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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917705/long-term-retention-of-ecm-hydrogel-after-implantation-into-a-sub-acute-stroke-cavity-reduces-lesion-volume
#1
Harmanvir Ghuman, Madeline Gerwig, Francesca J Nicholls, Jessie Liu, Julia Donnelly, Stephen F Badylak, Michel Modo
Salvaging or functional replacement of damaged tissue caused by stroke in the brain remains a major therapeutic challenge. In situ gelation and retention of a hydrogel bioscaffold composed of 8 mg/mL extracellular matrix (ECM) can induce a robust invasion of cells within 24 hours and potentially promote a structural remodeling to replace lost tissue. Herein, we demonstrate a long-term retention of ECM hydrogel within the lesion cavity. A decrease of approximately 32% of ECM volume is observed over 12 weeks...
September 13, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917662/successful-optic-nerve-regeneration-in-the-senescent-zebrafish-despite-age-related-decline-of-cell-intrinsic-and-extrinsic-response-processes
#2
Jessie Van Houcke, Ilse Bollaerts, Emiel Geeraerts, Benjamin Davis, An Beckers, Inge Van Hove, Kim Lemmens, Lies De Groef, Lieve Moons
Dysfunction of the central nervous system (CNS) in neurodegenerative diseases or after brain lesions seriously affects life quality of a growing number of elderly, since the adult CNS lacks the capacity to replace or repair damaged neurons. Despite intensive research efforts, full functional recovery after CNS disease and/or injury remains challenging, especially in an aging environment. As such, there is a rising need for an aging model in which the impact of aging on successful regeneration can be studied...
August 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917516/impact-of-frailty-on-outcomes-in-patients%C3%A2-undergoing-percutaneous-mitral%C3%A2-valve-repair
#3
Clemens Metze, Anna-Sophie Matzik, Maximilian Scherner, Maria Isabel Körber, Guido Michels, Stephan Baldus, Volker Rudolph, Roman Pfister
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the impact of frailty in patients undergoing percutaneous mitral valve repair (PMVR). BACKGROUND: Frailty is common in elderly patients and those with comorbidities and is associated with adverse prognosis. METHODS: Frailty according to the Fried criteria was assessed in consecutive patients admitted for PMVR. Associations of frailty with 6-week (device success, changes in 6-minute walking distance and Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire and Short Form 36 physical and mental component scores, and improvement ≥1 New York Heart Association functional class) and long-term outcomes during a median follow-up period of 429 days were examined...
September 8, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912690/ring-finger-protein-38-is-a-neuronal-protein-in-the-brain-of-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#4
Kai Lin Cham, Tomoko Soga, Ishwar S Parhar
Really interesting new gene (RING) finger protein is a type of zinc-binding motif found in a large family of functionally distinct proteins. RING finger proteins are involved in diverse cellular processes including apoptosis, DNA repair, cell cycle, signal transduction, tumour suppressor, vesicular transport, and peroxisomal biogenesis. RING finger protein 38 (RNF38) is a member of the family whose functions remain unknown. To gain insight into the putative effects of RNF38 in the central nervous system, we localised its expression...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912446/an-injectable-hydrogel-enhances-tissue-repair-after-spinal-cord-injury-by-promoting-extracellular-matrix-remodeling
#5
Le Thi Anh Hong, Young-Min Kim, Hee Hwan Park, Dong Hoon Hwang, Yuexian Cui, Eun Mi Lee, Stephanie Yahn, Jae K Lee, Soo-Chang Song, Byung Gon Kim
The cystic cavity that develops following injuries to brain or spinal cord is a major obstacle for tissue repair in central nervous system (CNS). Here we report that injection of imidazole-poly(organophosphazenes) (I-5), a hydrogel with thermosensitive sol-gel transition behavior, almost completely eliminates cystic cavities in a clinically relevant rat spinal cord injury model. Cystic cavities are bridged by fibronectin-rich extracellular matrix. The fibrotic extracellular matrix remodeling is mediated by matrix metalloproteinase-9 expressed in macrophages within the fibrotic extracellular matrix...
