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l carnitine

Sukru Tas, Omer Faruk Ozkan, Oztekin Cikman, Asli Kiraz, Yilmaz Akgun, Muammer Karaayvaz
PURPOSE: To evaluate histopathologically the radioprotective effect of L-carnitine on the colonic mucosa in rats undergoing abdominopelvic irradiation. METHODS: Thirty-two rats were randomly assigned to four experimental groups: intraperitoneal administration of normal saline (group 1) or L-carnitine (300 mL/kg; group 2), followed in groups 3 and 4, respectively, by one dose of abdominopelvic radiation (20 Gy) 30 min later. Rats were sacrificed 5 days after radiation, and their descending colons were resected for histopathological evaluation of the presence and severity of damage...
September 2016: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
Filippo Ingoglia, Rossana Visigalli, Bianca Maria Rotoli, Amelia Barilli, Benedetta Riccardi, Paola Puccini, Marco Milioli, Maria Di Lascia, Gino Bernuzzi, Valeria Dall'Asta
l-Carnitine, in addition to playing a fundamental role in the β-oxidation of fatty acids, has been recently identified as a modulator of immune function, although the mechanisms that underlie this role remain to be clarified. In this study, we addressed the modulation of l-carnitine transport and expression of related transporters during differentiation of human monocytes to macrophages. Whereas monocytes display a modest uptake of l-carnitine, GM-CSF-induced differentiation massively increased the saturable Na(+)-dependent uptake of l-carnitine...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Abbas H K Al Temimi, Bas J G E Pieters, Y Vijayendar Reddy, Paul B White, Jasmin Mecinović
Trimethyllysine hydroxylase (TMLH) is a non-haem Fe(ii) and 2-oxoglutarate dependent oxygenase that catalyses the C-3 hydroxylation of an unactivated C-H bond in l-trimethyllysine in the first step of carnitine biosynthesis. The examination of trimethyllysine analogues as substrates for human TMLH reveals that the enzyme does hydroxylate substrates other than natural l-trimethyllysine.
October 12, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Ruijun Li, Fengyu Li, Qiang Feng, Zhipeng Liu, Zhuye Jie, Bo Wen, Xun Xu, Shilong Zhong, Guanglei Li, Kunlun He
This study performed untargeted metabolomics for plasma samples from 40 coronary heart disease patients and 43 healthy controls by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry technology to find a set of effective biomarkers for CHD diagnosis and prognosis. The discriminating metabolites were extracted and analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis methods. We found five metabolites (1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, methylitaconate, N-acetyl-d-glucosamine 6-phosphate and l-carnitine) contributing to the separation of CHD patients from healthy controls, and a subset of two metabolites in these five were identified as potential plasma biomarkers for CHD diagnosis...
September 22, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
A Mishra, I J Reddy, Psp Gupta, S Mondal
The objective of this study was to find out the impact of L-carnitine (10 mM) on developmental regulation of preimplantation sheep embryos cultured in vitro when supplemented in maturation medium and post-fertilization medium separately. Subsequent objective was to observe the L-carnitine-mediated alteration in expression of apoptotic genes (Bcl2, Bax, Casp3 and PCNA) in sheep oocytes and developing embryos produced in vitro. Oocytes matured with L-carnitine showed significantly (p < .05) higher cleavage (67...
September 30, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Hanene Miladi, Hamouda Elabed, Rihab Ben Slama, Amel Rhim, Amina Bakhrouf
Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen of humans and other animals. The striking ability to survive several stresses usually used for food preservation makes L. monocytogenes one of the biggest concerns to the food industry. This ubiquity can be partly explained by the ability of the organism to grow and persist at very low temperatures, a consequence of its ability to accumulate cryoprotective compound called osmolytes. A quantitative RT-PCR assay was used to measure mRNA transcript accumulation for the stress response genes opuCA and betL (encoding carnitine and betaine transporters, respectively) and the housekeeping gene 16S rRNA...
