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Next gen sequencing, genomics

P Devanna, X S Chen, J Ho, D Gajewski, S D Smith, A Gialluisi, C Francks, S E Fisher, D F Newbury, S C Vernes
Understanding the genetic factors underlying neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders is a major challenge given their prevalence and potential severity for quality of life. While large-scale genomic screens have made major advances in this area, for many disorders the genetic underpinnings are complex and poorly understood. To date the field has focused predominantly on protein coding variation, but given the importance of tightly controlled gene expression for normal brain development and disorder, variation that affects non-coding regulatory regions of the genome is likely to play an important role in these phenotypes...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
Tariq Daouda, Claude Perreault, Sébastien Lemieux
pyGeno is a Python package mainly intended for precision medicine applications that revolve around genomics and proteomics. It integrates reference sequences and annotations from Ensembl, genomic polymorphisms from the dbSNP database and data from next-gen sequencing into an easy to use, memory-efficient and fast framework, therefore allowing the user to easily explore subject-specific genomes and proteomes. Compared to a standalone program, pyGeno gives the user access to the complete expressivity of Python, a general programming language...
2016: F1000Research
Zehra Ordulu, Tammy Kammin, Harrison Brand, Vamsee Pillalamarri, Claire E Redin, Ryan L Collins, Ian Blumenthal, Carrie Hanscom, Shahrin Pereira, India Bradley, Barbara F Crandall, Pamela Gerrol, Mark A Hayden, Naveed Hussain, Bibi Kanengisser-Pines, Sibel Kantarci, Brynn Levy, Michael J Macera, Fabiola Quintero-Rivera, Erica Spiegel, Blair Stevens, Janet E Ulm, Dorothy Warburton, Louise E Wilkins-Haug, Naomi Yachelevich, James F Gusella, Michael E Talkowski, Cynthia C Morton
In this exciting era of "next-gen cytogenetics," integrating genomic sequencing into the prenatal diagnostic setting is possible within an actionable time frame and can provide precise delineation of balanced chromosomal rearrangements at the nucleotide level. Given the increased risk of congenital abnormalities in newborns with de novo balanced chromosomal rearrangements, comprehensive interpretation of breakpoints could substantially improve prediction of phenotypic outcomes and support perinatal medical care...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Qi Zheng, Elizabeth A Grice
Accurate mapping of next-generation sequencing (NGS) reads to reference genomes is crucial for almost all NGS applications and downstream analyses. Various repetitive elements in human and other higher eukaryotic genomes contribute in large part to ambiguously (non-uniquely) mapped reads. Most available NGS aligners attempt to address this by either removing all non-uniquely mapping reads, or reporting one random or "best" hit based on simple heuristics. Accurate estimation of the mapping quality of NGS reads is therefore critical albeit completely lacking at present...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Vairavan Lakshmanan, Dhiru Bansal, Jahnavi Kulkarni, Deepak Poduval, Srikar Krishna, Vidyanand Sasidharan, Praveen Anand, Aswin Seshasayee, Dasaradhi Palakodeti
In eukaryotes, 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) play important roles in regulating posttranscriptional gene expression. The 3'UTR is defined by regulated cleavage/polyadenylation of the pre-mRNA. The advent of next-generation sequencing technology has now enabled us to identify these events on a genome-wide scale. In this study, we used poly(A)-position profiling by sequencing (3P-Seq) to capture all poly(A) sites across the genome of the freshwater planarian, Schmidtea mediterranea, an ideal model system for exploring the process of regeneration and stem cell function...
October 13, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
C Rory Goodwin, Nancy Abu-Bonsrah, Mark H Bilsky, Jeremy J Reynolds, Laurence D Rhines, Ilya Laufer, Alexander C Disch, Arpad Bozsodi, Shreyaskumar R Patel, Ziya L Gokaslan, Daniel M Sciubba, Chetan Bettegowda
STUDY DESIGN: Literature review. OBJECTIVE: To describe advancements in molecular techniques, biomarkers, technology, and targeted therapeutics and the potential these modalities hold to predict treatment paradigms, clinical outcomes, and/or survival in patients diagnosed with primary spinal column tumors. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Advances in molecular technologies and techniques have influenced the prevention, diagnosis, and overall management of patients diagnosed with cancer...
