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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324814/comprehensive-molecular-profiling-of-advanced-metastatic-olfactory-neuroblastomas
#1
Jasmina Topcagic, Rebecca Feldman, Anatole Ghazalpour, Jeffrey Swensen, Zoran Gatalica, Semir Vranic
Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a rare, locally aggressive, malignant neoplasm originating in the olfactory epithelium in the nasal vault. The recurrence rate of ONB remains high and there are no specific treatment guidelines for recurrent/metastatic ONBs. This study retrospectively evaluated 23 ONB samples profiled at Caris Life Sciences (Phoenix, Arizona) using DNA sequencing (Sanger/NGS [Illumina], n = 15) and gene fusions (Archer FusionPlex, n = 6), whole genome RNA microarray (HumanHT-12 v4 beadChip, Illumina, n = 4), gene copy number assays (chromogenic and fluorescent in situ hybridization), and immunohistochemistry...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324768/identifying-human-diamine-sensors-for-death-related-putrescine-and-cadaverine-molecules
#2
Cristina Izquierdo, José C Gómez-Tamayo, Jean-Christophe Nebel, Leonardo Pardo, Angel Gonzalez
Pungent chemical compounds originating from decaying tissue are strong drivers of animal behavior. Two of the best-characterized death smell components are putrescine (PUT) and cadaverine (CAD), foul-smelling molecules produced by decarboxylation of amino acids during decomposition. These volatile polyamines act as 'necromones', triggering avoidance or attractive responses, which are fundamental for the survival of a wide range of species. The few studies that have attempted to identify the cognate receptors for these molecules have suggested the involvement of the seven-helix trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs), localized in the olfactory epithelium...
January 11, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313978/olfactory-receptor-neuronal-dendrites-become-mostly-intra-sustentacularly-enwrapped-upon-maturity
#3
Fengyi Liang
The mammalian olfactory epithelium (OE) sustains persistent neurogenesis even in the adult. Sustentacular cells therein play both epithelial and neuroglial roles, although their relation with olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and their function in ORN maturation remain insufficiently understood. Sustentacular wrapping of ORN dendrites has been long known but always considered a minor presence, as opposed to the supposedly unwrapped majority of ORN dendrites at inter-sustentacular borderlines. Using immunofluorescence, confocal and immuno-electron microscopy, the current study examined cytoarchitectonic organization and maturation of ORN dendrites at the rat OE apical layer...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301263/applications-and-advances-in-bioelectronic-noses-for-odour-sensing
#4
REVIEW
Tran Thi Dung, Yunkwang Oh, Seon-Jin Choi, Min-Kyu Oh, Moonil Kim, Il-Doo Kim
A bioelectronic nose, an intelligent chemical sensor array system coupled with bio-receptors to identify gases and vapours, resembles mammalian olfaction by which many vertebrates can sniff out volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sensitively and specifically even at very low concentrations. Olfaction is undertaken by the olfactory system, which detects odorants that are inhaled through the nose where they come into contact with the olfactory epithelium containing olfactory receptors (ORs). Because of its ability to mimic biological olfaction, a bio-inspired electronic nose has been used to detect a variety of important compounds in complex environments...
January 1, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277310/mechanism-of-intranasal-drug-delivery-directly-to-the-brain
#5
REVIEW
Tyler P Crowe, M Heather West Greenlee, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Walter H Hsu
Neurological diseases are becoming increasingly prominent worldwide due to rapidly aging populations, which greatly contributes to increasing healthcare costs. The development of neuroprotective drugs has so far proven exceptionally difficult due to the blood-brain barrier. One novel approach to address this challenge is to administer drugs intranasally to noninvasively bypass the blood-brain barrier. The intranasal route can thus transport drugs directly to the brain from the nasal cavity along the olfactory and trigeminal nerves...