September 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912153/comprehensive-genomic-profiling-of-282-pediatric-low-and-high-grade-gliomas-reveals-genomic-drivers-tumor-mutational-burden-and-hypermutation-signatures
#6
Adrienne Johnson, Eric Severson, Laurie Gay, Jo-Anne Vergilio, Julia Elvin, James Suh, Sugganth Daniel, Mandy Covert, Garrett M Frampton, Sigmund Hsu, Glenn J Lesser, Kimberly Stogner-Underwood, Ryan T Mott, Sarah Z Rush, Jennifer J Stanke, Sonika Dahiya, James Sun, Prasanth Reddy, Zachary R Chalmers, Rachel Erlich, Yakov Chudnovsky, David Fabrizio, Alexa B Schrock, Siraj Ali, Vincent Miller, Philip J Stephens, Jeffrey Ross, John R Crawford, Shakti H Ramkissoon
BACKGROUND: Pediatric brain tumors are the leading cause of death for children with cancer in the U.S. Incorporating next-generation sequencing data for both pediatric low-grade (pLGGs) and high-grade gliomas (pHGGs) can inform diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic decision-making. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed comprehensive genomic profiling on 282 pediatric gliomas (157 pHGGs, 125 pLGGs), sequencing 315 cancer-related genes and calculating the tumor mutational burden (TMB; mutations per megabase [Mb])...
September 14, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911981/peripheral-immune-cells-infiltrate-into-sites-of-secondary-neurodegeneration-after-ischemic-stroke
#7
K A Jones, S Maltby, M W Plank, M Kluge, M Nilsson, P S Foster, F R Walker
Experimental stroke leads to microglia activation and progressive neuronal loss at sites of secondary neurodegeneration (SND). These lesions are remote from, but synaptically connected to, primary infarction sites. Previous studies have demonstrated that immune cells are present in sites of infarction in the first hours and days after stroke, and are associated with increased neurodegeneration in peri-infarct regions. However, it is not known whether immune cells are also present in more distal sites where SND occurs...
September 11, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906345/folic-acid-exerts-antidepressant-effects-by-upregulating-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-glutamate-receptor-1-expression-in-brain
#8
Liangcai Gao, Xinnan Liu, Li Yu, Junlin Wu, Mingchu Xu, Yusi Liu
Folic acid is a vitamin with a variety of pharmacological effects. The present study aims to explore the beneficial effects of folic acid on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression-like behaviors and its possible mechanisms. The behavioral tests including open-field test, tail suspension test, and forced swimming test were used to evaluate the antidepressant effects of folic acid. Then the changes of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) expression levels, and synaptic organization were assessed to explore the antidepressant mechanisms of folic acid...
September 12, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904242/the-g-quadruplex-dna-stabilizing-drug-pyridostatin-promotes-dna-damage-and-downregulates-transcription-of-brca1-in-neurons
#9
Jose F Moruno-Manchon, Edward C Koellhoffer, Jayakrishnan Gopakumar, Shashank Hambarde, Nayun Kim, Louise D McCullough, Andrey S Tsvetkov
The G-quadruplex is a non-canonical DNA secondary structure formed by four DNA strands containing multiple runs of guanines. G-quadruplexes play important roles in DNA recombination, replication, telomere maintenance, and regulation of transcription. Small molecules that stabilize the G-quadruplexes alter gene expression in cancer cells. Here, we hypothesized that the G-quadruplexes regulate transcription in neurons. We discovered that pyridostatin, a small molecule that specifically stabilizes G-quadruplex DNA complexes, induced neurotoxicity and promoted the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in cultured neurons...