October 1, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
T G Demarest, R A Schuh, E L Waite, J Waddell, M C McKenna, Gary Fiskum
Males are more susceptible to brain mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction following neonatal cerebral hypoxic-ischemia (HI) than females. Mitochondrial biogenesis has been implicated in the cellular response to HI injury, but sex differences in biogenesis following HI have not been described. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial biogenesis or the expression of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) proteins are differentially stimulated in the brains of 8 day old male and female rats one day following HI, and promoted by treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
Ang-Peng Wong, Aleksandra Niedzwiecki, Matthias Rath
Heart failure is a multifactorial disease with poor prognosis. There are many hypotheses regarding the cause of heart failure. Leading among them are the hemodynamic and the neuro-hormonal hypotheses. Although the energy depletion hypothesis has been fairly recent, there is evidence suggesting that declining bioenergy plays a major role in heart failure. This review explored the myocardial energy depletion hypothesis from the role of micronutrients in correcting and alleviating symptoms of heart failure. Even though focus was on key nutrients such as coenzyme Q10, thiamine, riboflavin, L-carnitine, and taurine, emphasis was on the combined effect of multiple micronutrients as a whole...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Theodoros Eleftheriadis, Georgios Pissas, Maria Sounidaki, Konstantina Tsogka, Nikolaos Antoniadis, Georgia Antoniadi, Vassilios Liakopoulos, Ioannis Stefanidis
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is expressed in antigen-presenting cells and by degrading L-tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway suppresses CD4+ T-cell proliferation, induces apoptosis and promotes differentiation towards a regulatory as opposed to an effector phenotype. Recent findings revealed that the above effects may be mediated through alterations in T-cell metabolism. In this study, the effect of IDO on fatty acid β-oxidation in CD4+ T-cells was evaluated in human mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLRs) using the IDO inhibitor, 1-DL-methyl-tryptophan...
September 23, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Yoko Tsukuda, Goki Suda, Seiji Tsunematsu, Jun Ito, Fumiyuki Sato, Katsumi Terashita, Masato Nakai, Takuya Sho, Osamu Maehara, Tomoe Shimazaki, Megumi Kimura, Kenichi Morikawa, Mitsuteru Natsuizaka, Koji Ogawa, Shunsuke Ohnishi, Makoto Chuma, Naoya Sakamoto
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been reported to hijack fatty acid metabolism in infected hepatocytes, taking advantage of lipid droplets for virus assembly. In this study, we analyzed the anti-HCV activity of l-carnitine, a substance involved in the transport of fatty acids into mitochondria. JFH-1 or HCV replicon-transfected Huh7.5.1 cells were treated with or without l-carnitine to examine its anti-HCV effects. The effects of l-carnitine on HCV entry, HCV-induced adipogenesis and lipid droplet formation, and HCV-induced oxidative stress were examined...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
M A Gooding, D L Minikhiem, A K Shoveller
L-carnitine (LC) is included in select adult feline diets for weight management. This study investigated whether feeding adult cats with diets containing either 188 ppm of LC (LC188) or 121 ppm of LC (LC121) and feeding them 120% of maintenance energy requirement (MER) resulted in differences in total energy expenditure (EE), metabolic fuel selection, BW, body composition, and behavior. Cats (n = 20, 4 ± 1.2 yrs) were stratified for BCS and randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments and fed for 16 weeks...
2016: TheScientificWorldJournal
Yuanchao Cao, Xinsheng Wang, Shenqian Li, Hongqiang Wang, Lei Yu, Peitao Wang
In order to explore the possibility of L-carnitine (LC) as a protector of male fertility in chemotherapy, we observed the damage of cyclophosphamide (CTX) to Sertoli cells and the protective effect of LC on the testis Sertoli cells from such damage in this study. Healthy adult male mice were divided into three groups. Chemotherapy group were injected intraperitoneally with the CTX; Protective agent group were injected both LC and CTX; Control group mice were injected only with isochoric physiological saline; all once a day for 5 days...