December 22, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261701/pegylation-of-zinc-nanoparticles-amplifies-their-ability-to-enhance-olfactory-responses-to-odorant
#6
Melissa Singletary, Samantha Hagerty, Shin Muramoto, Yasmine Daniels, William A MacCrehan, Gheorghe Stan, June W Lau, Oleg Pustovyy, Ludmila Globa, Edward E Morrison, Iryna Sorokulova, Vitaly Vodyanoy
Olfactory responses are intensely enhanced with the addition of endogenous and engineered primarily-elemental small zinc nanoparticles (NPs). With aging, oxidation of these Zn nanoparticles eliminated the observed enhancement. The design of a polyethylene glycol coating to meet storage requirements of engineered zinc nanoparticles is evaluated to achieve maximal olfactory benefit. The zinc nanoparticles were covered with 1000 g/mol or 400 g/mol molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG). Non-PEGylated and PEGylated zinc nanoparticles were tested by electroolfactogram with isolated rat olfactory epithelium and odorant responses evoked by the mixture of eugenol, ethyl butyrate and (±) carvone after storage at 278 K (5 oC), 303 K (30 oC) and 323 K (50 oC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239337/globose-basal-cells-for-spinal-cord-regeneration
#7
Durai Murugan Muniswami, Indirani Kanakasabapathy, George Tharion
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition with loss of motor and sensory functions below the injury level. Cell based therapies are experimented in pre-clinical studies around the world. Neural stem cells are located intra-cranially in subventricular zone and hippocampus which are highly invasive sources. The olfactory epithelium is a neurogenic tissue where neurogenesis takes place throughout the adult life by a population of stem/progenitor cells. Easily accessible olfactory neuroepithelial stem/progenitor cells are an attractive cell source for transplantation in SCI...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234276/functional-reintegration-of-sensory-neurons-and-transitional-dendritic-reduction-of-mitral-tufted-cells-during-injury-induced-recovery-of-the-larval-xenopus-olfactory-circuit
#8
Sara J Hawkins, Lukas Weiss, Thomas Offner, Katarina Dittrich, Thomas Hassenklöver, Ivan Manzini
Understanding the mechanisms involved in maintaining lifelong neurogenesis has a clear biological and clinical interest. In the present study, we performed olfactory nerve transection on larval Xenopus to induce severe damage to the olfactory circuitry. We surveyed the timing of the degeneration, subsequent rewiring and functional regeneration of the olfactory system following injury. A range of structural labeling techniques and functional calcium imaging were performed on both tissue slices and whole brain preparations...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234275/insulin-modulates-neural-activity-of-pyramidal-neurons-in-the-anterior-piriform-cortex
#9
Yang Zhou, Xiaojie Wang, Tiantian Cao, Jinshan Xu, Dejuan Wang, Diego Restrepo, Anan Li
Insulin is an important peptide hormone that regulates food intake and olfactory function. While a multitude of studies investigated the effect of insulin in the olfactory bulb and olfactory epithelium, research on how it modulates higher olfactory centers is lacking. Here we investigate how insulin modulates neural activity of pyramidal neurons in the anterior piriform cortex, a key olfactory signal processing center that plays important roles in odor perception, preference learning, and odor pattern separation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220660/plasticity-in-olfactory-epithelium-is-it-a-sniffer-or-shape-shifter
#10
Arvind Konkimalla, Purushothama Rao Tata
Precise lineage trajectories and the cellular sources that contribute to regeneration after injury are largely unknown in many tissues. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Gadye et al. (2017) and Lin et al. (2017) show that olfactory epithelial cells transit through unique and unfamiliar paths of differentiation and undergo lineage reversion, respectively, during regeneration.