September 12, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903341/apobec3g-acts-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-mesenchymal-gliomas-by-sensitizing-cells-to-radiation-induced-cell-death
#10
Yu Wang, Shaofang Wu, Siyuan Zheng, Shuzhen Wang, Arjun Wali, Ravesanker Ezhilarasan, Erik P Sulman, Dimpy Koul, W K Alfred Yung
Genomic, transcriptional, and proteomic analyses of brain tumors reveal that subtypes differ in their pathway activity, progression, and response to therapy. We performed an expression profiling of Glioma Initiating Cells (GICs) and comparative analysis between different groups of GICs indicates major variations in gene expression. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed groups of GICs reflecting their heterogeneity, and among some of the genes as major regulators of mesenchymal phenotype, we identified ABOBEC3G as one of the most discriminating genes in mesenchymal group...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901253/bacterial-toxins-a-hope-towards-angiogenic-ailments
#11
Rekha Khandia, Ashok Kumar Munjal, Kuldeep Dhama, Yashpal Singh Malik
Angiogenesis is a vital physiological process essential for growth and maintenance of the body. It plays an important role during embryonic development and generally absent in adults with some exceptions like during wound repair and menstrual cycle in women. Excess as well as deficiency in angiogenesis, result in pathological conditions. It is a tightly regulated process; rely on cascade of several molecular signalling pathways involving many effectors like VEGF, FGF, PDGF, IGF etc. Excessive angiogenesis is associated with disorders like tumor, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetic retinopathy, endometriosis, psoriasis, adiposity...
September 11, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901192/neuronal-cell-sheets-of-cortical-motor-neuron-phenotype-derived-from-human-ipscs
#12
Noboru Suzuki, Nagisa Arimitsu, Jun Shimizu, Kenji Takai, Chieko Hirotsu, Yuji Ueda, Sueshige Wakisaka, Naruyoshi Fujiwara, Tomoko Suzuki
Transplantation of stem cells that differentiate into more mature neural cells brings about functional improvement in preclinical studies of stroke. Previous transplant approaches in the diseased brain utilized injection of the cells in a cell suspension. In addition, neural stem cells were preferentially used for grafting. However, these cells had no specific relationship to the damaged tissue of stroke and brain injury patients. The injection of cells in a suspension destroyed the cell-cell interactions that are suggested to be important for promoting functional integrity of cortical motor neurons...
August 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900382/immunization-enhances-the-natural-antibody-repertoire
#13
Dylan Beinart, Daniel Ren, Cinthia Pi, Susan Poulton, Zoie E Holzknecht, Chelsea Swanson, William Parker
The role of immunization in the production of antibodies directed against immunogens is widely appreciated in laboratory animals and in humans. However, the role of immunization in the development of "natural antibodies" has not been investigated. Natural antibodies are those antibodies present without known history of infection or immunization, and react to a wide range of targets, including "cryptic" self-antigens that are exposed upon cell death. In this study, the ability of immunization to elicit the production of natural antibodies in laboratory rats was evaluated...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899766/health-relevance-of-the-modification-of-low-grade-inflammation-in-ageing-inflammageing-and-the-role-of-nutrition
#14
REVIEW
Philip C Calder, Nabil Bosco, Raphaëlle Bourdet-Sicard, Lucile Capuron, Nathalie Delzenne, Joel Doré, Claudio Franceschi, Markus J Lehtinen, Tobias Recker, Stefano Salvioli, Francesco Visioli
Ageing of the global population has become a public health concern with an important socio-economic dimension. Ageing is characterised by an increase in the concentration of inflammatory markers in the bloodstream, a phenomenon that has been termed "inflammageing". The inflammatory response is beneficial as an acute, transient reaction to harmful conditions, facilitating the defence, repair, turnover and adaptation of many tissues. However, chronic and low grade inflammation is likely to be detrimental for many tissues and for normal functions...
September 9, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894056/-emergency-mitral-valvoplasty-for-papillary-muscle-rupture
#15
Keishi Ueyama, Motohiro Koyama, Kenji Otaki, Kae Ito
We experienced 2 emergency surgical cases of severe mitral valve regurgitation due to papillary muscle rupture. Case 1:a 69-year-old man presented with respiratory and cardiac failure due to mitral regurgitation. He had no history of myocardial infarction. Mitral valve repair with artificial cords was performed. The papillary muscle of the anterior leaflet was ruptured. The postoperative course was uneventful. Case 2:a 80-year-old man came to our hospital with cardiac arrest. Emergency coronary intervention was performed to the right coronary and intraaortic balloon pumping was inserted...
