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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790373/non-clinical-studies-of-progesterone
#1
R Sitruk-Ware
Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is essential for the regulation of reproductive function. Progesterone has been approved for several indications including the treatment of anovulatory menstrual cycles, assisted reproductive technology, contraception during lactation and, when combined with estrogen, for the prevention of endometrial hyperplasia in postmenopausal hormonal therapy. In addition to its role in reproduction, progesterone regulates a number of biologically distinct processes in other tissues, particularly in the nervous system...
May 23, 2018: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788964/rna-sequencing-analysis-reveals-quiescent-microglia-isolation-methods-from-postnatal-mouse-brains-and-limitations-of-bv2-cells
#2
Yingbo He, Xiang Yao, Natalie Taylor, Yuchen Bai, Timothy Lovenberg, Anindya Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: Microglia play key roles in neuron-glia interaction, neuroinflammation, neural repair, and neurotoxicity. Currently, various microglial in vitro models including primary microglia derived from distinct isolation methods and immortalized microglial cell lines are extensively used. However, the diversity of these existing models raises difficulty in parallel comparison across studies since microglia are sensitive to environmental changes, and thus, different models are likely to show widely varied responses to the same stimuli...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786969/hippocampal-lipidome-and-transcriptome-profile-alterations-triggered-by-acute-exposure-of-mice-to-gsm-1800-mhz-mobile-phone-radiation-an-exploratory-study
#3
Adamantia F Fragopoulou, Alexandros Polyzos, Maria-Despoina Papadopoulou, Anna Sansone, Areti K Manta, Evangelos Balafas, Nikolaos Kostomitsopoulos, Aikaterini Skouroliakou, Chryssostomos Chatgilialoglu, Alexandros Georgakilas, Dimitrios J Stravopodis, Carla Ferreri, Dimitris Thanos, Lukas H Margaritis
BACKGROUND: The widespread use of wireless devices during the last decades is raising concerns about adverse health effects of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted from these devices. Recent research is focusing on unraveling the underlying mechanisms of RF-EMR and potential cellular targets. The "omics" high-throughput approaches are powerful tools to investigate the global effects of RF-EMR on cellular physiology. METHODS: In this work, C57BL/6 adult male mice were whole-body exposed (nE xp  = 8) for 2 hr to GSM 1800 MHz mobile phone radiation at an average electric field intensity range of 4...
May 22, 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786167/neuroplasticity-in-stroke-recovery-the-role-of-microglia-in-engaging-and-modifying-synapses-and-networks
#4
REVIEW
Ioanna Sandvig, Ingrid Lovise Augestad, Asta Kristine Håberg, Axel Sandvig
Neuroplasticity after ischemic injury involves both spontaneous rewiring of neural networks and circuits as well as functional responses in neurogenic niches. These events involve complex interactions with activated microglia, which evolve in a dynamic manner over time. Although the exact mechanisms underlying these interactions remain poorly understood, increasing experimental evidence suggests a determining role of pro- and anti-inflammatory microglial activation profiles in shaping both synaptogenesis and neurogenesis...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785566/delineating-a-new-feature-of-constitutional-mismatch-repair-deficiency-cmmrd-syndrome-breast-cancer
#5
Lisa Bush, Melyssa Aronson, Uri Tabori, Brittany B Campbell, Raymond B Bedgood, Kory Jasperson
Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive hereditary cancer condition, characterized by an exceptionally high risk of cancer, a propensity for childhood malignancies, and cutaneous features reminiscent of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). We report on two sisters originally suspected of having CMMRD syndrome due to their history of colonic polyps and NF1 associated skin findings, both were subsequently found to have biallelic MSH6 mutations. After years of CMMRD syndrome follow-up, the proband was diagnosed with breast cancer at age 29, while her sister was diagnosed with a glioblastoma at age 27...
May 21, 2018: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784996/dual-function-injectable-angiogenic-biomaterial-for-the-repair-of-brain-tissue-following-stroke
#6
Lina R Nih, Shiva Gojgini, S Thomas Carmichael, Tatiana Segura
Stroke is the primary cause of disability due to the brain's limited ability to regenerate damaged tissue. After stroke, an increased inflammatory and immune response coupled with severely limited angiogenesis and neuronal growth results in a stroke cavity devoid of normal brain tissue. In the adult, therapeutic angiogenic materials have been used to repair ischaemic tissues through the formation of vascular networks. However, whether a therapeutic angiogenic material can regenerate brain tissue and promote neural repair is poorly understood...
