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acetyl l carnitine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678548/acetyl-l-carnitine-is-an-anti-angiogenic-agent-targeting-the-vegfr2-and-cxcr4-pathways
#1
Denisa Baci, Antonino Bruno, Barbara Bassani, Matilde Tramacere, Lorenzo Mortara, Adriana Albini, Douglas M Noonan
Carnitines play an important role in the energy exchange in cells, involved in the transport of fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane. L-Acetylcarnitine (ALCAR) is an acetic acid ester of carnitine that has higher bioavailability than carnitine and is considered a fat-burning energizer supplement. We previously found that in serum samples from prostate cancer (PCa) patients, 3 carnitine family members were significantly decreased, suggesting a potential protective role of carnitine against PCa...
April 17, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668854/prostate-cancer-chemoprevention-by-sulforaphane-in-a-preclinical-mouse-model-is-associated-with-inhibition-of-fatty-acid-metabolism
#2
Krishna B Singh, Su-Hyeong Kim, Eun-Ryeong Hahm, Subrata K Pore, Bruce L Jacobs, Shivendra V Singh
Increased de novo synthesis of fatty acids is a rather unique and targetable mechanism of human prostate cancer. We have shown previously that oral administration of sulforaphane (SFN) significantly inhibits the incidence and/or burden of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and well-differentiated adenocarcinoma in TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mice. The present study used cellular models of prostate cancer and archived plasma/adenocarcinoma tissues and sections from the TRAMP study to demonstrate inhibition of fatty acid synthesis by SFN treatment in vitro and in vivo...
April 13, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659013/dietary-fat-and-fiber-interact-to-uniquely-modify-global-histone-post-translational-epigenetic-programming-in-a-rat-colon-cancer-progression-model
#3
Karen Triff, Mathew W McLean, Evelyn Callaway, Jennifer Goldsby, Ivan Ivanov, Robert S Chapkin
Dietary fermentable fiber generates short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), e.g., butyrate, in the colonic lumen which serves as a chemoprotective histone deacetylase inhibitor and/or as an acetylation substrate for histone acetylases. In addition, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in fish oil can affect the chromatin landscape by acting as ligands for tumor suppressive nuclear receptors. In an effort to gain insight into the global dimension of post-translational modification of histones (including H3K4me3 and H3K9ac) and clarify the chemoprotective impact of dietary bioactive compounds on transcriptional control in a preclinical model of colon cancer, we generated high-resolution genome-wide RNA (RNA-Seq) and "chromatin-state" (H3K4me3-seq and H3K9ac-seq) maps for intestinal (epithelial colonocytes) crypts in rats treated with a colon carcinogen and fed diets containing bioactive (i) fish oil, (ii) fermentable fiber (a rich source of SCFA), (iii) a combination of fish oil plus pectin or (iv) control, devoid of fish oil or pectin...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656010/age-related-defects-in-short-term-plasticity-are-reversed-by-acetyl-l-carnitine-at-the-mouse-calyx-of-held
#4
Mahendra Singh, Pedro Miura, Robert Renden
Hearing acuity and sound localization are affected by aging and may contribute to cognitive dementias. Although loss of sensorineural conduction is well documented to occur with age, little is known regarding short-term synaptic plasticity in central auditory nuclei. Age-related changes in synaptic transmission properties were evaluated at the mouse calyx of Held, a sign-inverting relay synapse in the circuit for sound localization, in juvenile adults (1 month old) and late middle-aged (18-21 months old) mice...
March 21, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614331/carnitine-levels-and-mutations-in-the-slc22a5-gene-in-faroes-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Súsanna A Crooks, Sára Bech, Jónrit Halling, Debes H Christiansen, Beate Ritz, Maria Skaalum Petersen
INTRODUCTION: Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and energy production have been implicated in the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Several agents are under investigation for potential neuroprotective effects including acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC). OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether low carnitine levels and mutations in the SLC22A5 gene encoding the carnitine transporter are associates with PD risk in the Faroe Islands where the prevalence of both PD and carnitine transporter deficiency (CTD) is high...
