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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731403/safe-and-sustainable-the-extracranial-approach-toward-frontoethmoidal-meningoencephalocele-repair
#1
Paul I Heidekrueger, Myat Thu, Wolfgang Mühlbauer, Charlotte Holm-Mühlbauer, Philippe Schucht, Hans Anderl, Heinrich Schoeneich, Kyawzwa Aung, Mg Mg Ag, Ag Thu Soe Myint, Sabrina Juran, Thiha Aung, Denis Ehrl, Milomir Ninkovic, P Niclas Broer
OBJECTIVE Although rare, frontoethmoidal meningoencephaloceles continue to pose a challenge to neurosurgeons and plastic reconstructive surgeons. Especially when faced with limited infrastructure and resources, establishing reliable and safe surgical techniques is of paramount importance. The authors present a case series in order to evaluate a previously proposed concise approach for meningoencephalocele repair, with a focus on sustainability of internationally driven surgical efforts. METHODS Between 2001 and 2016, a total of 246 patients with frontoethmoidal meningoencephaloceles were treated using a 1-stage extracranial approach by a single surgeon in the Department of Neurosurgery of the Yangon General Hospital in Yangon, Myanmar, initially assisted by European surgeons...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728479/stem-cells-and-other-emerging-agents-as-innovative-drugs-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-benefits-and-limitations
#2
Martina Nasello, Giuseppe Schirò, Floriana Crapanzano, Carmela Rita Balistreri
Brain has a limited process of repair/regeneration linked to the restricted and localized activity of neuronal stem cells (NSCs).Consequently, it shows a reduced capacity to counteract the age-related loss of neural and glial cells and to repair the consequent injuries/lesions of nervous system. This progressively determines nervous dysfunction and onset/progression of neurodegenerative diseases, which represent a serious social (and economic) problem of our populations. Thus, the research of efficient treatments is encouraged...
July 20, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726587/repair-of-tympanic-membrane-perforations-with-customized-bioprinted-ear-grafts-using-chinchilla-models
#3
Che-Ying Kuo, Emmanuel Wilson, Andrew Fuson, Nidhi Gandhi, Reza Monfaredi, Audrey Jenkins, Maria Romero, Marco Santoro, John P Fisher, Kevin Cleary, Brian Reilly
The goal of this work is to develop an innovative method that combines bioprinting and endoscopic imaging to repair tympanic membrane perforations (TMPs). TMPs are a serious health issue because they can lead to both conductive hearing loss and repeated otitis media. TMPs occur in 3 to 5% of cases after ear tube placement as well as in cases of acute otitis media (the second most common infection in pediatrics), chronic otitis media with or without cholesteatoma, or as a result of barotrauma to the ear. About 55,000 tympanoplasties, the surgery performed to reconstruct TMPs, are performed every year and the commonly used cartilage grafting technique has a success rate between 43% to 100%...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715721/pushing-the-boundaries-in-liver-graft-utilisation-in-transplantation-case-report-of-a-donor-with-previous-bile-duct-injury-repair
#4
Asma Sultana, James J Powell, Gabriel C Oniscu
INTRODUCTION: Liver transplantation is a recognised treatment for extensive bile duct injuries with secondary biliary cirrhosis or recurring sepsis. However, there have been no reports of successful liver transplantation from a donor who sustained a previous bile duct injury. PRESENTATION OF CASE: Here we discuss the case of a liver transplant from a 51-year-old brain dead donor who had suffered a Strasberg E1 bile duct injury and had undergone a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy 24 years prior to donation...
June 29, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711543/clival-defect-with-primary-csf-rhinorrhea-a-very-rare-presentation-with-challenging-management
#5
Sheikh Asad, Jens Peters-Willke, Warwick Brennan, Saima Asad
Primary spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea due to clival defect is an extremely rare presentation and only six cases have been reported in the literature so far(17). We present a unique case of a 64-year-old lady who presented with 2 years history of ongoing CSF rhinorrhea. She had similar episode at the age of 40 and suffered from meningitis. She had MRI, CT cisternogram as well as CT of brain and that showed clival defect with CSF leak into the sphenoid sinus. She underwent trans-sphenoidal repair of the clival defect with concurrent lumbar drain insertion for CSF drainage...
