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cold thermogenesis

Mueez U Din, Teemu Saari, Juho Raiko, Nobu Kudomi, Stefanie F Maurer, Minna Lahesmaa, Tobias Fromme, Ez-Zoubir Amri, Martin Klingenspor, Olof Solin, Pirjo Nuutila, Kirsi A Virtanen
Human studies suggest that a meal elevates glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT). However, in postprandial state the thermogenic activity and the metabolism of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) in BAT remain unclear. Using indirect calorimetry combined with positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT), we showed that whole-body and BAT thermogenesis (oxygen consumption) increases after the ingestion of a mixed carbohydrate-rich meal, to the same extent as in cold stress. Postprandial NEFA uptake into BAT is minimal, possibly due to elevated plasma insulin inhibiting lipolysis...
June 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Jin Li, Le Zheng, Akihiko Uchiyama, Lianghua Bin, Theodora M Mauro, Peter M Elias, Tadeusz Pawelczyk, Monika Sakowicz-Burkiewicz, Magdalena Trzeciak, Donald Y M Leung, Maria I Morasso, Peng Yu
A large volume of biological data is being generated for studying mechanisms of various biological processes. These precious data enable large-scale computational analyses to gain biological insights. However, it remains a challenge to mine the data efficiently for knowledge discovery. The heterogeneity of these data makes it difficult to consistently integrate them, slowing down the process of biological discovery. We introduce a data processing paradigm to identify key factors in biological processes via systematic collection of gene expression datasets, primary analysis of data, and evaluation of consistent signals...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mazher Mohammed, Christopher J Madden, Kim J Burchiel, Shaun F Morrison
Modest cold exposures are likely to activate autonomic thermogenic mechanisms due to activation of cutaneous thermal afferents, whereas central thermosensitive neurons set the background tone on which this afferent input is effective. In addition, more prolonged or severe cold exposures that overwhelm cold defense mechanisms would directly activate thermosensitive neurons within the central nervous system. Here, we examined the involvement of the canonical brown adipose tissue (BAT) sympathoexcitatory efferent pathway in the response to direct local cooling of the preoptic area (POA) in urethane-chloralose anesthetized rats...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Ken Ho
Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) is energy dissipated as heat after a meal, contributing 5-15% to total daily EE. There has been a long interest in the intriguing possibility that a defect in DIT predisposes to obesity. However the evidence is conflicting, DIT is usually quantified by indirect calorimetry which does not measure heat. Using gas exchange, indirect calorimetry measures total post-prandial EE which comprises heat energy produced from brown adipose tissue (BAT) and energy required for processing and storing nutrients...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Karine Gauthier
The ability of thyroid hormone T3 to stimulate energy expenditure and regulate different aspects of whole body metabolism has been recognized for over a 100 years. Indeed in 1895 Adolf Magnus Levy was already describing the influence of the thyroid on setting the basal metabolic rate. Now it has been well characterized that the level of circulating T3 is correlated with energy expenditure both in humans and in rodent models (Mullur et al., Physiol Rev 94:355-382, 2014; Silva, Thyroid 5:481-492, 1995). Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are respectively associated with low and high energy expenditure leading to high and low body mass index...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Erin L Brown, Bethany C Hazen, Elodie Eury, Jean-Sébastien Wattez, Marin L Gantner, Verena Albert, Sarah Chau, Manuel Sanchez-Alavez, Bruno Conti, Anastasia Kralli
Adrenergic stimulation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) induces acute and long-term responses. The acute adrenergic response activates thermogenesis by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation and enabling increased substrate oxidation. Long-term, adrenergic signaling remodels BAT, inducing adaptive transcriptional changes that expand thermogenic capacity. Here, we show that the estrogen-related receptors alpha and gamma (ERRα, ERRγ) are collectively critical effectors of adrenergically stimulated transcriptional reprogramming of BAT...
April 27, 2018: iScience
Xue-Ying Zhang, Gansukh Sukhchuluun, Ting-Bei Bo, Qing-Sheng Chi, Jun-Jie Yang, Bin Chen, Lei Zhang, De-Hua Wang
BACKGROUND: Huddling is highly evolved as a cooperative behavioral strategy for social mammals to maximize their fitness in harsh environments. Huddling behavior can change psychological and physiological responses. The coevolution of mammals with their microbial communities confers fitness benefits to both partners. The gut microbiome is a key regulator of host immune and metabolic functions. We hypothesized that huddling behavior altered energetics and thermoregulation by shaping caecal microbiota in small herbivores...