May 21, 2018: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782609/low-cost-customized-cranioplasty-using-a-3d-digital-printing-model-a-case-report
#7
Abel De La Peña, Javier De La Peña-Brambila, Juan Pérez-De La Torre, Miguel Ochoa, Guillermo J Gallardo
Background: Cranial defects usually occur after trauma, neurosurgical procedures like decompressive craniotomy, tumour resections, infection and congenital defects. The purpose of cranial vault repair is to protect the underlying brain tissue, to reduce any localized pain and patient anxiety, and improve cranial aesthetics. Cranioplasty is a frequent neurosurgical procedure achieved with the aid of cranial prosthesis made from materials such as: titanium, autologous bone, ceramics and polymers...
2018: 3D printing in medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774825/dietary-zinc-modulates-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Angus Scrimgeour, Christopher Carrigan, Michelle Lynn Condlin, Maria L Urso, Roland M van den Berg, Herman P M van Helden, Scott J Montain, Marloes J A Joosen
Animal models of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) provide opportunity to examine the extent to which dietary interventions can be used to improve recovery after injury. Animal studies also suggest that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a role in tissue remodeling post-TBI. Because dietary zinc (Zn) improved recovery in non-blast mTBI models, and the MMPs are Zn-requiring enzymes, we evaluated the effects of low- and adequate Zn diets on MMP expression and behavioral responses, following exposure to a single blast...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774196/common-carotid-artery-dissection-in-multiple-extracranial-injury-a-case-report
#9
Jin Sang Kil, Mi Kyung Lee, Ki Seong Eom
Traumatic common carotid artery dissection (CCAD) is rare. To our knowledge, only 14 case reports have described traumatic CCAD previously. Here, we report a case of CCAD in a patient with severe trauma. A 50-year-old man was lying on the road after drinking alcohol when a car drove over him. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple rib fractures with hemopneumothorax, lung contusion, flail chest, large amount of hematoma with bladder rupture, and fractures on the C6 spinous process, sacral ala, iliac bone, and pubic ramus...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769670/new-approaches-for-brain-repair-from-rescue-to-reprogramming
#10
REVIEW
Roger A Barker, Magdalena Götz, Malin Parmar
The ability to repair or promote regeneration within the adult human brain has been envisioned for decades. Until recently, such efforts mainly involved delivery of growth factors and cell transplants designed to rescue or replace a specific population of neurons, and the results have largely been disappointing. New approaches using stem-cell-derived cell products and direct cell reprogramming have opened up the possibility of reconstructing neural circuits and achieving better repair. In this Review we briefly summarize the history of neural repair and then discuss these new therapeutic approaches, especially with respect to chronic neurodegenerative disorders...
May 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769333/microglia-are-critical-in-host-defense-against-prion-disease
#11
James A Carroll, Brent Race, Katie Williams, James Striebel, Bruce Chesebro
Microglial cells in the central nervous system play important roles in neurodevelopment and resistance to infection, yet microglia can become neurotoxic under some conditions. An early event during prion infection is the activation of microglia and astrocytes in the brain prior to damage or death of neurons. Previous prion disease studies using two different strategies to manipulate signaling through the microglial receptor CSF-1R reported contrary effects on survival from prion disease. However, in these studies, reduction of microglial numbers and function were variable, thus confounding interpretation of the results...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761344/beyond-the-magic-bullet-current-progress-of-therapeutic-vaccination-in-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Barbara Willekens, Nathalie Cools
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration and impaired repair mechanisms that lead to neurological disability. The crux of MS is the patient's own immune cells attacking self-antigens in the CNS, namely the myelin sheath that protects nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord. Restoring antigen-specific tolerance via therapeutic vaccination is an innovative and exciting approach in MS therapy. Indeed, leveraging the body's attempt to prevent autoimmunity, i...
