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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108112/the-olfactory-neural-epithelium-as-a-tool-in-neuroscience
#1
Joëlle Lavoie, Patricia Gassó Astorga, Hadar Segal-Gavish, YeeWen Candace Wu, Youjin Chung, Nicola G Cascella, Akira Sawa, Koko Ishizuka
Capturing both dynamic changes (state) and persistent signatures (trait) directly associated with disease at the molecular level is crucial in modern medicine. The olfactory neural epithelium, easily accessible in clinical settings, is a promising surrogate model in translational brain medicine, complementing the limitations in current engineered cell models.
January 17, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105714/gyrodactylus-salmonis-infection-impairs-the-olfactory-system-of-rainbow-trout
#2
E Lari, G G Pyle
Monogenean worms are ectoparasites that are known to be infectious to a wide variety of fish. Few species of monogenean parasites have been reported in the olfactory chamber of fish in current peer-reviewed literature. However, the impacts of these parasites on the olfactory system are not well understood. In this study, the effects of Gyrodactylus salmonis on the olfactory system structure and performance were investigated in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The olfactory performance of the infected fish was examined using an electro-olfactography (EOG) technique, while the ultrastructure of the olfactory rosette was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM)...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094781/ultrastructure-of-sensilla-of-antennae-and-ovipositor-of-sitotroga-cerealella-lepidoptera-gelechiidae-and-location-of-female-sex-pheromone-gland
#3
Min Ma, Meng-Meng Chang, Yan Lu, Chao-Liang Lei, Feng-Lian Yang
The Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella, is a serious pest of stored grains worldwide. Presently, the best effective control against the moth is to disrupt the sexual communication between sexes. Sexual communication in moths includes two processes in which females produce and release pheromones from the sex pheromone gland and males detect and respond to them with a relatively sophisticated olfactory system in their antennae. To better understand these processes, we studied the ultrastructure of antennal and ovipositor sensilla of S...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077705/processing-of-intraoral-olfactory-and-gustatory-signals-in-the-gustatory-cortex-of-awake-rats
#4
Chad L Samuelsen, Alfredo Fontanini
: The integration of gustatory and olfactory information is essential to the perception of flavor. Human neuroimaging experiments have pointed to the gustatory cortex (GC) as one of the areas involved in mediating flavor perception. Although GC's involvement in encoding the chemical identity and hedonic value of taste stimuli is well studied, it is unknown how single GC neurons process olfactory stimuli emanating from the mouth. In this study, we relied on multielectrode recordings to investigate how single GC neurons respond to intraorally delivered tastants and tasteless odorants dissolved in water and whether/how these two modalities converge in the same neurons...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057532/odorant-receptor-proteins-in-the-mouse-main-olfactory-epithelium-and-olfactory-bulb
#5
Victoria F Low, Peter Mombaerts
In the mouse, odorant receptor proteins (ORs) are G-protein-coupled receptors expressed in mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) of the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). ORs mediate odorant reception at the level of the OSN cilia. Most of the ∼1100 OR genes in the mouse genome are expressed, at the RNA level, in mature OSNs. The literature on antibodies against ORs is limited, and most reports are with antibodies that are not commercially available. Here we have screened 40 commercial antibodies against human and mouse ORs by immunofluorescence staining of coronal cryosections of the MOE of 21-day-old C57BL/6J mice...
January 3, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011307/the-olfactory-bulb-as-the-entry-site-for-prion-like-propagation-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#6
Nolwen L Rey, Daniel W Wesson, Patrik Brundin
Olfactory deficits are present in numerous neurodegenerative disorders and are accompanied by pathology in related brain regions. In several of these disorders, olfactory disturbances appear early and are considered as prodromal symptoms of the disease. In addition, pathological protein aggregates affect olfactory regions prior to other regions, suggesting that the olfactory system might be particularly vulnerable to neurodegenerative diseases. Exposed to the external environment, the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb allow pathogen and toxin penetration into the brain, a process that has been proposed to play a role in neurodegenerative diseases...
December 20, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993691/effects-of-znso4-induced-peripheral-anosmia-on-zebrafish-behavior-and-physiology
#7
Murilo S Abreu, Ana C V V Giacomini, Rubens Rodriguez, Allan V Kalueff, Leonardo J G Barcellos
Olfaction plays a key role in modulating behavioral and physiological responses of various animal species, including fishes. Olfactory deficits can be induced in fish experimentally, and utilized to examine the role of olfaction in their normal and pathological behaviors. Here, we examine whether experimental anosmia, evoked by ZnSO4 in adult zebrafish can be associated with behavioral and/or physiological responses. We show that experimental ZnSO4-induced anosmia caused acute, but not prolonged, anxiogenic-like effects on zebrafish behavior tested in the novel tank test...