October 15, 2016: Spine
Chang-Feng Zhang, Meng-Jie Ai, Ju-Xian Wang, Shao-Wei Liu, Li-Li Zhao, Jing Su, Cheng-Hang Sun, Li-Yan Yu, Yu-Qin Zhang
The taxonomic position of an actinobacterium, designated CPCC 204279T, which was isolated from a rhizosphere soil sample of the herb Limonium sinense collected from Xinjiang Province, China, was established using a polyphasic approach. Whole-cell hydrolysates of strain CPCC 204279T contained galactose and arabinose as diagnostic sugars and meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diamino acid. The muramic acid residues in the peptidoglycan were N-acetylated. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4). The phospholipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides...
October 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Sanjana Kaul, Tanwi Sharma, Manoj K Dhar
Endophytes, which mostly include bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, are the endosymbionts that reside asymptomatically in plants for at least a part of their life cycle. They have emerged as a valuable source of novel metabolites, industrially important enzymes and as stress relievers of host plant, but still many aspects of endophytic biology are unknown. Functions of individual endophytes are the result of their continuous and complex interactions with the host plant as well as other members of the host microbiome...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jianwei Zhang, Dave Kudrna, Ting Mu, Weiming Li, Dario Copetti, Yeisoo Yu, Jose Luis Goicoechea, Yang Lei, Rod A Wing
MOTIVATION: Next generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized our ability to rapidly and affordably generate vast quantities of sequence data. Once generated, raw sequences are assembled into contigs or scaffolds. However, these assemblies are mostly fragmented and inaccurate at the whole genome scale, largely due to the inability to integrate additional informative data sets (e.g. physical, optical & genetic maps). To address this problem, we developed a semi-automated software tool - Genome Puzzle Master (GPM) - that enables the integration of additional genomic signposts to edit and build "new-gen-assemblies" that result in high-quality "annotation-ready" pseudomolecules...
June 17, 2016: Bioinformatics
Shin Watanabe, Karolina Fučíková, Louise A Lewis, Paul O Lewis
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Discovery and morphological characterization of a novel epiphytic aquatic green alga increases our understanding of Chaetopeltidales, a poorly known order in Chlorophyceae. Chloroplast genomic data from this taxon reveals an unusual architecture previously unknown in green algae. METHODS: Using light and electron microscopy, we characterized the morphology and ultrastructure of a novel taxon of green algae. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of nuclear and plastid genes were used to test the hypothesized membership of this taxon in order Chaetopeltidales...
May 2016: American Journal of Botany
Jeannette P Staheli, Michael R Dyen, Gail H Deutsch, Ryan S Basom, Matthew P Fitzgibbon, Patrick Lewis, Serge Barcy
UNLABELLED: Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A), HHV-6B, and HHV-7 are classified as roseoloviruses and are highly prevalent in the human population. Roseolovirus reactivation in an immunocompromised host can cause severe pathologies. While the pathogenic potential of HHV-7 is unclear, it can reactivate HHV-6 from latency and thus contributes to severe pathological conditions associated with HHV-6. Because of the ubiquitous nature of roseoloviruses, their roles in such interactions and the resulting pathological consequences have been difficult to study...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Rumiko Izumi, Tetsuya Niihori, Toshiaki Takahashi, Naoki Suzuki, Maki Tateyama, Chigusa Watanabe, Kazuma Sugie, Hirotaka Nakanishi, Gen Sobue, Masaaki Kato, Hitoshi Warita, Yoko Aoki, Masashi Aoki
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the genetic causes of suspected dysferlinopathy and to reveal the genetic profile for myopathies with dysferlin deficiency. METHODS: Using next-generation sequencing, we analyzed 42 myopathy-associated genes, including DYSF, in 64 patients who were clinically or pathologically suspected of having dysferlinopathy. Putative pathogenic mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. In addition, copy-number variations in DYSF were investigated using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification...