March 31, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604498/oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-mediated-cd-induced-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#6
Ya-Xiong Pan, Zhi Luo, Mei-Qing Zhuo, Chuan-Chuan Wei, Guang-Hui Chen, Yu-Feng Song
The present study was performed to determine the effect of waterborne CdCl2 exposure influencing lipid deposition and metabolism, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, and explore the underlying molecular mechanism of cadmium (Cd)-induced disorder of hepatic lipid metabolism in fish. To this end, adult zebrafish were exposed to three waterborne CdCl2 concentrations (0(control), 5 and 25 μg Cd/l, respectively) for 30 days. Lipid accumulation, the activities of enzymes related to lipid metabolism and oxidative stress, as well as the expression level of genes involved in lipid metabolism and mitophagy were determined in the liver of zebrafish...
March 17, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551309/mitochondrial-%C3%AE-oxidation-of-saturated-fatty-acids-in-humans
#7
REVIEW
María M Adeva-Andany, Natalia Carneiro-Freire, Mónica Seco-Filgueira, Carlos Fernández-Fernández, David Mouriño-Bayolo
Mitochondrial β-oxidation of fatty acids generates acetyl-coA, NADH and FADH2 . Acyl-coA synthetases catalyze the binding of fatty acids to coenzyme A to form fatty acyl-coA thioesters, the first step in the intracellular metabolism of fatty acids. l-carnitine system facilitates the transport of fatty acyl-coA esters across the mitochondrial membrane. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 transfers acyl groups from coenzyme A to l-carnitine, forming acyl-carnitine esters at the outer mitochondrial membrane. Carnitine acyl-carnitine translocase exchanges acyl-carnitine esters that enter the mitochondria, by free l-carnitine...
March 15, 2018: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549241/role-of-carnitine-and-its-derivatives-in-the-development-and-management-of-type-2-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
Judit Bene, Kinga Hadzsiev, Bela Melegh
Type 2 diabetes is a highly prevalent chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and associated with several complications such as retinopathy, hyperlipidemia and polyneuropathy. The dysregulated fatty acid metabolism along with tissue lipid accumulation is generally assumed to be associated in the development of insulin resistance and T2D. Moreover, several studies suggest a central role for oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of the disease. Since L-carnitine (LC) has an indispensable role in lipid metabolism via its involvement in the β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids and it has antioxidant properties as well, carnitine supplementation may prove to be an effective tool in the management of the clinical course of T2D...
March 7, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507904/improved-oxygenation-dramatically-alters-metabolism-and-gene-expression-in-cultured-primary-mouse-hepatocytes
#9
Eduardo H Gilglioni, Jung-Chin Chang, Suzanne Duijst, Simei Go, Aziza A A Adam, Ruurdtje Hoekstra, Arthur J Verhoeven, Emy L Ishii-Iwamoto, Ronald P J Oude Elferink
Primary hepatocyte culture is an important in vitro system for the study of liver functions. In vivo , hepatocytes have high oxidative metabolism. However, oxygen supply by means of diffusion in in vitro static cultures is much less than that by blood circulation in vivo . Therefore, we investigated whether hypoxia contributes to dedifferentiation and deregulated metabolism in cultured hepatocytes. To this end, murine hepatocytes were cultured under static or shaken (60 revolutions per minute) conditions in a collagen sandwich...