June 8, 2018: Microbiome
Gansukh Sukhchuluun, Xue-Ying Zhang, Qing-Sheng Chi, De-Hua Wang
Huddling as social thermoregulatory behavior is commonly used by small mammals to reduce heat loss and energy expenditure in the cold. Our study aimed to determine the effect of huddling behavior on energy conservation, thermogenesis, core body temperature (Tb ) regulation and body composition in Brandt's voles ( Lasiopodomys brandtii ). Adult captive-bred female Brandt's voles ( n = 124) (~50 g) in 31 cages with 4 individuals each were exposed to cool (23 ± 1°C) and cold (4 ± 1°C) ambient temperatures (Ta ) and were allowed to huddle or were physically separated...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Elahu G Sustarsic, Tao Ma, Matthew D Lynes, Michael Larsen, Iuliia Karavaeva, Jesper F Havelund, Carsten H Nielsen, Mark P Jedrychowski, Marta Moreno-Torres, Morten Lundh, Kaja Plucinska, Naja Z Jespersen, Trisha J Grevengoed, Barbara Kramar, Julia Peics, Jakob B Hansen, Farnaz Shamsi, Isabel Forss, Ditte Neess, Susanne Keipert, Jianing Wang, Katharina Stohlmann, Ivan Brandslund, Cramer Christensen, Marit E Jørgensen, Allan Linneberg, Oluf Pedersen, Michael A Kiebish, Klaus Qvortrup, Xianlin Han, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Martin Jastroch, Susanne Mandrup, Andreas Kjær, Steven P Gygi, Torben Hansen, Matthew P Gillum, Niels Grarup, Brice Emanuelli, Søren Nielsen, Camilla Scheele, Yu-Hua Tseng, Nils J Færgeman, Zachary Gerhart-Hines
Activation of energy expenditure in thermogenic fat is a promising strategy to improve metabolic health, yet the dynamic processes that evoke this response are poorly understood. Here we show that synthesis of the mitochondrial phospholipid cardiolipin is indispensable for stimulating and sustaining thermogenic fat function. Cardiolipin biosynthesis is robustly induced in brown and beige adipose upon cold exposure. Mimicking this response through overexpression of cardiolipin synthase (Crls1) enhances energy consumption in mouse and human adipocytes...
May 18, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Brooks P Leitner, Lauren S Weiner, Matthew Desir, Peter A Kahn, Daryl J Selen, Cathy Tsang, Gerald M Kolodny, Aaron M Cypess
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been identified as a potential target in the treatment and prevention of obesity and metabolic disease. The precise kinetics of BAT activation and the duration of stimulus required to recruit metabolically active BAT, and its subsequent deactivation, are not well-understood. In this clinical trial, 19 healthy adults (BMI: 23.7 ± 0.7 kg/m2 , Age: 31.2 ± 2.8 year, 12 female) underwent three different cooling procedures to stimulate BAT glucose uptake, and active BAT volume was determined using 18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT imaging...
May 24, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Brandon Podyma, Hui Sun, Eric A Wilson, Bradley Carlson, Ethan Pritikin, Oksana Gavrilova, Lee S Weinstein, Min Chen
Central melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4Rs) stimulate energy expenditure and inhibit food intake. MC4Rs activate the G protein Gs α, but whether Gs α mediates all MC4R actions has not been established. Individuals with Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO), who have heterozygous Gs α-inactivating mutations, only develop obesity when the Gs α mutation is present on the maternal allele because of tissue-specific genomic imprinting. Furthermore, evidence in mice implicates Gs α imprinting within the central nervous system (CNS) in this disorder...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Heejin Jun, Hui Yu, Jianke Gong, Juan Jiang, Xiaona Qiao, Eric Perkey, Dong-Il Kim, Margo P Emont, Alexander G Zestos, Jung-Sun Cho, Jianfeng Liu, Robert T Kennedy, Ivan Maillard, X Z Shawn Xu, Jun Wu
Beige adipocytes have recently been shown to regulate energy dissipation when activated and help organisms defend against hypothermia and obesity. Prior reports indicate that beige-like adipocytes exist in adult humans and that they may present novel opportunities to curb the global epidemic in obesity and metabolic illnesses. In an effort to identify unique features of activated beige adipocytes, we found that expression of the cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 2 subunit (Chrna2) was induced in subcutaneous fat during the activation of these cells and that acetylcholine-producing immune cells within this tissue regulated this signaling pathway via paracrine mechanisms...