July 12, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710563/an-observational-study-examining-the-effects-of-a-surgically-induced-inflammatory-response-on-the-distribution-of-morphine-and-its-metabolites-into-cerebrospinal-fluid
#6
Yan Wang, Kerry B Goralski, Derek J Roberts, Kathryn Landry, Mark E Issa, Lekha Sleno, Lisa C Julien, Jeremy Wood, Richard I Hall
PURPOSE: Morphine is administered intravenously for pain management in the perioperative period. The effect of the inflammatory response to surgery on morphine distribution across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in humans was investigated. We hypothesized that a graded surgically induced, systemic inflammatory response alters cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) through a temporary reduction in BBB drug efflux transporter function...
July 14, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710029/decreased-expression-level-of-ber-genes-in-alzheimer-s-disease-patients-is-not-derivative-of-their-dna-methylation-status
#7
Agnieszka Sliwinska, Przemysław Sitarek, Monika Toma, Piotr Czarny, Ewelina Synowiec, Renata Krupa, Paulina Wigner, Katarzyna Bialek, Dominik Kwiatkowski, Anna Korycinska, Ireneusz Majsterek, Janusz Szemraj, Piotr Galecki, Tomasz Sliwinski
BACKGROUND: Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease can be caused by accumulation of oxidative DNA damage resulting from altered expression of genes involved in the base excision repair system (BER). Promoter methylation can affect the profile of BER genes expression. Decreased expression of BER genes was observed in the brains of AD patients. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of our study was to compare the expression and methylation profiles of six genes coding for proteins involved in BER, namely: hOGG1, APE1, MUTYH, NEIL1, PARP1 and XRCC1, in the peripheral blood cells of AD patients and healthy volunteers...
July 11, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709951/microrna-basic-concepts-and-implications-for-regeneration-and-repair-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Cláudia Saraiva, Marta Esteves, Liliana Bernardino
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding molecules that revolutionized our knowledge about the regulation of gene expression. Capable to target a large number of mRNA, miRNA are thought to regulate around 30% of the entire human genome. Therefore, these molecules are able to regulate several biological processes, including neuronal survival, differentiation and regeneration. Additionally, miRNA might act as valuable clinical agents in brain pathological conditions: their specific expression patterns in the brain parenchyma and/or in circulating fluids have been highlighted as potential biomarkers while the modulation of their activity may have therapeutic value for several neurodegenerative diseases...
July 11, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707277/open-label-allopregnanolone-treatment-of-men-with-fragile-x-associated-tremor-ataxia-syndrome
#9
J Y Wang, A M Trivedi, N R Carrillo, J Yang, A Schneider, C Giulivi, P Adams, F Tassone, K Kim, S M Rivera, N Lubarr, C-Y Wu, R W Irwin, R D Brinton, J M Olichney, M A Rogawski, R J Hagerman
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder affecting approximately 45% of male and 16% of female carriers of the FMR1 premutation over the age of 50 years. Currently, no effective treatment is available. We performed an open-label intervention study to assess whether allopregnanolone, a neurosteroid promoting regeneration and repair, can improve clinical symptoms, brain activity, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements in patients with FXTAS. Six patients underwent weekly intravenous infusions of allopregnanolone (2-6 mg over 30 min) for 12 weeks...
