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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765954/an-unusual-presentation-of-esthesioneuroblastoma-in-a-young-pregnant-female
#1
Meenakshi Wadhwani, Amar Ranjan, Kulbhushan Gangwani, Prasenjit Das
Background: Esthesioneuroblastoma is a rare neuroepithelial tumor arising from the olfactory epithelium in the cribriform plate or nasal cavity. It accounts for 1-5% of cases of malignant neoplasms of the nasal cavity. Methods: A 20-year-old pregnant female presented with painful loss of vision in both eyes, on imaging diagnosed as meningioma. There was a progressive increase in pain along with diminution of vision to the extent of complete loss of vision in the right eye...
April 2018: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756518/the-route-by-which-intranasally-delivered-stem-cells-enter-the-central-nervous-system
#2
Carlos Galeano, Zhifang Qiu, Anuja Mishra, Steven L Farnsworth, Jacob J Hemmi, Alvaro Moreira, Peter Edenhoffer, Peter J Hornsby
Intranasal administration is a promising route of delivery of stem cells to the central nervous system (CNS). Reports on this mode of stem cell delivery have not yet focused on the route across the cribriform plate by which cells move from the nasal cavity into the CNS. In the current experiments, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from Wharton's jelly of umbilical cords and were labeled with extremely bright quantum dots (QDs) in order to track the cells efficiently. At 2 h after intranasal delivery in immunodeficient mice, the labeled cells were found under the olfactory epithelium, crossing the cribriform plate adjacent to the fila olfactoria, and associated with the meninges of the olfactory bulb...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751772/expression-profiling-of-cell-intrinsic-regulators-in-the-process-of-differentiation-of-human-ipscs-into-retinal-lineages
#3
Jen-Hua Chuang, Aliaksandr A Yarmishyn, De-Kuang Hwang, Chih-Chien Hsu, Mong-Lien Wang, Yi-Ping Yang, Ke-Hung Chien, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Chi-Hsien Peng, Shih-Jen Chen
BACKGROUND: Differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into retinal lineages offers great potential for medical application. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to know the key intrinsic regulators of differentiation and the specific biomarker signatures of cell lineages. METHODS: In this study, we used microarrays to analyze transcriptomes of terminally differentiated retinal ganglion cell (RGC) and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) lineages, as well as intermediate retinal progenitor cells of optic vesicles (OVs) derived from hiPSCs...
May 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739871/canonical-notch-signaling-directs-the-fate-of-differentiating-neurocompetent-progenitors-in-the-mammalian-olfactory-epithelium
#4
Daniel B Herrick, Zhen Guo, Woochan Jang, Nikolai Schnittke, James E Schwob
The adult olfactory epithelium (OE) has the remarkable capacity to regenerate fully both neurosensory and non-neuronal cell types after severe epithelial injury. Life-long persistence of two stem cell populations supports OE regeneration when damaged: the horizontal basal cells (HBCs) -- dormant and held in reserve, and globose basal cells (GBCs) -- a heterogeneous population most of which are actively dividing. Both populations regenerate all cell types of the OE after injury, but the mechanisms underlying neuronal vs...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730775/dna-methylation-based-reclassification-of-olfactory-neuroblastoma
#5
David Capper, Nils W Engel, Damian Stichel, Matt Lechner, Stefanie Glöss, Simone Schmid, Christian Koelsche, Daniel Schrimpf, Judith Niesen, Annika K Wefers, David T W Jones, Martin Sill, Oliver Weigert, Keith L Ligon, Adriana Olar, Arend Koch, Martin Forster, Sebastian Moran, Oscar M Tirado, Miguel Sáinz-Japeado, Jaume Mora, Manel Esteller, Javier Alonso, Xavier Garcia Del Muro, Werner Paulus, Jörg Felsberg, Guido Reifenberger, Markus Glatzel, Stephan Frank, Camelia M Monoranu, Valerie J Lund, Andreas von Deimling, Stefan Pfister, Rolf Buslei, Julika Ribbat-Idel, Sven Perner, Volker Gudziol, Matthias Meinhardt, Ulrich Schüller
Olfactory neuroblastoma/esthesioneuroblastoma (ONB) is an uncommon neuroectodermal neoplasm thought to arise from the olfactory epithelium. Little is known about its molecular pathogenesis. For this study, a retrospective cohort of n = 66 tumor samples with the institutional diagnosis of ONB was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, genome-wide DNA methylation profiling, copy number analysis, and in a subset, next-generation panel sequencing of 560 tumor-associated genes. DNA methylation profiles were compared to those of relevant differential diagnoses of ONB...