May 14, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761002/large-retrospective-study-of-artificial-dura-substitute-in-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury-undergo-decompressive-craniectomy
#13
Hongtao Sun, Hongda Wang, Yunfeng Diao, Yue Tu, Xiaohong Li, Wanyong Zhao, Jibin Ren, Sai Zhang
Background: Decompressive craniectomy is widely used for treating patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Usually patients have dura mater defect due to surgery or injury itself. The defective area may left open or repaired by artificial dura substitutes. A variety of artificial dura substitutes have been used for this purpose. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate bovine-derived pericardium membrane as artificial dural material for patients with decompressive craniectomy...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759918/potential-immunotherapies-for-traumatic-brain-and-spinal-cord-injury
#14
REVIEW
Raj Putatunda, John R Bethea, Wen-Hui Hu
Traumatic injury of the central nervous system (CNS) including brain and spinal cord remains a leading cause of morbidity and disability in the world. Delineating the mechanisms underlying the secondary and persistent injury versus the primary and transient injury has been drawing extensive attention for study during the past few decades. The sterile neuroinflammation during the secondary phase of injury has been frequently identified substrate underlying CNS injury, but as of now, no conclusive studies have determined whether this is a beneficial or detrimental role in the context of repair...
April 18, 2018: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758244/neural-stem-cell-therapies-and-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#15
REVIEW
Lei Huang, Lubo Zhang
Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the adult as well as in the neonate. Extensive pre-clinical studies have shown promising therapeutic effects of neural stem cell-based treatments for hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. There are two major strategies of neural stem cell-based therapies: transplanting exogenous neural stem cells and boosting self-repair of endogenous neural stem cells. Neural stem cell transplantation has been proved to improve functional recovery after brain injury through multiple by-stander mechanisms (e...
May 11, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755676/genetic-heterogeneity-and-actionable-mutations-in-her2-positive-primary-breast-cancers-and-their-brain-metastases
#16
Leticia De Mattos-Arruda, Charlotte K Y Ng, Salvatore Piscuoglio, Maria Gonzalez-Cao, Raymond S Lim, Maria R De Filippo, Nicola Fusco, Anne M Schultheis, Carolina Ortiz, Santiago Viteri, Alexandra Arias, Gabriel S Macedo, Mafalda Oliveira, Patricia Gomez, Cristina Teixidó, Paolo Nuciforo, Vicente Peg, Cristina Saura, Santiago Ramon Y Cajal, Francesc Tresserra Casas, Britta Weigelt, Javier Cortes, Joan Seoane, Jorge S Reis-Filho
Brain metastases constitute a challenge in the management of patients with HER2-positive breast cancer treated with anti-HER2 systemic therapies. Here we sought to define the repertoire of mutations private to or enriched for in HER2-positive brain metastases. Massively parallel sequencing targeting all exons of 254 genes frequently mutated in breast cancers and/or related to DNA repair was used to characterize the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of HER2-positive breast cancers and their brain metastases in six patients...
April 17, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755514/motor-improvement-of-skilled-forelimb-use-induced-by-treatment-with-growth-hormone-and-rehabilitation-is-dependent-on-the-onset-of-the-treatment-after-cortical-ablation
#17
Margarita Heredia, Jesús Palomero, Antonio de la Fuente, José María Criado, Javier Yajeya, Jesús Devesa, Pablo Devesa, José Luis Vicente-Villardón, Adelaida S Riolobos
We previously demonstrated that the administration of GH immediately after severe motor cortex injury, in rats, followed by rehabilitation, improved the functionality of the affected limb and reexpressed nestin in the contralateral motor cortex. Here, we analyze whether these GH effects depend on a time window after the injury and on the reexpression of nestin and actin. Injured animals were treated with GH (0.15 mg/kg/day) or vehicle, at days 7, 14, and 35 after cortical ablation. Rehabilitation was applied at short and long term (LTR) after the lesion and then sacrificed...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753700/spectrum-and-prevalence-of-genetic-predisposition-in-medulloblastoma-a-retrospective-genetic-study-and-prospective-validation-in-a-clinical-trial-cohort