July 13, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706768/dna-pk-and-p38-mapk-a-kinase-collusion-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Jyotshna Kanungo
The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), characterized by prevalent neuronal death and extracellular deposit of amyloid plaques, is poorly understood. DNA lesions downstream of reduced DNA repair ability have been reported in AD brains. Neurons predominantly use a mechanism to repair double-strand DNA breaks (DSB), which is non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). NHEJ requires DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. DNA-PK is a holoenzyme comprising the p460 kD catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and its activator Ku, a heterodimer of p86 and p70 subunits...
2017: Brain Disorders & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701948/microglial-activation-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
REVIEW
Cornelius K Donat, Gregory Scott, Steve M Gentleman, Magdalena Sastre
Microglia have a variety of functions in the brain, including synaptic pruning, CNS repair and mediating the immune response against peripheral infection. Microglia rapidly become activated in response to CNS damage. Depending on the nature of the stimulus, microglia can take a number of activation states, which correspond to altered microglia morphology, gene expression and function. It has been reported that early microglia activation following traumatic brain injury (TBI) may contribute to the restoration of homeostasis in the brain...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701191/blood-brain-barrier-and-foetal-onset-hydrocephalus-with-a-view-on-potential-novel-treatments-beyond-managing-csf-flow
#12
REVIEW
M Guerra, J L Blázquez, E M Rodríguez
Despite decades of research, no compelling non-surgical therapies have been developed for foetal hydrocephalus. So far, most efforts have pointed to repairing disturbances in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and to avoid further brain damage. There are no reports trying to prevent or diminish abnormalities in brain development which are inseparably associated with hydrocephalus. A key problem in the treatment of hydrocephalus is the blood-brain barrier that restricts the access to the brain for therapeutic compounds or systemically grafted cells...
July 13, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699704/aberrant-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-signal-oscillations-across-frequency-bands-characterize-the-alcoholic-brain
#13
Jui-Yang Hong, Eva M Müller-Oehring, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith V Sullivan, Dongjin Kwon, Tilman Schulte
Chronic alcoholism is associated with widespread regional differences from controls in brain activity and connectivity dynamics measured by blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals. Identification of alcoholism-related neurofunctional power dynamics using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that relate to cognition and behavior may serve as biomarkers of alcoholism. Previously, resting-state fMRI studies examined BOLD signals at a single low-frequency (LF) bandwidth. BOLD signals, however, oscillate systematically at different frequencies and are organized in a resting brain where LF oscillation facilitates long-distance communication between regions across cortical regions, whereas high-frequency (HF) oscillation occurs in closely localized, subcortical areas...
July 12, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699524/biohybrid-membrane-systems-for-testing-molecules-and-stem-cell-therapy-in-neuronal-tissue-engineering
#14
Sabrina Morelli, Antonella Piscioneri, Simona Salerno, Enrico Drioli, Loredana De Bartolo
Current research in neural tissue-engineering is focused on the development of advanced biomaterials for the creation of sophisticated neuro-tissue analogues, showing that mimicking the in vivo tissue disposition and functions is a useful tool for the study of brain-related issues in normal and pathological states. In addition, the most common approach for developing new drug therapies is to carry out in vitro investigation before in vivo test, thus, it is increasingly important to develop valuable models that can predict the results of in vivo studies...
July 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695794/the-natural-component-isolated-from-enterolobium-contortisiliquum-impairs-brain-tumors-and-affects-their-interactions-with-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#15
Camila Ramalho Bonturi, Helena Motaln, Mariana Cristina Cabral Silva, Bruno Ramos Salu, Marlon Vilela de Brito, Luciana de Andrade Luz Costa, Heron Fernandes Vieira Torquato, Natália Neto Dos Santos Nunes, Edgar Julian Paredes-Gamero, Tamara Lah Turnšek, Maria Luiza Vilela Oliva
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive type of brain tumor with an overall patient survival of about 16 months. Thus, natural compounds with anti-cancer properties are gaining attention as possible alternatives for GBM treatment. Studies in various cancer models have shown the anti-cancer effects of the Enterolobium contortisiliquum Trypsin Inhibitor (EcTI). Here, we investigated the outcomes of EcTI on U87 cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), and their direct cocultures (U87/MSC). MSC are present in tumor stroma and represent a potential drug delivery vehicle as the result of their tumor tropism...