May 5, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709597/developmental-evolution-and-developmental-plasticity-of-the-olfactory-epithelium-and-olfactory-skills-in-mexican-cavefish
#6
Maryline Blin, Eugène Tine, Lydvina Meister, Yannick Elipot, Jonathan Bibliowicz, Luis Espinasa, Sylvie Rétaux
The fish Astyanax mexicanus comes in two forms: the normal surface-dwelling (SF) and the blind depigmented cave-adapted (CF) morphs. Among many phenotypic differences, cavefish show enhanced olfactory sensitivity to detect amino-acid odors and they possess large olfactory sensory organs. Here, we questioned the relationship between the size of the olfactory organ and olfactory capacities. Comparing olfactory detection abilities of CF, SF and F1 hybrids with various olfactory epithelium (OE) sizes in behavioral tests, we concluded that OE size is not the only factor involved...
April 27, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701117/the-histological-structure-and-histochemistry-of-the-mucosa-of-the-nasal-conchae-in-geese-anser-anser
#7
İ S Harem, M Kocak, E Karadag Sari
We investigated the histological structure and histochemistry of the nasal conchae of geese and compared these structures with those of other avian species. The rostral, middle and caudal conchae were dissected from the nasal cavity of eight geese, fixed in Carnoy's solution and embedded in paraffin. The entrance of the rostral concha was lined by keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, which toward the middle concha was replaced by modified keratinized squamous epithelium, the deep layer of which opened into tubular glandular structures containing secretory epithelium on crypt-like invaginations...
April 27, 2018: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700421/ultra-slow-mechanical-stimulation-of-olfactory-epithelium-modulates-consciousness-by-slowing-cerebral-rhythms-in-humans
#8
A Piarulli, A Zaccaro, M Laurino, D Menicucci, A De Vito, L Bruschini, S Berrettini, M Bergamasco, S Laureys, A Gemignani
The coupling between respiration and neural activity within olfactory areas and hippocampus has recently been unambiguously demonstrated, its neurophysiological basis sustained by the well-assessed mechanical sensitivity of the olfactory epithelium. We herein hypothesize that this coupling reverberates to the whole brain, possibly modulating the subject's behavior and state of consciousness. The olfactory epithelium of 12 healthy subjects was stimulated with periodical odorless air-delivery (frequency 0.05 Hz, 8 s on, 12 off)...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693500/impact-of-intranasal-application-of-nerve-growth-factor-on-the-olfactory-epithelium-in-rats-with-chemically-induced-diabetes
#9
Sidika Yalim, Kenan Dağlıoğlu, Gülfidan Coskun, Sait Polat
Recent studies suggest that nerve growth factor (NGF) protects olfactory cells and axons from injury in vitro. Eighteen Wistar-Albino rats randomly divided into three groups: control group, diabetic group without NGF, and diabetic with NGF. Intranasal NGF (6 µg/day) was administered over a 5-day period. At the end of 30 days, the olfactory epithelium (OE) of NGF-applied diabetic rats regenerated, the epithelium thickness was significantly higher, and caspase-3 expression was not significantly different from the control...
