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Vendela Berglund, Gustav Mattsson, Peter Magnusson
Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease and the prevalence increases with age. Common symptoms include dyspnea, angina, and syncope. Echocardiography is a cornerstone in diagnosis of aortic stenosis. Severe aortic stenosis is defined as peak aortic jet velocity ≥4 m/s, a mean transvalvular gradient ≥40 mmHg, and/or an aortic valve area <1.0 cm2. The two-year mortality in patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis is 50 percent without intervention. The only efficient treatment is intervention, either open heart valve replacement or percutaneous transcatheter implantation of an aortic valve prosthesis (TAVI), which both provide symptomatic relief and improved survival...
April 23, 2018: Läkartidningen
Longqing Yi, Baifei Shen, Alexander Pukhov, Tünde Fülöp
Magnetic reconnection (MR) is a fundamental plasma process associated with conversion of the magnetic field energy into kinetic plasma energy, which is invoked to explain many non-thermal signatures in astrophysical events. Here we demonstrate that ultrafast relativistic MR in a magnetically dominated regime can be triggered by a readily available (TW-mJ-class) laser interacting with a micro-scale plasma slab. Three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations show that when the electrons beams excited on both sides of the slab approach the end of the plasma, MR occurs and it gives rise to efficient energy dissipation that leads to the emission of relativistic electron jets with cut-off energy ~12 MeV...
April 23, 2018: Nature Communications
Sonoko Misawa, Satoshi Kuwabara, Yasunori Sato, Nobuko Yamaguchi, Kengo Nagashima, Kanako Katayama, Yukari Sekiguchi, Yuta Iwai, Hiroshi Amino, Tomoki Suichi, Takanori Yokota, Yoichiro Nishida, Tadashi Kanouchi, Nobuo Kohara, Michi Kawamoto, Junko Ishii, Motoi Kuwahara, Hidekazu Suzuki, Koichi Hirata, Norito Kokubun, Ray Masuda, Juntaro Kaneko, Ichiro Yabe, Hidenao Sasaki, Ken-Ichi Kaida, Hiroshi Takazaki, Norihiro Suzuki, Shigeaki Suzuki, Hiroyuki Nodera, Naoko Matsui, Shoji Tsuji, Haruki Koike, Ryo Yamasaki, Susumu Kusunoki
BACKGROUND: Despite the introduction of plasmapheresis and immunoglobulin therapy, many patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome still have an incomplete recovery. Evidence from pathogenesis studies suggests the involvement of complement-mediated peripheral nerve damage. We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of eculizumab, a humanised monoclonal antibody against the complement protein C5, in patients with severe Guillain-Barré syndrome. METHODS: This study was a 24 week, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised phase 2 trial done at 13 hospitals in Japan...
April 20, 2018: Lancet Neurology
Shahrouz Amini, Maryam Tadayon, J Q Isaiah Chua, Ali Miserez
The Arthropoda, the largest phylum of the Animal Kingdom, have successfully evolved to survive various ecological constraints under a wide range of environmental conditions. Central to this survival are the structural designs developed in their exoskeletons and their raptorial appendages for protection and hunting. One such example, the pistol shrimp, is a shallow-water crustacean that is well-known for its aggressive hunting behavior, using its snapper claw to trigger the nucleation of cavitation bubbles that strike targets...
April 20, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Donghoon Song, Fazel Zare Bidoky, Woo Jin Hyun, Steven Brett Walker, Jennifer A Lewis, C Daniel Frisbie
We present a self-aligned process for printing thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic with singled walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) networks as the channel material. The SCALE process (self-aligned capillarity assisted lithography for electronics) combines imprint lithography with inkjet printing. Specifically, inks are jetted into imprinted reservoirs, where they then flow into narrow device cavities due to capillarity. Here, we incorporate a composite high-k gate dielectric and an aligned conducting polymer gate electrode in the SCALE process to enable a smaller areal footprint than prior designs that yields low voltage SWCNT TFTs with average p-type carrier mobilities of 4 cm2 /V·s and ON/OFF current ratios of 104 ...
April 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Marta Revilla-León, Mutlu Özcan
There are 7 categories of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, and a wide variety of materials can be used to build a CAD 3D object. The present article reviews the main AM processes for polymers for dental applications: stereolithography (SLA), digital light processing (DLP), material jetting (MJ), and material extrusion (ME). The manufacturing process, accuracy, and precision of these methods will be reviewed, as well as their prosthodontic applications.