July 11, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694020/transdifferentiation-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-secreting-mesenchymal-stem-cells-significantly-enhance-bdnf-secretion-and-schwann-cell-marker-proteins
#16
Metzere Bierlein De la Rosa, Anup D Sharma, Surya K Mallapragada, Donald S Sakaguchi
The use of genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a rapidly growing area of research targeting delivery of therapeutic factors for neuro-repair. Cells can be programmed to hypersecrete various growth/trophic factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and nerve growth factor (NGF) to promote regenerative neurite outgrowth. In addition to genetic modifications, MSCs can be subjected to transdifferentiation protocols to generate neural cell types to physically and biologically support nerve regeneration...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690540/the-role-of-microglia-in-prion-diseases-a-paradigm-of-functional-diversity
#17
REVIEW
Juliane Obst, Emilie Simon, Renzo Mancuso, Diego Gomez-Nicola
Inflammation is a major component of neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia are the innate immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS). In the healthy brain, microglia contribute to tissue homeostasis and regulation of synaptic plasticity. Under disease conditions, they play a key role in the development and maintenance of the neuroinflammatory response, by showing enhanced proliferation and activation. Prion diseases are progressive chronic neurodegenerative disorders associated with the accumulation of the scrapie prion protein PrP(Sc), a misfolded conformer of the cellular prion protein PrP(C)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690033/schisantherin-a-attenuates-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-neuronal-injury-in-rats-via-regulation-of-tlr4-and-c5ar1-signaling-pathways
#18
Yun Wei Shi, Xiao Chuan Zhang, Chen Chen, Miao Tang, Zhi Wei Wang, Xin Miao Liang, Fei Ding, Cai Ping Wang
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and C5aR1 (CD88) have been recognized as potential therapeutic targets for the reduction of inflammation and secondary damage and improvement of outcome after ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). The inflammatory responses which induce cell apoptosis and necrosis after I/R brain injury lead to a limited process of neural repair. To further comprehend how these targets function in I/R state, we investigated the pathological changes and TLR4 and C5aR1 signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo models of I/R brain injury in this study...
July 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685618/minocycline-plus-n-acteylcysteine-induces-remyelination-synergistically-protects-oligodendrocytes-and-modifies-neuroinflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Margalit Haber, Jessica James, Justine Kim, Michael Sangobawole, Rachel Irizarry, Johnson Ho, Elena Nikulina, Natalia M Grin'kina, Albana Ramadani, Isabella Hartman, Peter J Bergold
Mild traumatic brain injury afflicts over 2 million people annually and little can be done for the underlying injury. The Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs Minocycline plus N-acetylcysteine (MINO plus NAC) synergistically improved cognition and memory in a rat mild controlled cortical impact (mCCI) model of traumatic brain injury.(3) The underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of the drug combination are unknown. This study addressed the effect of the drug combination on white matter damage and neuroinflammation after mCCI...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684912/the-effects-of-grafted-mesenchymal-stem-cells-labeled-with-iron-oxide-or-cobalt-zinc-iron-nanoparticles-on-the-biological-macromolecules-of-rat-brain-tissue-extracts
#20
Bozena Novotna, Vit Herynek, Pavel Rossner, Karolina Turnovcova, Pavla Jendelova
INTRODUCTION: Rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) labeled with 1) poly-l-lysine-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles or 2) silica-coated cobalt-zinc-iron nanoparticles were implanted into the left brain hemisphere of rats, to assess their effects on the levels of oxidative damage to biological macromolecules in brain tissue. METHODS: Controls were implanted with unlabeled rMSCs. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours or 4 weeks after the treatment, and the implantation site along with the surrounding tissue was isolated from the brain...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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