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Tharangrut Hanprasertpong, Kasem Raungrongmorakot, Alan Geater, Pawin Puapornpong, Wipada Laosooksathit, Aurasa Hemachandra, Maysita Suksamarnwong
Thalassaemia is a common haematologic health condition in Southeast Asian countries (SEA) including Thailand. Reducing the birth of new thalassaemia cases is an effective method to control disease. The background level of knowledge and attitude of pregnant women on the disease influences their decision to perform antenatal screening. Unfortunately, the information about pregnant women's knowledge and attitude on antenatal thalassaemia screening in a developing country such as Thailand is lacking. We therefore conducted this cross-sectional study to examine patients' knowledge and to evaluate the factors which influence the patient's knowledge and attitude on antenatal thalassaemia screening...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
(no author information available yet)
In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM), this paper deals with the education of PRM physicians in Europe. To acquire the wide field of competence needed, specialists in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine have to undergo a well organised and appropriately structured training of adequate duration. In fact they are required to develop not only medical knowledge, but also competence in patient care, specific procedural skills, and attitudes towards interpersonal relationship and communication, profound understanding of the main principles of medical ethics and public health, ability to apply policies of care and prevention for disabled people, capacity to master strategies for reintegration of disabled people into society, apply principles of quality assurance and promote a practice-based continuous professional development...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Rui Zhang, Ling Chen, Ya Deng Cui, Ge Li
In China, migrants with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have become a serious problem in the field of AIDS prevention. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of interventions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prevention for migrants in China and to identify factors associated with intervention efficacy. A computerized literature search of the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wan Fang, and PubMed databases was conducted to collect related articles published in China. Only self-control intervention studies or studies containing sections regarding self-control interventions wherein the method of intervention was health education were included...
December 2018: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
Ping-Yi Lin, Shu-Ping Lai, Min-Chao Wang, Jeng-Jong Liang, Chow-Feng Chiang, Hsien-Wen Kuo
This study aims to assess the relationship between risk perception, attitude, and avoidance among residents toward an urban incinerator in Taichung, Taiwan. A cross-sectional study was conducted and three schools were enrolled. The case group was composed of 514 residents who live near an incinerator. The control group was composed of 264 people nearly the same age and who have lived in that area basically the same period of time. All participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results of this study showed that there was no significant difference between the exposure group and the control group in risk perception and attitude regarding the incinerator...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Brian Garvey
According to most Evolutionary Psychologists, human moral attitudes are rooted in cognitive modules that evolved in the Stone Age to solve problems of social interaction. A crucial component of their view is that such cognitive modules remain unchanged since the Stone Age, and I question that here. I appeal to evolutionary rollback, the phenomenon where an organ becomes non-functional and eventually atrophies or disappears-e.g. cave-dwelling fish losing their eyes. I argue that even if cognitive modules evolved in the Stone Age to solve problems of social interaction, conditions since then have favoured rollback of those modules...
March 21, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Bahr Weiss, Tam Nguyen, Lam Trung, Victoria Ngo, Anna Lau
Tobacco smoking is one of the most significant modifiable behavioral health risk factors worldwide. Although smoking rates in some high-income countries (HIC) have declined, rates in many low-and-middle-income countries (LMIC) remain high. Adolescence is a key developmental risk period for smoking initiation. Research indicates that a major adolescent risk factor for tobacco smoking is antisocial deviance, which includes such behaviors as aggression, risk-taking, and rule-breaking. The linkages between antisocial deviance and smoking suggest that these behaviors and their underlying attitudes can be important targets for smoking prevention programs, but for public health efficiency it is important to target the components of antisocial deviance most closely linked smoking...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Farhad Adhami Moghadam, Sara Afshari Azad, Mohammad Sahebalzamani, Hojjatollah Farahani, Mojgantabatabaee Jamaran
Introduction: Having awareness, interest, and positive attitude toward one's fields of study leads to the development of a compatibility between demands and expectations on the one hand and future career on the other hand. This study was carried out to determine the level of awareness, attitude, and interest of medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy students of Islamic Azad University, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch toward their own field of study on entering university. Materials and Methods: This research is a basic descriptive study conducted on 273 students who had just entered university...
October 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Yu-Tung Chang, Kuang-Chau Tsai, Brett Williams
Objectives: Core competencies are considered the foundation for establishing Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) and paramedic curricula, and for ensuring performance standards in the delivery of prehospital care. This study surveyed EMT instructors and medical directors to identify the most desirable core competencies for all levels of EMTs in Taiwan. Methods: A principal components analysis with Varimax rotation was conducted. An online questionnaire was distributed to obtain perspectives of EMT instructors and medical directors on the most desirable core competencies for EMTs...
2018: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
Jan P Vandenbroucke, Neil Pearce
Where do new research questions come from? This is at best only partially taught in courses or textbooks about clinical or epidemiological research. Methods are taught under the assumption that a researcher already knows the research question and knows which methods will fit that question. Similarly, the real complexity of the thought processes that lead to a scientific undertaking is almost never described in published papers. In this paper, we first discuss how to get an idea that is worth researching. We describe sources of new ideas and how to foster a creative attitude by "cultivating your thoughts"...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Olga Sakson-Obada, Paulina Chudzikiewicz, Daniel Pankowski, Marek Jarema
Disturbances in body experience are described as key schizophrenia symptoms and early disease predictors. In case studies, different disorders relating to body experience are presented, but only a few empirical studies have aimed to distinguish the characteristics of body experience in schizophrenia, and these have been selected arbitrarily and without reference to cohesive theoretical model. To integrate this fragmentary approach, we propose a body self (BS) model, composed of: functions; representations (e...