March 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466368/untargeted-metabolomics-reveals-distinct-metabolic-reprogramming-in-endothelial-cells-co-cultured-with-csc-and-non-csc-prostate-cancer-cell-subpopulations
#10
Anusha Jayaraman, Praveen Kumar, Silvia Marin, Pedro de Atauri, Francesca Mateo, Timothy M Thomson, Josep J Centelles, Stewart F Graham, Marta Cascante
Tumour angiogenesis is an important hallmark of cancer and the study of its metabolic adaptations, downstream to any cellular change, can reveal attractive targets for inhibiting cancer growth. In the tumour microenvironment, endothelial cells (ECs) interact with heterogeneous tumour cell types that drive angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study we aim to characterize the metabolic alterations in ECs influenced by the presence of tumour cells with extreme metastatic abilities. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were subjected to different microenvironmental conditions, such as the presence of highly metastatic PC-3M and highly invasive PC-3S prostate cancer cell lines, in addition to the angiogenic activator vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), under normoxia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459213/maximal-intensity-exercise-does-not-fully-restore-muscle-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-complex-activation-after-3-days-of-high-fat-dietary-intake
#11
D Constantin-Teodosiu, G Cederblad, M Bergström, P L Greenhaff
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Exercise activates muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), but moderate intensity exercise fails to fully activate muscle PDC after high-fat diet [1]. We investigated whether maximal intensity exercise overcomes this inhibition. METHODS: Quadriceps femoris muscle biopsy samples were obtained from healthy males at rest, and after 46 and 92 electrically-evoked maximal intermittent isometric contractions, which were preceded by 3 days of either low- (18%) or high- (69%) isocaloric dietary fat intake (LFD and HFD, respectively)...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458450/transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-responses-induced-in-the-livers-of-growing-pigs-by-a-short-term-intravenous-infusion-of-sodium-butyrate
#12
E Ren, X Chen, S Yu, J Xu, Y Su, W Zhu
Previous studies showed that butyrate played benefit roles in the health and metabolism of animals. However, little information on the effects of butyrate on the metabolism of piglets at the extraintestinal level is available. The present study investigated transcriptomic and metabolomic responses in the livers of pigs to evaluate the effects of intravenous sodium butyrate (SB) on the body's metabolism at the extraintestinal level. A total of 12 Duroc×Landrace×Large White growing barrows (60 days of age) fitted with jugular vein cannula were randomly allocated to either the SB group or the control (CO) group...
February 20, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454998/a-cell-death-assay-for-assessing-the-mitochondrial-targeting-of-proteins
#13
Daniel Camara Teixeira, Elizabeth L Cordonier, Subhashinee S K Wijeratne, Patricia Huebbe, Augusta Jamin, Sarah Jarecke, Matthew Wiebe, Janos Zempleni
The mitochondrial proteome comprises 1000 to 1500 proteins, in addition to proteins for which the mitochondrial localization is uncertain. About 800 diseases have been linked with mutations in mitochondrial proteins. We devised a cell survival assay for assessing the mitochondrial localization in a high-throughput format. This protocol allows us to assess the mitochondrial localization of proteins and their mutants, and to identify drugs and nutrients that modulate the mitochondrial targeting of proteins. The assay works equally well for proteins directed to the outer mitochondrial membrane, inner mitochondrial membrane mitochondrial and mitochondrial matrix, as demonstrated by assessing the mitochondrial targeting of the following proteins: carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (consensus sequence and R123C mutant), acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2, uncoupling protein 1 and holocarboxylase synthetase...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444428/agrp-neurons-require-carnitine-acetyltransferase-to-regulate-metabolic-flexibility-and-peripheral-nutrient-partitioning
#14
Alex Reichenbach, Romana Stark, Mathieu Mequinion, Raphael R G Denis, Jeferson F Goularte, Rachel E Clarke, Sarah H Lockie, Moyra B Lemus, Greg M Kowalski, Clinton R Bruce, Cheng Huang, Ralf B Schittenhelm, Randall L Mynatt, Brian J Oldfield, Matthew J Watt, Serge Luquet, Zane B Andrews
AgRP neurons control peripheral substrate utilization and nutrient partitioning during conditions of energy deficit and nutrient replenishment, although the molecular mechanism is unknown. We examined whether carnitine acetyltransferase (Crat) in AgRP neurons affects peripheral nutrient partitioning. Crat deletion in AgRP neurons reduced food intake and feeding behavior and increased glycerol supply to the liver during fasting, as a gluconeogenic substrate, which was mediated by changes to sympathetic output and peripheral fatty acid metabolism in the liver...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441455/author-correction-to-l-acetyl-carnitine-in-patients-with-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-effects-on-nerve-protection-hand-function-and-pain
#15
Giorgio Cruccu, G Di Stefano, F Fattapposta, S Jann, L Padua, A Schenone, A Truini
In the original publication the name of third author was incorrectly published.