December 7, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179263/odorant-receptors-containing-conserved-amino-acid-sequences-in-transmembrane-domain-7-display-distinct-expression-patterns-in-mammalian-tissues
#11
Sang Eun Ryu, Tammy Shim, Ju-Yeon Yi, So Yeun Kim, Sun Hwa Park, Sung Won Kim, Gabriele V Ronnett, Cheil Moon
Mammalian genomes are well established, and highly conserved regions within odorant receptors that are unique from other G-protein coupled receptors have been identified. Numerous functional studies have focused on specific conserved amino acids motifs, however, not all conserved motifs have been sufficiently characterized. Here, we identified a highly conserved 18 amino acid sequence motif within transmembrane domain seven (CAS-TM7) which was identified by aligning odorant receptor sequences. Next, we investigated the expression pattern and distribution of this conserved amino acid motif among a broad range of odorant receptors...
November 23, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179035/generation-of-a-talen-mediated-p63-knock-in-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#12
Yuki Kobayashi, Ryuhei Hayashi, Andrew J Quantock, Kohji Nishida
The expression of p63 in surface ectodermal cells during development of the cornea, skin, oral mucosa and olfactory placodes is integral to the process of cellular self-renewal and the maintenance of the epithelial stem cell status. Here, we used TALEN technology to generate a p63 knock-in (KI) human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cell line in which p63 expression can be visualized via enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression. The KI-hiPS cells maintained pluripotency and expressed the stem cell marker gene, ΔNp63α...
October 31, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174333/injury-activates-transient-olfactory-stem-cell-states-with-diverse-lineage-capacities
#13
Levi Gadye, Diya Das, Michael A Sanchez, Kelly Street, Ariane Baudhuin, Allon Wagner, Michael B Cole, Yoon Gi Choi, Nir Yosef, Elizabeth Purdom, Sandrine Dudoit, Davide Risso, John Ngai, Russell B Fletcher
Tissue homeostasis and regeneration are mediated by programs of adult stem cell renewal and differentiation. However, the mechanisms that regulate stem cell fates under such widely varying conditions are not fully understood. Using single-cell techniques, we assessed the transcriptional changes associated with stem cell self-renewal and differentiation and followed the maturation of stem cell-derived clones using sparse lineage tracing in the regenerating mouse olfactory epithelium. Following injury, quiescent olfactory stem cells rapidly shift to activated, transient states unique to regeneration and tailored to meet the demands of injury-induced repair, including barrier formation and proliferation...
November 17, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174332/injury-induces-endogenous-reprogramming-and-dedifferentiation-of-neuronal-progenitors-to-multipotency
#14
Brian Lin, Julie H Coleman, Jesse N Peterson, Matthew J Zunitch, Woochan Jang, Daniel B Herrick, James E Schwob
Adult neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium is often depicted as a unidirectional pathway during homeostasis and repair. We challenge the unidirectionality of this model by showing that epithelial injury unlocks the potential for Ascl1+ progenitors and Neurog1+ specified neuronal precursors to dedifferentiate into multipotent stem/progenitor cells that contribute significantly to tissue regeneration in the murine olfactory epithelium (OE). We characterize these dedifferentiating cells using several lineage-tracing strains and single-cell mRNA-seq, and we show that Sox2 is required for initiating dedifferentiation and that inhibition of Ezh2 promotes multipotent progenitor expansion...
November 20, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128614/gene-expression-profiling-in-colon-of-mice-exposed-to-food-additive-titanium-dioxide-e171
#15
Héloïse Proquin, Marlon J Jetten, Marloes C M Jonkhout, Luis G Garduño-Balderas, Jacob J Briedé, Theo M de Kok, Yolanda I Chirino, Henk van Loveren
Dietary factors that may influence the risks of colorectal cancer, including specific supplements, are under investigation. Previous studies showed the capacity of food additive titanium dioxide (E171) to induce DNA damage in vitro and facilitate growth of colorectal tumours in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind these effects after E171 exposure. BALB/c mice were exposed by gavage to 5 mg/kgbw/day of E171 for 2, 7, 14, and 21 days. Transcriptome changes were studied by whole genome mRNA microarray analysis on the mice's distal colons...
