfo E Manosalva, Kevin Torske, Nicole McIntyre, Allen Mitchell
Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the sinonasal tract that arises from olfactory epithelium. There have been reports, mainly in tumors treated with chemoradiation or with distant metastases, describing focal histologic changes of divergent cell populations within archetypal ONB. Only three cases have been reported of ONB coexisting with non-neuroendocrine tumors. We describe our experience with a 35-year-old male with a nasal cavity mass extending into the anterior cranial fossa...
February 6, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154525/deletion-of-type-3-adenylyl-cyclase-perturbs-the-postnatal-maturation-of-olfactory-sensory-neurons-and-olfactory-cilium-ultrastructure-in-mice
#11
Zhe Zhang, Dong Yang, Mengdi Zhang, Ning Zhu, Yanfen Zhou, Daniel R Storm, Zhenshan Wang
Type 3 adenylyl cyclase (Adcy3) is localized to the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and is an essential component of the olfactory cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway. Although the role of this enzyme in odor detection and axonal projection in OSNs was previously characterized, researchers will still have to determine its function in the maturation of postnatal OSNs and olfactory cilium ultrastructure. Previous studies on newborns showed that the anatomic structure of the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of Adcy3 knockout mice (Adcy3(-/-)) is indistinguishable from that of their wild-type littermates (Adcy3(+/+)), whereas the architecture and associated composition of MOE are relatively underdeveloped at this early age...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152579/5htr3a-driven-gfp-labels-immature-olfactory-sensory-neurons
#12
Thomas E Finger, Dianna L Bartel, Nicole Shultz, Noah B Goodson, Charles A Greer
The ionotropic serotonin receptor, 5-HT3 , is expressed by many developing neurons within the central nervous system. Since the olfactory epithelium continues to generate new olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) throughout life, we investigated the possibility that 5-HT3 is expressed in the adult epithelium. Using a transgenic mouse in which the promoter for the 5-HT3a subunit drives expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP), we assessed the expression of this marker in the olfactory epithelium of adult mice...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127759/parasites-and-a-host-s-sense-of-smell-reduced-chemosensory-performance-of-fathead-minnows-pimephales-promelas-infected-with-a-monogenean-parasite
#13
Ebrahim Lari, Cameron P Goater, David K Cone, Greg G Pyle
1.Parasites residing within the central nervous system of their hosts have the potential to reduce various components of host performance, but such effects are rarely evaluated. 2.We assessed the olfactory acuity of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) infected experimentally with the monogenean Dactylogyrus olfactorius, the adults of which live within the host's olfactory chambers. 3.Olfactory acuity was compared between infected and uninfected hosts by assessing electro-olfactography (EOG) neural responses to chemical stimuli that indicate the presence of food (L-alanine) or the presence of conspecifics (taurocholic acid)...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112682/nasal-neuron-pet-imaging-quantifies-neuron-generation-and-degeneration
#14
Genevieve C Van de Bittner, Misha M Riley, Luxiang Cao, Janina Ehses, Scott P Herrick, Emily L Ricq, Hsiao-Ying Wey, Michael J O'Neill, Zeshan Ahmed, Tracey K Murray, Jaclyn E Smith, Changning Wang, Frederick A Schroeder, Mark W Albers, Jacob M Hooker
Olfactory dysfunction is broadly associated with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases and predicts increased mortality rates in healthy individuals. Conventional measurements of olfactory health assess odor processing pathways within the brain and provide a limited understanding of primary odor detection. Quantification of the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), which detect odors within the nasal cavity, would provide insight into the etiology of olfactory dysfunction associated with disease and mortality...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108112/the-olfactory-neural-epithelium-as-a-tool-in-neuroscience
#15
Joëlle Lavoie, Patricia Gassó Astorga, Hadar Segal-Gavish, YeeWen Candace Wu, Youjin Chung, Nicola G Cascella, Akira Sawa, Koko Ishizuka
Capturing both dynamic changes (state) and persistent signatures (trait) directly associated with disease at the molecular level is crucial in modern medicine. The olfactory neural epithelium, easily accessible in clinical settings, is a promising surrogate model in translational brain medicine, complementing the limitations in current engineered cell models.
February 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105714/gyrodactylus-salmonis-infection-impairs-the-olfactory-system-of-rainbow-trout
#16
E Lari, G G Pyle
Monogenean worms are ectoparasites that are known to be infectious to a wide variety of fish. Few species of monogenean parasites have been reported in the olfactory chamber of fish in current peer-reviewed literature. However, the impacts of these parasites on the olfactory system are not well understood. In this study, the effects of Gyrodactylus salmonis on the olfactory system structure and performance were investigated in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The olfactory performance of the infected fish was examined using an electro-olfactography (EOG) technique, while the ultrastructure of the olfactory rosette was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM)...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094781/ultrastructure-of-sensilla-of-antennae-and-ovipositor-of-sitotroga-cerealella-lepidoptera-gelechiidae-and-location-of-female-sex-pheromone-gland
#17
Min Ma, Meng-Meng Chang, Yan Lu, Chao-Liang Lei, Feng-Lian Yang
The Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella, is a serious pest of stored grains worldwide. Presently, the best effective control against the moth is to disrupt the sexual communication between sexes. Sexual communication in moths includes two processes in which females produce and release pheromones from the sex pheromone gland and males detect and respond to them with a relatively sophisticated olfactory system in their antennae. To better understand these processes, we studied the ultrastructure of antennal and ovipositor sensilla of S...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077705/processing-of-intraoral-olfactory-and-gustatory-signals-in-the-gustatory-cortex-of-awake-rats
#18
Chad L Samuelsen, Alfredo Fontanini
The integration of gustatory and olfactory information is essential to the perception of flavor. Human neuroimaging experiments have pointed to the gustatory cortex (GC) as one of the areas involved in mediating flavor perception. Although GC's involvement in encoding the chemical identity and hedonic value of taste stimuli is well studied, it is unknown how single GC neurons process olfactory stimuli emanating from the mouth. In this study, we relied on multielectrode recordings to investigate how single GC neurons respond to intraorally delivered tastants and tasteless odorants dissolved in water and whether/how these two modalities converge in the same neurons...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057532/odorant-receptor-proteins-in-the-mouse-main-olfactory-epithelium-and-olfactory-bulb
#19
Victoria F Low, Peter Mombaerts
In the mouse, odorant receptor proteins (ORs) are G-protein-coupled receptors expressed in mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) of the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). ORs mediate odorant reception at the level of the OSN cilia. Most of the ∼1100 OR genes in the mouse genome are expressed, at the RNA level, in mature OSNs. The literature on antibodies against ORs is limited, and most reports are with antibodies that are not commercially available. Here we have screened 40 commercial antibodies against human and mouse ORs by immunofluorescence staining of coronal cryosections of the MOE of 21-day-old C57BL/6J mice...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011307/the-olfactory-bulb-as-the-entry-site-for-prion-like-propagation-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#20
Nolwen L Rey, Daniel W Wesson, Patrik Brundin
Olfactory deficits are present in numerous neurodegenerative disorders and are accompanied by pathology in related brain regions. In several of these disorders, olfactory disturbances appear early and are considered as prodromal symptoms of the disease. In addition, pathological protein aggregates affect olfactory regions prior to other regions, suggesting that the olfactory system might be particularly vulnerable to neurodegenerative diseases. Exposed to the external environment, the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb allow pathogen and toxin penetration into the brain, a process that has been proposed to play a role in neurodegenerative diseases...
December 20, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
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