April 22, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
Boštjan Rajh, Chungen Yin, Niko Samec, Matjaž Hriberšek, Filip Kokalj, Matej Zadravec
Grate-fired boilers are commonly used to burn biomass/wastes for heat and power production. In spite of the recent breakthrough in integration of advanced secondary air systems in grate boilers, grate-firing technology needs to be advanced for higher efficiency and lower emissions. In this paper, innovative staging of combustion air and recycled flue gas in a 13 MWth waste wood-fired grate boiler is comprehensively studied based on a numerical model that has been previously validated. In particular, the effects of the jet momentum, position and orientation of the combustion air and recycled flue gas streams on in-furnace mixing, combustion and pollutant emissions from the boiler are examined...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Yuequn Tao, Jun Cai, Xiulan Huai, Bin Liu
Antibiotics degradation remains a longstanding challenge in wastewater treatment. Towards this objective, we have developed a novel technique combining cavitating jets impingement with multiple synergetic methods, i.e., UV/Fenton, analogous Fenton, and photocatalytic oxidation in the present work. Three kinds of antibiotics namely amoxicillin, doxycycline and sulfadiazine sodium, are selected as model pollutants. Individual application of cavitating jets impingement is firstly conducted to evaluate the effects of jets impinging forms and nozzle inlet pressure...
June 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Karthikeyan Selvam, Priya Mandal, Harpreet Singh Grewal, Harpreet Singh Arora
Cavitation erosion remains the primary cause of material degradation in fluid machinery components operating at high speed. Micro-jets/shock waves caused by implosion of bubbles on material surface results in significant material loss and premature failure of the components. The presence of corrosive medium further exuberates this effect, causing rapid degradation. Here, we demonstrate a novel pathway to control cavitation erosion-corrosion by tailoring the surface properties using submerged friction stir processing (FSP), a severe plastic deformation process...
June 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Yang Zheng, Xiaolong Li, Yan Jin, Gang Feng, Zhining Xia, Qian Gou
The rotational spectra of two isotopologues have been recorded and interpreted for the van der Waals complex chlorotrifluoroethylene-argon, by using pulsed jet Fourier transform microwave technique. Argon locates out of the ethylene plane, in the FCCF cavity of chlorotrifluoroethylene. The preference of the CFCl side over CF2 can be attributed to the presence of "π-hole" over the double bond in chlorotrifluoroethylene. Non-covalent interaction analysis indicated that the van der Waals interaction occurs between argon and two sites of chlorotrifluoroethylene (the π-system and the F atom of the CFCl top)...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Mingxing Zhang, Haiyan Chen
Bulk industrial solid wastes occupy a lot of our resources and release large amounts of toxic and hazardous substances to the surrounding environment, demanding innovative strategies for grinding, classification, collection, and recycling for economically ultrafine powder. A new technology for grinding, classification, collection, and recycling solid waste is proposed, using the superheated steam produced from the industrial exhaust steam to disperse, grind, classify, and collect the industrial solid waste...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Can Zhou, Guiling Deng, Junhui Li, Ji'an Duan
To improve the jet performance of a bi-piezoelectric jet dispenser, mathematical and simulation models were established according to the operating principle. In order to improve the accuracy and reliability of the simulation calculation, a viscosity model of the fluid was fitted to a fifth-order function with shear rate based on rheological test data, and the needle displacement model was fitted to a nine-order function with time based on real-time displacement test data. The results show that jet performance is related to the diameter of the nozzle outlet and the cone angle of the nozzle, and the impacts of the flow channel structure were confirmed...
April 20, 2018: Sensors
John R Taylor, Scott Bachman, Megan Stamper, Phil Hosegood, Katherine Adams, Jean-Baptiste Sallee, Ricardo Torres
The eastward-flowing Antarctic circumpolar current (ACC) plays a central role in the global ocean overturning circulation and facilitates the exchange of water between the ocean surface and interior. Submesoscale eddies and fronts with scales between 1 and 10 km are regularly observed in the upper ocean and are associated with strong vertical circulations and enhanced stratification. Despite their importance in other locations, comparatively little is known about submesoscales in the Southern Ocean. We present results from new observations, models, and theories showing that submesoscales are qualitatively changed by the strong jet associated with the ACC in the Scotia Sea, east of Drake Passage...
March 2018: Science Advances
Isabel A Houghton, Jeffrey R Koseff, Stephen G Monismith, John O Dabiri
Biologically generated turbulence has been proposed as an important contributor to nutrient transport and ocean mixing1-3 . However, to produce non-negligible transport and mixing, such turbulence must produce eddies at scales comparable to the length scales of stratification in the ocean. It has previously been argued that biologically generated turbulence is limited to the scale of the individual animals involved 4 , which would make turbulence created by highly abundant centimetre-scale zooplankton such as krill irrelevant to ocean mixing...