November 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122676/a-six-gene-expression-toolbox-for-the-glands-epithelium-and-chondrocytes-in-the-mouse-nasal-cavity
#16
Yong Wan, Matthew B Rogers, Heather L Szabo-Rogers
The nose is the central feature of the amniote face. In adults, the nose is a structurally and functionally complex organ that consists of bone, cartilage, glands and ducts. In an ongoing expression screen in our lab, we found several novel markers for specific tissues in the nasal region. Here, using in situ hybridization expression experiments, we report that Alx1, Ap-2β, Crispld1, Eya4, Moxd1, and Penk have tissue specific expression during murine nasal development. At E11.5, we observed that Alx1, Ap-2β, Crispld1, and Eya4 are expressed in the medial and lateral nasal prominences...
November 6, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118104/conditional-deletion-of-ric-8b-in-olfactory-sensory-neurons-leads-to-olfactory-impairment
#17
Cleiton F Machado, Maíra H Nagai, Cassandra S Lyra, Thiago M Reis-Silva, André Machado Xavier, Isaias Glezer, Luciano F Felicio, Bettina Malnic
The olfactory system can discriminate a vast number of odorants. This ability derives from the existence of a large family of odorant receptors expressed in the cilia of the olfactory sensory neurons. Odorant receptors signal through the olfactory-specific G-protein subunit, Gαolf. Ric-8b, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, interacts with Gαolf and can amplify odorant receptor signal transduction in vitro To explore the function of Ric-8b in vivo, we generated a tissue specific knockout mouse by crossing OMP-Cre transgenic mice to Ric-8b floxed mice...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116664/unraveling-the-biology-of-bipolar-disorder-using-induced-pluripotent-stem-derived-neurons
#18
REVIEW
Nathaniel D Miller, John R Kelsoe
OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder has been studied from numerous angles, from pathological studies to large-scale genomic studies, overall making moderate gains toward an understanding of the disorder. With the advancement of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology, in vitro models based on patient samples are now available that inherently incorporate the complex genetic variants that largely are the basis for this disorder. A number of groups are starting to apply iPS technology to the study of bipolar disorder...
November 8, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107942/differential-expression-of-micrornas-among-cell-populations-in-the-regenerating-adult-mouse-olfactory-epithelium
#19
Sarah Kurtenbach, Wen Ding, Garrett M Goss, Joshua M Hare, Bradley J Goldstein, Lina A Shehadeh
Despite a robust capacity for adult neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium (OE), olfactory sensory losses are common. Identification of mechanisms regulating adult OE neurogenesis is, therefore, of interest. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are broadly important in regulating vertebrate neurodevelopment, and are required in embryonic olfactory differentiation. We report here that a panel of miRNAs is differentially expressed by either progenitor or progeny cells in the regenerating mouse OE. Progenitor cells were purified from lesioned OE based on c-Kit expression, and miRNA expression was assayed in c-Kit (+) and c-Kit (-) cell populations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107844/the-mechanisms-underlying-olfactory-deficits-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice-focus-on-olfactory-epithelium-and-olfactory-bulb
#20
Jiajia Zhang, Caiyuan Hao, Jinxiang Jiang, Yangjian Feng, Xi Chen, Ying Zheng, Jiawei Liu, Zhilin Zhang, Cheng Long, Li Yang
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is highly expressed in the central nervous system including the olfactory epithelium (OE) and olfactory bulb (OB). ApoE induction is beneficial for Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment, whereas ApoE deficiency results in impaired olfaction, but the timing and underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of these effects remain unclear. Uncovering the mechanisms underlying olfactory dysfunction in ApoE-deficient mice might provide a potential avenue for the early diagnosis of AD. We used an ApoE knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mouse model and a cookie-finding test to reveal an olfactory deficit in 3- to 5-month-old, but not 1- to 2-month-old, ApoE(-/-) mice...
October 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
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