#18
Sebastian M Waszak, Paul A Northcott, Ivo Buchhalter, Giles W Robinson, Christian Sutter, Susanne Groebner, Kerstin B Grund, Laurence Brugières, David T W Jones, Kristian W Pajtler, A Sorana Morrissy, Marcel Kool, Dominik Sturm, Lukas Chavez, Aurelie Ernst, Sebastian Brabetz, Michael Hain, Thomas Zichner, Maia Segura-Wang, Joachim Weischenfeldt, Tobias Rausch, Balca R Mardin, Xin Zhou, Cristina Baciu, Christian Lawerenz, Jennifer A Chan, Pascale Varlet, Lea Guerrini-Rousseau, Daniel W Fults, Wiesława Grajkowska, Peter Hauser, Nada Jabado, Young-Shin Ra, Karel Zitterbart, Suyash S Shringarpure, Francisco M De La Vega, Carlos D Bustamante, Ho-Keung Ng, Arie Perry, Tobey J MacDonald, Pablo Hernáiz Driever, Anne E Bendel, Daniel C Bowers, Geoffrey McCowage, Murali M Chintagumpala, Richard Cohn, Timothy Hassall, Gudrun Fleischhack, Tone Eggen, Finn Wesenberg, Maria Feychting, Birgitta Lannering, Joachim Schüz, Christoffer Johansen, Tina V Andersen, Martin Röösli, Claudia E Kuehni, Michael Grotzer, Kristina Kjaerheim, Camelia M Monoranu, Tenley C Archer, Elizabeth Duke, Scott L Pomeroy, Redmond Shelagh, Stephan Frank, David Sumerauer, Wolfram Scheurlen, Marina V Ryzhova, Till Milde, Christian P Kratz, David Samuel, Jinghui Zhang, David A Solomon, Marco Marra, Roland Eils, Claus R Bartram, Katja von Hoff, Stefan Rutkowski, Vijay Ramaswamy, Richard J Gilbertson, Andrey Korshunov, Michael D Taylor, Peter Lichter, David Malkin, Amar Gajjar, Jan O Korbel, Stefan M Pfister
BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is associated with rare hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes; however, consensus medulloblastoma predisposition genes have not been defined and screening guidelines for genetic counselling and testing for paediatric patients are not available. We aimed to assess and define these genes to provide evidence for future screening guidelines. METHODS: In this international, multicentre study, we analysed patients with medulloblastoma from retrospective cohorts (International Cancer Genome Consortium [ICGC] PedBrain, Medulloblastoma Advanced Genomics International Consortium [MAGIC], and the CEFALO series) and from prospective cohorts from four clinical studies (SJMB03, SJMB12, SJYC07, and I-HIT-MED)...
May 9, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751775/cxcl12-engineered-endothelial-progenitor-cells-enhance-neurogenesis-and-angiogenesis-after-ischemic-brain-injury-in-mice
#19
Yaning Li, Shuang Chang, Wanlu Li, Guanghui Tang, Yuanyuan Ma, Yanqun Liu, Fang Yuan, Zhijun Zhang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Yongting Wang
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke causes a multitude of brain damage. Neurovascular injury and myelin sheath degradation are two manifestations of ischemic brain damage. Therapeutic strategies aiming only at repairing the neural components or the vessels cannot efficiently restore neurological function. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have the advantages of both promoting angiogenesis and secreting trophic factors that would promote neurogenesis. Chemokine cxcl12 gene therapy has also been shown to promote angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and remyelination, attracting EPCs, neural progenitor cells, and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) to the injured sites of the brain...
May 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749459/ctrp9-ameliorates-cellular-senescence-via-pgc%C3%A2-1%C3%AE-ampk-signaling-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#20
Qun Li, Zhangzhang Zhu, Chengde Wang, Lin Cai, Jianglong Lu, Yongchun Wang, Jiadong Xu, Zhipeng Su, Weiming Zheng, Xianbin Chen
Stroke is the second most common cause of death worldwide, and thus, it imposes great financial burdens on both individuals and society. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is a promising approach for ischemic brain injury. However, MSC treatment potential is progressively reduced with age, limiting their therapeutic efficacy for brain repair post‑stroke. C1q and tumor necrosis factor‑related protein 9 (CTRP9) is a novel cytoprotective cytokine with antioxidant effects, which is highly expressed in brain tissue...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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