December 16, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992776/differential-response-of-olfactory-sensory-neuron-populations-to-copper-ion-exposure-in-zebrafish
#8
Maurizio Lazzari, Simone Bettini, Liliana Milani, Maria Gabriella Maurizii, Valeria Franceschini
The peripheral olfactory system of fish is in direct contact with the external aqueous environment, so dissolved contaminants can easily impair sensory functions and cause neurobehavioral injuries. The olfactory epithelium of fish is arranged in lamellae forming a rosette in the olfactory cavity and contains three main types of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs): ciliated (cOSNs) and microvillous olfactory sensory neurons (mOSNs), common to all vertebrates, and a third minor group of olfactory neurons, crypt cells, absent in tetrapods...
December 14, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990576/coordinated-shift-of-olfactory-amino-acid-responses-and-v2r-expression-to-an-amphibian-water-nose-during-metamorphosis
#9
Adnan S Syed, Alfredo Sansone, Thomas Hassenklöver, Ivan Manzini, Sigrun I Korsching
All olfactory receptors identified in teleost fish are expressed in a single sensory surface, whereas mammalian olfactory receptor gene families segregate into different olfactory organs, chief among them the main olfactory epithelium expressing ORs and TAARs, and the vomeronasal organ expressing V1Rs and V2Rs. A transitional stage is embodied by amphibians, with their vomeronasal organ expressing more 'modern', later diverging V2Rs, whereas more 'ancient', earlier diverging V2Rs are expressed in the main olfactory epithelium...
December 18, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979773/zinc-gluconate-toxicity-in-wild-type-vs-mt1-2-deficient-mice
#10
Heidi Hsieh, Michael C Horwath, Mary Beth Genter
Previous studies have suggested that oral zinc supplementation can help reduce the duration of the common cold; however, the use of intranasal (IN) zinc is strongly associated with anosmia, or the loss of the sense of smell, in humans. Prior studies from this lab showed that upregulation of metallothioneins (MT) is a rapid and robust response to zinc gluconate (ZG). Therefore, we assessed the role of MT in the recovery of nasal epithelial damage resulting from IN zinc administration. The main studies in this investigation used a high dose of ZG (170mM) to ensure ablation of the olfactory mucosa, so that the progression of histological and functional recovery could be assessed...
December 12, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943232/distinct-presence-of-the-tight-junction-protein-claudin-3-in-olfactory-bulb-and-fila-olfactoria-of-the-mouse
#11
Elisabeth Eppler, Magdalena Müller-Gerbl, I Piotr Maly
The tight junction protein claudin-3 is overexpressed in diverse epithelial tumours and is associated with increased survival, progression and motility of tumour cells. Claudin-3 expression profiles are being increasingly used for diagnostic and prognostic tumour classification. Claudin-3 has been identified as a receptor for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin, which is under consideration for selective lysis of claudin-3-expressing tumours, particularly brain metastases, and other translational medicine uses...
December 12, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939274/helional-induced-activation-of-human-olfactory-receptor-2j3-promotes-apoptosis-and-inhibits-proliferation-in-a-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cell-line
#12
Benjamin Kalbe, Viola Maria Schulz, Marian Schlimm, Stathis Philippou, Nikolina Jovancevic, Fabian Jansen, Paul Scholz, Hermann Lübbert, Marvin Jarocki, Andreas Faissner, Erich Hecker, Sophie Veitinger, Teresa Tsai, Sabrina Osterloh, Hanns Hatt
Studies within the last decade have localized the functional expression of olfactory receptors (ORs) to cells outside of the olfactory epithelium. In human hepatocarcinoma and prostate cancer cells, the activation of ORs by odors modulates elementary physiological processes and leads to an inhibitory effect on proliferation. Cells of the respiratory tract are in direct contact with the surrounding air, in which a myriad of volatile molecules, especially odors, are present. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has a high prevalence, a high mortality rate and is difficult to treat...
December 5, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920949/development-of-olfactory-epithelium-and-associated-structures-in-the-green-iguana-iguana-iguana-light-and-scanning-electron-microscopic-study
#13
Olga Sapoznikov, Petr Cizek, Frantisek Tichy
The ontogenesis of the nasal cavity has been described in many mammalian species. The situation is different with reptiles, despite the fact that they have become relatively common as pets. In this study we focused on the ontogenesis of the olfactory epithelium, as well as other types of epithelia in the nasal cavity of pre-hatched green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Collection of samples began from day 67 of incubation and continued every four days until hatching. Microscopic examination revealed that significant morphological changes in the nasal cavity began approximately at day 91 of ontogenesis...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916458/a-sensor-for-low-environmental-oxygen-in-the-mouse-main-olfactory-epithelium
#14
Katherin Bleymehl, Anabel Pérez-Gómez, Masayo Omura, Ana Moreno-Pérez, David Macías, Zhaodai Bai, Randall S Johnson, Trese Leinders-Zufall, Frank Zufall, Peter Mombaerts
Sensing the level of oxygen in the external and internal environments is essential for survival. Organisms have evolved multiple mechanisms to sense oxygen. No function in oxygen sensing has been attributed to any mammalian olfactory system. Here, we demonstrate that low environmental oxygen directly activates a subpopulation of sensory neurons in the mouse main olfactory epithelium. These neurons express the soluble guanylate cyclase Gucy1b2 and the cation channel Trpc2. Low oxygen induces calcium influx in these neurons, and Gucy1b2 and Trpc2 are required for these responses...