April 25, 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681556/structure-and-zonal-expression-of-olfactory-receptors-in-the-olfactory-epithelium-of-the-goat-capra-hircus
#10
Josh Elisha R Octura, Kei-iIchiro Maeda, Yoshihiro Wakabayashi
The mammalian olfactory system employs sophisticated mechanisms to detect and recognize an extensive range of smells. In rodents, the olfactory epithelium (OE), situated within the nasal cavity, mainly comprises four defined endoturbinates and several ectoturbinates. Olfactory receptors (ORs) belong to a large family, comprising over 1,000 genes in rodents, which are expressed in olfactory sensory neurons in the OE that detect odor molecules. The rodent OE is divided into four topographically distinct zones, defined by individual OR distribution...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672316/immunolocalization-of-receptor-and-chemoreceptor-modules-in-the-sheep-vomeronasal-organ
#11
Dalia Ibrahim
The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is the peripheral receptor organ of the accessory olfactory system, which is responsible for both sexual and innate behaviors. The degree of neuronal differentiation and maturation of the vomeronasal receptor cells together with the verification of the presence of the solitary chemoreceptor cells (SCCs) in the VNO of Corriedale sheep were assessed using immunofluorescence. A protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), which is a neuronal marker recognized to be expressed in most neurons of vertebrate species, an olfactory marker protein (OMP) that is precise for mature olfactory receptor cells, and lastly phospholipase C-β2 (PLC-β2), a marker in the signal transduction pathway of SCCs, were all tested...
April 19, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664186/notch-signaling-regulates-lgr5-olfactory-epithelium-progenitor-stem-cell-turnover-and-mediates-recovery-of-lesioned-olfactory-epithelium-in-mouse-model
#12
Qi Dai, Chen Duan, Wenwen Ren, Fangqi Li, Qian Zheng, Li Wang, Wenyan Li, Xiaoling Lu, Wenli Ni, Yanping Zhang, Yan Chen, Tieqiao Wen, Yiqun Yu, Hongmeng Yu
The Notch signaling pathway regulates stem cell proliferation and differentiation in multiple tissues and organs, and is required for tissue maintenance. However, the role of Notch in regulation of olfactory epithelium (OE) progenitor/stem cells to maintain tissue function is still not clear. A recent study reported that leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) is expressed in globose basal cells (GBCs) localized in OE. Through lineage tracing in vivo, we found that Lgr5+ cells act as progenitor/stem cells in OE...
April 17, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618184/system-wide-expression-and-function-of-olfactory-receptors-in-mammals
#13
REVIEW
S June Oh
Olfactory receptors (ORs) in mammals are generally considered to function as chemosensors in the olfactory organs of animals. They are membrane proteins that traverse the cytoplasmic membrane seven times and work generally by coupling to heterotrimeric G protein. The OR is a G protein‒coupled receptor that binds the guanine nucleotide-binding Gαolf subunit and the Gβγ dimer to recognize a wide spectrum of organic compounds in accordance with its cognate ligand. Mammalian ORs were originally identified from the olfactory epithelium of rat...
March 2018: Genomics & Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615870/atp-and-odor-mixture-activate-trpm5-expressing-microvillous-cells-and-potentially-induce-acetylcholine-release-to-enhance-supporting-cell-endocytosis-in-mouse-main-olfactory-epithelium
#14
Ziying Fu, Tatsuya Ogura, Wangmei Luo, Weihong Lin
The main olfactory epithelium (MOE) functions to detect odor molecules, provide an epithelial surface barrier, and remove xenobiotics from inhaled air. Mechanisms coordinating the activities of different cell types within the MOE to maintain these functions are poorly understood. Previously, we showed that superficially located microvillous cells (MCs) in the MOE expressing transient receptor potential channel M5 (TRPM5) are cholinergic and chemoresponsive and that they play an important role in maintaining odor responses and olfactory-guided behavior under challenging chemical environment...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614649/chronic-lithium-treatment-increases-telomere-length-in-parietal-cortex-and-hippocampus-of-triple-transgenic-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#15
Giancarlo de Mattos Cardillo, Vanessa de Jesus Rodrigues De-Paula, Eliza Hiromi Ikenaga, Luciana Rodrigues Costa, Sergio Catanozi, Evelin Lisete Schaeffer, Wagner Farid Gattaz, Daniel Shikanai Kerr, Orestes Vicente Forlenza