December 2015: Neurology. Genetics
Jiwei Zhu, Sayed M Khalil, Robert D Mitchell, Brooke W Bissinger, Noble Egekwu, Daniel E Sonenshine, R Michael Roe
Juvenile hormone (JH) controls the growth, development, metamorphosis, and reproduction of insects. For many years, the general assumption has been that JH regulates tick and other acarine development and reproduction the same as in insects. Although researchers have not been able to find the common insect JHs in hard and soft tick species and JH applications appear to have no effect on tick development, it is difficult to prove the negative or to determine whether precursors to JH are made in ticks. The tick synganglion contains regions which are homologous to the corpora allata, the biosynthetic source for JH in insects...
2016: PloS One
Wijdan Al-Husseini, Yizhou Chen, Cedric Gondro, Robert M Herd, John P Gibson, Paul F Arthur
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate expression of mRNAs in many biological pathways. Liver plays an important role in the feed efficiency of animals and high and low efficient cattle demonstrated different gene expression profiles by microarray. Here we report comprehensive miRNAs profiles by next-gen deep sequencing in Angus cattle divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) and identify miRNAs related to feed efficiency in beef cattle. Two microRNA libraries were constructed from pooled RNA extracted from livers of low and high RFI cattle, and sequenced by Illumina genome analyser...
October 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Rodolphe Barrangou, Edward G Dudley
Bacteria occur ubiquitously in nature and are broadly relevant throughout the food supply chain, with diverse and variable tolerance levels depending on their origin, biological role, and impact on the quality and safety of the product as well as on the health of the consumer. With increasing knowledge of and accessibility to the microbial composition of our environments, food supply, and host-associated microbiota, our understanding of and appreciation for the ratio of beneficial to undesirable bacteria are rapidly evolving...
2016: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Tom Kashiwagi, Elisabeth A Maxwell, Andrea D Marshall, Ana B Christensen
Sharks and rays are increasingly being identified as high-risk species for extinction, prompting urgent assessments of their local or regional populations. Advanced genetic analyses can contribute relevant information on effective population size and connectivity among populations although acquiring sufficient regional sample sizes can be challenging. DNA is typically amplified from tissue samples which are collected by hand spears with modified biopsy punch tips. This technique is not always popular due mainly to a perception that invasive sampling might harm the rays, change their behaviour, or have a negative impact on tourism...
2015: PeerJ
Jun Hong Xia, Zhiyi Bai, Zining Meng, Yong Zhang, Le Wang, Feng Liu, Wu Jing, Zi Yi Wan, Jiale Li, Haoran Lin, Gen Hua Yue
Natural selection and selective breeding for genetic improvement have left detectable signatures within the genome of a species. Identification of selection signatures is important in evolutionary biology and for detecting genes that facilitate to accelerate genetic improvement. However, selection signatures, including artificial selection and natural selection, have only been identified at the whole genome level in several genetically improved fish species. Tilapia is one of the most important genetically improved fish species in the world...
2015: Scientific Reports
J D Manthey, J Klicka, G M Spellman
With methods for sequencing thousands of loci for many individuals, phylogeographic studies have increased inferential power and the potential for applications to new questions. In songbirds, strong patterns of inter-chromosomal synteny, the published genome of a songbird and the ability to obtain thousands of genetic loci for many individuals permit the investigation of differentiation between and diversity within lineages across chromosomes. Here, we investigate patterns of differentiation and diversity in Certhia americana, a widespread North American songbird, using next-generation sequencing...
August 2015: Heredity
Han Ming Gan, Mun Hua Tan, Huan You Gan, Yin Peng Lee, Christopher M Austin
The clawed lobster Nephrops norvegicus is an important commercial species in European waters. We have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the species from a partial genome scan using Next-Gen sequencing. The N. norvegicus has a mitogenome of 16,132 base pairs (71.22% A+ T content) comprising 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 21 transfer RNAs, and a putative 1259 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This mitogenome is the second fully characterized for the family Nephropidae and the first for the genus Nephrops...
September 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Christopher M Austin, Mun Hua Tan, Huan You Gan, Han Ming Gan
Next-Gen sequencing was used to recover the complete mitochondrial genome of Cherax tenuimanus. The mitogenome consists of 15,797 base pairs (68.14% A + T content) containing 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a 779 bp non-coding AT-rich region. Mitogenomes have now been recovered for all six species of Cherax native to Western Australia.
November 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
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