February 13, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429925/a-metabolic-basis-for-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#16
Jianhua Xiong, Hiroyuki Kawagishi, Ye Yan, Jie Liu, Quinn S Wells, Lia R Edmunds, Maria M Fergusson, Zu-Xi Yu, Ilsa I Rovira, Evan L Brittain, Michael J Wolfgang, Michael J Jurczak, Joshua P Fessel, Toren Finkel
Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) is a cellular process often initiated by the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family of ligands. Although required for normal heart valve development, deregulated EndoMT is linked to a wide range of pathological conditions. Here, we demonstrate that endothelial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is a critical in vitro and in vivo regulator of EndoMT. We further show that this FAO-dependent metabolic regulation of EndoMT occurs through alterations in intracellular acetyl-CoA levels...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428597/possible-involvement-of-tetrahydrobiopterin-in-the-disturbance-of-redox-homeostasis-in-sepsis-induced-brain-dysfunction
#17
Maha Gamal, Jackline Moawad, Laila Rashid, Mary Attia Morcos, Nivin Sharawy
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential co-factor that regulates nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by nitric oxidesynthases (NOS). In this study, we evaluated the effects of sepsis on BH 4 level and redox status in the brain by using the rat model of sepsis- induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and examined whether BH4 and/or acetyl-L-carnitine(ALC) could prevent the neuronal apoptosis and neurological changes induced by sepsis...
February 8, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385880/the-effect-of-antioxidants-on-angiogenesis-in-uterine-transplantation
#18
Tugba Ugurlu, Candan Ozogul, Gulistan Sanem Saribas, Seren Gulsen Gurgen, Seda Nur Akyol, Bahar Kartal
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of antioxidants on angiogenesis in uterine transplantation. We used 24 female rats equally divided into four groups: Group 1 had the uterus stored in HTK (Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate) solution at 4 °C cold storage for 4 h. Group 2 had the uterine tissue stored in HTK solution combined with acetyl L-carnitine (10-8  M) for 4 h at +4 °C. The same procedures with Group 1 and 2 were repeated for 24 h for Groups 3 and 4, respectively. Histological investigation and immunohistochemical analysis were performed...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373970/role-of-l-carnitine-in-female-infertility
#19
REVIEW
Ashok Agarwal, Pallav Sengupta, Damayanthi Durairajanayagam
BACKGROUND: L-carnitine (LC), and its acetylated form, acetyl L-carnitine (ALC), have immense functional capabilities to regulate the oxidative and metabolic status of the female reproductive system. The vulnerability of this system to free radicals demand for advanced strategies to combat them. For this purpose, the 'quasi vitamins' LC and ALC can be used either individually, or in combination with each other or with other antioxidants. MAIN BODY: This review (a) summarizes the effects of carnitines on female fertility along with the findings from various in vivo and in vitro studies involving human, animal and assisted reproductive technology, and (b) proposes their mechanism of actions in improving female fertility through their integrated actions on reducing cellular stress, maintaining hormonal balance and enhancing energy production...
January 26, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367176/the-morphological-changes-and-molecular-biomarker-responses-in-the-liver-of-fluoride-exposed-bufo-gargarizans-larvae
#20
Xiaoxue Bo, Danyang Mu, Minyao Wu, Hui Xiao, Hongyuan Wang
The goal of the current study was to evaluate the negative influences of fluoride on liver of Bufo gargarizans larvae. B. gargarizans larvae were treated with 42.4mgF- /L for 0, 24, 48 and 72h at Gosner stage 37. The morphological changes and responses of molecular biomarkers involved in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and apoptosis were examined in liver. Disappearance of cell boundaries, degeneration of hepatic parenchyma cells and significant increase in the number of melanomacrophage centres and the quantity of lipid droplets were found in the liver treated with 42...
April 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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