September 21, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
G Xu, J S Hansen, X J Zhao, S Chen, M Hoene, X L Wang, J O Clemmesen, N H Secher, H U Häring, B K Pedersen, R Lehmann, C Weigert, P Plomgaard
BACKGROUND: Plasma acylcarnitine levels are elevated by physiological conditions such as fasting and exercise but also in states of insulin resistance and obesity. AIM: To elucidate the contribution of liver and skeletal muscle to plasma acylcarnitines in the fasting state and during exercise in humans. METHODS: In two independent studies young healthy males fasted overnight and performed an acute bout of exercise to investigate either acylcarnitines in skeletal muscle biopsies and arterial-to-venous plasma differences over the exercising and resting leg (n=9) or the flux over the hepato-splanchnic bed (n=10)...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Shin-Ichiro Hagiwara, Mitsuru Kubota, Ryusuke Nambu, Seiichi Kagimoto
BACKGROUND: It is important to assess pediatric patients for nutritional deficiencies when they are receiving specific interventions, such as enteral feeding. We focused our attention on measuring C0 and C5-OH with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), which is performed as part of the newborn mass screening. The purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of MS/MS for screening carnitine and biotin deficiencies. METHODS: Forty-two children (24 males and 18 females) were enrolled between December 2013 and December 2015...
September 16, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Maria Chondronikola, Rabia Asghar, Xiaojun Zhang, Edgar L Dillon, William J Durham, Zhanpin Wu, Craig Porter, Maria Camacho-Hughes, Yingxin Zhao, Allan R Brasier, Elena Volpi, Melinda Sheffield-Moore, Nicola Abate, Labros Sidossis, Demidmaa Tuvdendorj
BACKGROUND: Circulating acyl-carnitines (acyl-CNTs) are associated with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in both rodents and humans. However, the mechanisms whereby circulating acyl-CNTs are increased in these conditions and their role in whole-body metabolism remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if, in humans, blood cells contribute in production of circulating acyl-CNTs and associate with whole-body fat metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight non-diabetic healthy women (age: 47 ± 19 y; BMI: 26 ± 1 kg·m(-2)) underwent stable isotope tracer infusion and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study to determine in vivo whole-body fatty acid flux and insulin sensitivity...
September 6, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Benedetta Bigio, Carla Nasca, Bruce S McEwen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Aisha L Walker, Solomon Ofori-Acquah
The clinical benefits of hydroxyurea (HU) treatment in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are due largely to increased γ-globin expression. However, mechanisms that control γ-globin expression by HU in erythroid progenitors are incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the role of two HU transporters, urea transporter B (UTB) and organic cation/carnitine transporter 1 (OCTN1), in this process. Endogenous expression of both transporters peaked toward the end of erythroid differentiation. However, unlike UTB, HU-induced OCTN1 expression correlated positively with γ-globin level and was sustained throughout the period of induction...
September 8, 2016: Experimental Hematology
Davy G H A van Dam, Antoinetta J M Beijers, Gerard Vreugdenhil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2016: Acta Oncologica
E Matthew Morris, Grace M E Meers, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Justin A Fletcher, Xiaorong Fu, Kartik Shankar, Shawn C Burgess, Jamal A Ibdah, R Scott Rector, John P Thyfault
Rats selectively bred for high capacity running (HCR) or low capacity running (LCR) display divergence for intrinsic aerobic capacity and hepatic mitochondrial oxidative capacity, both factors associated with susceptibility for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Here, we tested if HCR and LCR rats display differences in susceptibility for hepatic steatosis after 16 wk of high-fat diets (HFD) with either 45% or 60% of kcals from fat. HCR rats were protected against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis, whereas only the 60% HFD induced steatosis in LCR rats, as marked by a doubling of liver triglycerides...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jee Hyun An, Sin Gon Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2016: Endocrine Journal
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