September 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889357/the-development-of-skull-prosthesis-through-active-contour-model
#16
Yi-Wen Chen, Cheng-Ting Shih, Chen-Yang Cheng, Yu-Cheng Lin
Skull defects result in brain infection and inadequate brain protection and pose a general danger to patient health. To avoid these situations and prevent re-injury, a prosthesis must be constructed and grafted onto the deficient region. With the development of rapid customization through additive manufacturing and 3D printing technology, skull prostheses can be fabricated accurately and efficiently prior to cranioplasty. However, an unfitted skull prosthesis made with a metal implant can cause repeated infection, potentially necessitating secondary surgery...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888435/resuscitation-and-growth-kinetics-of-sub-lethally-injured-listeria-monocytogenes-strains-following-fluorescence-activated-cell-sorting-facs
#17
Thulani Sibanda, Elna M Buys
This study investigated the effect of acid (pH4.2), osmotic (10% NaCl) and heat (55°C for 30min) stress induced injury on Listeria monocytogenes strains ATCC19115, 69, 159/10 and 243 using differential plating and flow cytometry coupled with membrane integrity indicators, thiazole orange (TO) and propidium iodide (PI) staining. Growth kinetics of injured cells sorted by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) were studied at 4, 25 and 37°C. The percentage of cell injury detectable by both flow cytometry and differential plating varied significantly among strains and stress treatments (p<0...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883688/a-controversial-medicolegal-issue-timing-the-onset-of-perinatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#18
REVIEW
Vittorio Fineschi, Rocco Valerio Viola, Raffaele La Russa, Alessandro Santurro, Paola Frati
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, as a result of chronic, subacute, and acute insults, represents the pathological consequence of fetal distress and birth or perinatal asphyxia, that is, "nonreassuring fetal status." Hypoxic-ischemic injury (HII) is typically characterized by an early phase of damage, followed by a delayed inflammatory local response, in an apoptosis-necrosis continuum. In the early phase, the cytotoxic edema and eventual acute lysis take place; with reperfusion, additional damage should be assigned to excitotoxicity and oxidative stress...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881671/malignant-pericytes-expressing-gt198-give-rise-to-tumor-cells-through-angiogenesis
#19
Liyong Zhang, Yan Wang, Mohammad H Rashid, Min Liu, Kartik Angara, Nahid F Mivechi, Nita J Maihle, Ali S Arbab, Lan Ko
Angiogenesis promotes tumor development. Understanding the crucial factors regulating tumor angiogenesis may reveal new therapeutic targets. Human GT198 (PSMC3IP or Hop2) is an oncoprotein encoded by a DNA repair gene that is overexpressed in tumor stromal vasculature to stimulate the expression of angiogenic factors. Here we show that pericytes expressing GT198 give rise to tumor cells through angiogenesis. GT198(+) pericytes and perivascular cells are commonly present in the stromal compartment of various human solid tumors and rodent xenograft tumor models...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879697/exogenous-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-at-a-50-ng-ml-concentration-has-a-significant-protective-effect-on-bilirubin-induced-cerebral-cortex-neuronal-injury
#20
Jianhua Yuan, Ying Zhang, Xiaolin Wang, Hongbiao Ma
BACKGROUND: Bilirubin encephalopathy is a common disabling disease in neonates. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the repair and regeneration of nerves following injury, as well as the maintenance of neuronal growth and differentiation. This study aimed to investigate the effect of exogenous BDNF on the apoptosis and survival of in vitro cultured neurons injured by bilirubin as well as determine the optimal BDNF concentration. METHODS: Rat cerebral cortex neurons cultured for 8 days were randomly divided into the control, bilirubin, and BDNF groups...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
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