May 21, 2018: Nature Medicine
Young-Sil Yoon, Wen-Wei Tsai, Sam Van de Velde, Zhijiang Chen, Kuo-Fen Lee, Donald A Morgan, Kamal Rahmouni, Shigenobu Matsumura, Ezra Wiater, Youngsup Song, Marc Montminy
In response to cold exposure, placental mammals maintain body temperature by increasing sympathetic nerve activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Triggering of β-adrenergic receptors on brown adipocytes stimulates thermogenesis via induction of the cAMP/PKA pathway. Although cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and its coactivators-the cAMP-regulated transcriptional coactivators (CRTCs)-mediate transcriptional effects of cAMP in most tissues, other transcription factors such as ATF2 appear critical for induction of thermogenic genes by cAMP in BAT...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ji Suk Chang, Sujoy Ghosh, Susan Newman, J Michael Salbaum
Transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α and its splice variant NT-PGC-1α play crucial roles in regulating cold-induced thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). PGC-1α and NT-PGC-1α are highly induced by cold in BAT and subsequently bind to and coactivate many transcription factors to regulate expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, respiration and thermogenesis. To identify the complete repertoire of PGC-1α and NT-PGC-1α target genes in BAT, we analyzed genome-wide DNA-binding and gene expression profiles...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jiling Liao, Juan Jiang, Heejin Jun, Xiaona Qiao, Margo P Emont, Dong-Il Kim, Jun Wu
It has been reported that class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition increases thermogenesis in fat, but adipocyte specific Hdac3 deletions have presented inconsistent results. In this study, we observed that HDAC3 protein levels were lower in brown fat compared to that of inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue, and were decreased in both fat depots upon cold exposure. PRDM16 physically interacted with HDAC3, and treatment with HDAC3-selective inhibitor RGFP966 induced thermogenic gene expression in murine and human fat cultures...
May 10, 2018: Endocrinology
Frederico Sander Mansur Machado, Zhi Zhang, Yan Su, Paul de Goede, Remi Jansen, Ewout Foppen, Cândido Celso Coimbra, Andries Kalsbeek
Background: Daily cyclic changes in environmental conditions are key signals for anticipatory and adaptive adjustments of most living species, including mammals. Lower ambient temperature stimulates the thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscle. Given that the molecular components of the endogenous biological clock interact with thermal and metabolic mechanisms directly involved in the defense of body temperature, the present study evaluated the differential homeostatic responses to a cold stimulus at distinct time-windows of the light/dark-cycle...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Francisco M Acosta, Borja Martinez-Tellez, Guillermo Sanchez-Delgado, Juan M A Alcantara, Pedro Acosta-Manzano, Antonio J Morales-Artacho, Jonatan R Ruiz
The aim of this study was to comprehensively describe the physiological responses to an acute bout of mild cold in young lean men (n = 11, age: 23 ± 2 years, body mass index: 23.1 ± 1.2 kg/m2) to better understand the underlying mechanisms of non-shivering thermogenesis and how it is regulated. Resting energy expenditure, substrate metabolism, skin temperature, thermal comfort perception, superficial muscle activity, hemodynamics of the forearm and abdominal regions, and heart rate variability were measured under warm conditions (22...
2018: PloS One
Emmani B M Nascimento, Wouter D van Marken Lichtenbelt
The role of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in non-shivering thermogenesis is well established in animals. BAT is activated following cold exposure, resulting in non-shivering thermogenesis, to ensure a constant body temperature. In mitochondria of brown adipocytes, glucose and fatty acids are used as substrate for uncoupling resulting in heat production. Activated BAT functions as a sink for glucose and fatty acids and this hallmark has designated BAT a target in the fight against metabolic diseases like type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity...
May 4, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Joerg Heeren, Ludger Scheja
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article explores how the interplay between lipid metabolism and thermogenic adipose tissues enables proper physiological adaptation to cold environments in rodents and humans. RECENT FINDINGS: Cold exposure triggers systemic changes in lipid metabolism, which increases fatty acid delivery to brown adipose tissue (BAT) by various routes. Next to fatty acids generated intracellularly by de-novo lipogenesis or by lipolysis at lipid droplets, brown adipocytes utilize fatty acids released by white adipose tissue (WAT) for adaptive thermogenesis...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Jae Hoon Jeong, Ji Suk Chang, Young-Hwan Jo
Release of fatty acids from lipid droplets upon activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is a key step in nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). However, intracellular lipolysis appears not to be critical for cold-induced thermogenesis. As activation of the SNS increases glucose uptake, we studied whether intracellular glycolysis plays a role in BAT thermogenesis. To stimulate BAT-innervating sympathetic nerves in vivo, we expressed channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in catecholaminergic fibers by crossbreeding tyrosine hydroxylase-Cre mice with floxed-stop ChR2 mice...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
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