April 18, 2018: Nature
M Rincón, A Márquez, R Herrera, A Alonso-Torres, J L Granja-Bruña, B van Wyk de Vries
Catastrophic volcanic eruptions triggered by landslide collapses can jet upwards or blast sideways. Magma intrusion is related to both landslide-triggered eruptive scenarios (lateral or vertical), but it is not clear how such different responses are produced, nor if any precursor can be used for forecasting them. We approach this problem with physical analogue modelling enhanced with X-ray Multiple Detector Computed Tomography scanning, used to track evolution of internal intrusion, and its related faulting and surface deformation...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vijay Govindarajan, John Mousel, H S Udaykumar, Sarah C Vigmostad, David D McPherson, Hyunggun Kim, Krishnan B Chandran
Highly resolved three-dimensional (3D) fluid structure interaction (FSI) simulation using patient-specific echocardiographic data can be a powerful tool for accurately and thoroughly elucidating the biomechanics of mitral valve (MV) function and left ventricular (LV) fluid dynamics. We developed and validated a strongly coupled FSI algorithm to fully characterize the LV flow field during diastolic MV opening under physiologic conditions. Our model revealed that distinct MV deformation and LV flow patterns developed during different diastolic stages...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kakeru Ito, Miho Yasuda, Yuki Maeda, Jean-Michel Fustin, Yoshiaki Yamaguchi, Yuka Kono, Hiromitsu Negoro, Akihiro Kanematsu, Osamu Ogawa, Masao Doi, Hitoshi Okamura
Micturition behavior follows regular day/night fluctuations, and unwanted increase in micturition could occur during night in jet lag condition. To clarify the effect of jet lag on micturition behavior, we simultaneously detected circadian micturition patterns and locomotor activity rhythms of mice under experimental jet lag conditions, by applying the improved automated Voided Stain on Paper (aVSOP) method. When wild-type (WT) mice were phase-advanced for 8 hours, day-night variation of micturition was disrupted suddenly, and this irregular daily micturition continued until 8 days, although their activity rhythms entrained gradually day by day until 8 days...
2018: Biomedical Research
T Katherine Tamai, Yusuke Nakane, Wataru Ota, Akane Kobayashi, Masateru Ishiguro, Naoya Kadofusa, Keisuke Ikegami, Kazuhiro Yagita, Yasufumi Shigeyoshi, Masaki Sudo, Taeko Nishiwaki-Ohkawa, Ayato Sato, Takashi Yoshimura
Chronic circadian disruption due to shift work or frequent travel across time zones leads to jet-lag and an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. The development of new pharmaceuticals to treat circadian disorders, however, is costly and hugely time-consuming. We therefore performed a high-throughput chemical screen of existing drugs for circadian clock modulators in human U2OS cells, with the aim of repurposing known bioactive compounds. Approximately 5% of the drugs screened altered circadian period, including the period-shortening compound dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA; also known as prasterone)...
April 17, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Lynn Ferres, Khai-Nghi Truong, Wolfgang Stahl, Ha Vinh Lam Nguyen
To determine the structural properties of 2,3-dimethyl-anisole, a multidisciplinary approach was carried out where gas phase rotational spectroscopy recorded from 2 to 26.5 GHz using a pulsed molecular jet Fourier transform microwave spectrometer was combined with solid state X-ray diffraction. Both methods revealed that only one conformer with a heavy-atom planar structure exists. In the solid state, the packing in the monoclinic space group is P21/n with Z = 4. In the gas phase spectrum, torsional splittings due to the internal rotations of two methyl groups attached on the phenyl ring were resolved and analyzed, providing an estimate of the barriers to methyl internal rotation of V3 = 26...
April 17, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Dazhi Wang, Xiaojun Zhao, Yigao Lin, Junsheng Liang, Tongqun Ren, Zhenghao Liu, Jiangyu Li
Controlled patterning of nanostructures at desired positions is of great importance for high-performance M/NEMS devices. Here, we demonstrate a high-resolution, high-speed and cost-effective fabrication method, named coaxial focused electrohydrodynamic jet printing, to print functional nanostructures. A coaxial needle was designed and developed; a functional ink and high viscosity liquid are applied in the inner and outer needle, respectively. Under optimised conditions, a stable coaxial jet is formed; then, the electrical shearing force and electrical field induce viscous shearing force and internal pressure that are jointly applied on the inner functional ink, focusing the inner jet on the nanoscale...
April 17, 2018: Nanoscale
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