2018: Current Psychology
Ananya Doda, Gita Negi, Dushyant Singh Gaur, Meena Harsh
INTRODUCTION: Health-care professionals are trained health-care providers who occupy a potential vanguard position in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention programs and the management of AIDS patients. This study was performed to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) and perceptions among health-care professionals at a tertiary health-care institution in Uttarakhand, India, and to identify the target group where more education on HIV is needed...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
James Laurence, Katharina Schmid, Miles Hewstone
This study advances the current literature investigating the relationship between contextual out-group exposure, inter-group attitudes and the role of inter-group contact. Firstly, it introduces the concept of contact-valence into this relationship; that is, whether contact is experienced positively or negatively. Secondly, it presents a comparative analysis of how processes of out-group exposure and frequency of (valenced) contact affect prejudice across both neighbourhoods and workplaces. Applying path analysis modelling to a nationally-representative sample of white British individuals in England, we demonstrate, across both contexts, that increasing out-group exposure is associated with higher rates of both positively- and negatively-valenced contact...
2018: Social Indicators Research
Jennifer Jane Hardes
The positive relationship between exercise and mental health is often taken for granted in today's society, despite the lack of academic literature evidencing this symbiosis. Gender is considered a significant determinant in a number of mental health diagnoses. Indeed, women are considered twice as likely as men to experience the most pervasive mental health condition, depression. Exercise for women's mental health is promoted through various macrolevel charity, as well as microlevel, campaigns that influence government healthcare policy and National Health Service guidelines...
March 21, 2018: Medical Humanities
Aimée Gayed, Josie S Milligan-Saville, Jennifer Nicholas, Bridget T Bryan, Anthony D LaMontagne, Allison Milner, Ira Madan, Rafael A Calvo, Helen Christensen, Arnstein Mykletun, Nicholas Glozier, Samuel B Harvey
Managers are in an influential position to make decisions that can impact on the mental health and well-being of their employees. As a result, there is an increasing trend for organisations to provide managers with training in how to reduce work-based mental health risk factors for their employees. A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify workplace interventions for managers with an emphasis on the mental health of employees reporting directing to them. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate pooled effect sizes using the random effects model for both manager and employee outcomes...
March 21, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Jillian Pugatch, Emily Grenen, Stacy Surla, Mary Schwarz, Heather Cole-Lewis
BACKGROUND: The rise in usage of and access to new technologies in recent years has led to a growth in digital health behavior change interventions. As the shift to digital platforms continues to grow, it is increasingly important to consider how the field of information architecture (IA) can inform the development of digital health interventions. IA is the way in which digital content is organized and displayed, which strongly impacts users' ability to find and use content. While many information architecture best practices exist, there is a lack of empirical evidence on the role it plays in influencing behavior change and health outcomes...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
José M Tomás, Laura Galiana, Irene Fernández
The aim of current research is to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the SF-8, overcoming previous shortcomings. A double line of analyses was used: competitive structural equations models to establish factorial validity, and Item Response theory to analyze item psychometric characteristics and information. 593 people aged 60 years or older, attending long life learning programs at the University were surveyed. Their age ranged from 60 to 92 years old. 67.6% were women. The survey included scales on personality dimensions, attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors related to aging...
March 22, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Catharina Gustavsson, Maria Nordqvist, Kristina Bröms, Lars Jerdén, Lena V Kallings, Lars Wallin
BACKGROUND: The method, Swedish Physical Activity on Prescription (SPAP), has been launched in Swedish healthcare to promote physical activity for prevention and treatment of lifestyle related health disorders. Despite scientific support for the method, and education campaigns, it is used to a limited extent by health professionals. The aim of the study was to describe the views of health professionals on perceived facilitators, barriers and requirements for successful implementation of SPAP in primary healthcare...
March 21, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
E Bethan Davies, Emmeline Beever, Cris Glazebrook
BACKGROUND: Medical students face many barriers to seeking out professional help for their mental health, including stigma relating to mental illness, and often prefer to seek support and advice from fellow students. Improving medical students' mental health literacy and abilities to support someone experiencing a mental health problem could reduce barriers to help seeking and improve mental health in this population. Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) is an evidence-based intervention designed to improve mental health literacy and ability to respond to someone with a mental health problem...
March 21, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Amy O'Donnell, Latifa Abidi, Jamie Brown, Nadine Karlsson, Per Nilsen, Kerstin Roback, Janna Skagerström, Kristin Thomas
BACKGROUND: Despite robust evidence for their effectiveness, it has proven difficult to translate alcohol prevention activities into routine health care practice. Previous research has identified numerous provider-level barriers affecting implementation, but these have been less extensively investigated in the wider population. We sought to: (1) investigate patients' beliefs and attitudes to being asked about alcohol consumption in health care; and (2) identify the characteristics of those who are supportive of addressing alcohol consumption in health care...
March 21, 2018: BMC Public Health
Miriam Harter, Sebastian Mosch, Hans-Joachim Mosler
BACKGROUND: Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is a widely used, community-based approach to tackle open defecation and its health-related problems. Although CLTS has been shown to be successful in previous studies, little is known about how CLTS works. We used a cross-sectional case study to identify personal, physical, and social context factors and psychosocial determinants from the Risks, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, and Self-Regulation (RANAS) model of behavior change, which are crucial for latrine ownership and analyze how participation in CLTS is associated with those determinants...
March 21, 2018: BMC Public Health
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