Telomere length (TL) is a biomarker of cell aging, and its shortening has been linked to several age-related diseases. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), telomere shortening has been associated with neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. The majority of studies on TL in AD were based on leucocyte DNA, with little information about its status in the central nervous system. In addition to other neuroprotective effects, lithium has been implicated in the maintenance of TL. The present study aims to determine the effect of chronic lithium treatment on TL in different regions of the mouse brain, using a triple-transgenic mouse model (3xTg-AD)...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593485/-till-death-do-us-part-a-potential-irreversible-link-between-aberrant-cell-cycle-control-and-neurodegeneration-in-the-adult-olfactory-bulb
#16
REVIEW
Saad Omais, Carine Jaafar, Noël Ghanem
Adult neurogenesis (AN) is an ongoing developmental process that generates newborn neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) and the hippocampus (Hi) throughout life and significantly contributes to brain plasticity. Adult neural stem and progenitor cells (aNSPCs) are relatively limited in number and fate and are spatially restricted to the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ). During AN, the distinct roles played by cell cycle proteins extend beyond cell cycle control and constitute key regulatory mechanisms involved in neuronal maturation and survival...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589282/haploinsufficiency-of-six3-abolishes-male-reproductive-behavior-through-disrupted-olfactory-development-and-impairs-female-fertility-through-disrupted-gnrh-neuron-migration
#17
Erica C Pandolfi, Hanne M Hoffmann, Erica L Schoeller, Michael R Gorman, Pamela L Mellon
Mating behavior in males and females is dependent on olfactory cues processed through both the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO). Signaling through the MOE is critical for the initiation of male mating behavior, and the loss of MOE signaling severely compromises this comportment. Here, we demonstrate that dosage of the homeodomain gene Six3 affects the degree of development of MOE but not the VNO. Anomalous MOE development in Six3 heterozygote mice leads to hyposmia, specifically disrupting male mounting behavior by impairing detection of volatile female estrus pheromones...
March 27, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577883/the-cellular-prion-protein-promotes-olfactory-sensory-neuron-survival-and-axon-targeting-during-adult-neurogenesis
#18
Lindsay E Parrie, Jenna Ae Crowell, Glenn C Telling, Richard A Bessen
The cellular prion protein (PrPC ) has been associated with diverse biological processes including cell signaling, neurogenesis, and neuroprotection, but its physiological function(s) remain ambiguous. Here we determine the role of PrPC in adult neurogenesis using the olfactory system model in transgenic mice. Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) within the olfactory sensory epithelium (OSE) undergo neurogenesis, integration, and turnover even into adulthood. The neurogenic processes of proliferation, differentiation/maturation, and axon targeting were evaluated in wild type, PrP-overexpressing, and PrP-null transgenic mice...
March 22, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577185/variability-of-the-expression-of-reference-genes-in-samples-of-human-olfactory-epithelium
#19
S P Kovalenko, N S Rudenko, A S Avdeeva, K V Danilenko, L I Aftanas
We analyzed variability of the expression of three reference genes in biopsy samples of the olfactory epithelium obtained from healthy volunteers. The expression of B2M, HPRT1, and CASC3 genes was analyzed by real-time PCR. The pairs of genes B2M-HPRT1 and B2M-CASC3 were found to possess minimum individual variability of expression and can be reliable candidates for the reference genes in analysis of gene expression in neural cells.
March 26, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567386/the-grueneberg-olfactory-organ-neuroepithelium-recovers-after-injury
#20
Fatemeh Chehrehasa, Angela Jacques, James A St John, Jenny A K Ekberg
The Grueneberg organ (also termed Grueneberg ganglion) is an olfactory subsystem at the rostral nasal septum of rodents, and has been suggested to exist also in humans. Grueneberg organ neurons respond to coldness and alarm pheromones, but the anatomical arrangement and regenerative capacity are not fully characterised. We examined the relationship between the glia and the neurons using crosses of two transgenic mouse lines, S100ß-DsRed and OMP-ZsGreen, to visualise olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) and Grueneberg olfactory neurons, respectively...
March 19, 2018: Brain Research
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