December 21, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915418/in-vivo-cns-infection-model-of-acanthamoeba-genotype-t4-the-early-stages-of-infection-lack-presence-of-host-inflammatory-response-and-are-a-slow-and-contact-dependent-process
#15
Maritza Omaña-Molina, Dolores Hernandez-Martinez, Raquel Sanchez-Rocha, Ulises Cardenas-Lemus, Citlaltepetl Salinas-Lara, Adolfo Rene Mendez-Cruz, Laura Colin-Barenque, Patricia Aley-Medina, Jesus Espinosa-Villanueva, Leticia Moreno-Fierros, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
This study was developed in order to describe the early morphological events observed during the invasion of two pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba (genotype T4); A. castellanii and A. culbertsoni, at the olfactory meatus and cerebral, pulmonary, renal, hepatic and splenic tissues levels, an in vivo invasion study. Histological and immunohistochemical description of the events at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h postintranasal inoculations of BALB/c mice was performed. A. castellanii showed a higher invasion rate than A...
December 3, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910949/ascl3-transcription-factor-marks-a-distinct-progenitor-lineage-for-non-neuronal-support-cells-in-the-olfactory-epithelium
#16
Pei-Lun Weng, Mridula Vinjamuri, Catherine E Ovitt
The olfactory epithelium (OE) is composed of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), sustentacular supporting cells, and several types of non-neuronal cells. Stem and progenitor cells are located basally, and are the source of all cell types needed to maintain OE homeostasis. Here, we report that Ascl3, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is expressed in the developing OE. Lineage tracing experiments demonstrate that the non-neuronal microvillar cells and Bowman's glands are exclusively derived from Ascl3(+) progenitor cells in the OE during development...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902722/canonical-wnt-signaling-drives-tumor-like-lesions-from-sox2-positive-precursors-of-the-murine-olfactory-epithelium
#17
Nils W Engel, Julia E Neumann, Julia Ahlfeld, Annika K Wefers, Daniel J Merk, Jasmin Ohli, Ulrich Schüller
Canonical Wnt signaling is known to promote proliferation of olfactory stem cells. In order to investigate the effects of a constitutive activation of Wnt signaling in Sox2-positive precursor cells of the olfactory epithelium, we used transgenic mice that allowed an inducible deletion of exon 3 of the Ctnnb1 gene, which is responsible for the phosphorylation and degradation of Ctnnb1 protein. After induction of aberrant Wnt activation by Ctnnb1 deletion at embryonic day 14, such mice developed tumor-like lesions in upper parts of the nasal cavity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891688/possible-role-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-in-trigeminal-modulation-of-glomerular-microcircuits-of-the-rodent-olfactory-bulb
#18
Federica Genovese, Hanke Gwendolyn Bauersachs, Ines Gräßer, Janina Kupke, Laila Magin, Philipp Daiber, Julika Nakajima, Frank Möhrlen, Karl Messlinger, Stephan Frings
Chemosensation in the mammalian nose comprises detection of odorants, irritants and pheromones. While the traditional view assigned one distinct sub-system to each stimulus type, recent research has produced a more complex picture. Odorants are not only detected by olfactory sensory neurons but also by the trigeminal system. Irritants, in turn, may have a distinct odor, and some pheromones are detected by the olfactory epithelium. Moreover, it is well established that irritants change odor perception and vice versa...
November 27, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852773/early-odorant-exposure-increases-the-number-of-mitral-and-tufted-cells-associated-with-a-single-glomerulus
#19
Annie Liu, Sajishnu Savya, Nathaniel N Urban
: The highly specific organization of the olfactory bulb (OB) is well known, but the impact of early odorant experience on its circuit structure is unclear. Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) project axons from the olfactory epithelium to the OB, where they form spherical neuropil structures called glomeruli. These glomeruli and the postsynaptic targets of OSNs, including mitral and tufted cells (M/TCs) and juxtaglomerular cells, form glomerular modules, which represent the basic odor-coding units of the OB...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852677/processing-of-intraoral-olfactory-and-gustatory-signals-in-the-gustatory-cortex-of-awake-rats
#20
Chad L Samuelsen, Alfredo Fontanini
: The integration of gustatory and olfactory information is essential to the perception of flavor. Human neuroimaging experiments have pointed to the gustatory cortex (GC) as one of the areas involved in mediating flavor perception. While GC's involvement in encoding the chemical identity and hedonic value of taste stimuli is well studied, it is unknown how single GC neurons process olfactory stimuli emanating from the mouth. In this study, we relied on multi-electrode recordings to investigate how single GC neurons respond to intraorally delivered tastants and tasteless odorants dissolved in water and whether/how these two modalities converge in the same neurons...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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