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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212671/an-adaptive-variant-of-trib2-rs1057001-is-associated-with-higher-expression-levels-of-thermogenic-genes-in-human-subcutaneous-and-visceral-adipose-tissues
#1
Kazuhiro Nakayama, Sadahiko Iwamoto
BACKGROUND: An obesity-related single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the Tribbles pseudokinase 2 gene (TRIB2) was shown to have underwent adaptive evolution in the last glacial period, suggesting a selective advantage of this SNP in human populations in cold environments. In order to verify this hypothesis, the effect of the TRIB2 SNP on the expression of genes involved in adaptive thermogenesis was tested using messenger RNAs prepared from adipose tissues of Japanese adults. METHODS: Complementary DNA was prepared from subcutaneous adipose tissues (SAT) and visceral adipose tissues (VAT) obtained from 48 Japanese adults...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186086/hoxc10-suppresses-browning-of-white-adipose-tissues
#2
Yvonne Ng, Shi-Xiong Tan, Sook Yoong Chia, Hwee Yim Angeline Tan, Sin Yee Gun, Lei Sun, Wanjin Hong, Weiping Han
Given that increased thermogenesis in white adipose tissue, also known as browning, promotes energy expenditure, significant efforts have been invested to determine the molecular factors involved in this process. Here we show that HOXC10, a homeobox domain-containing transcription factor expressed in subcutaneous white adipose tissue, is a suppressor of genes involved in browning white adipose tissue. Ectopic expression of HOXC10 in adipocytes suppresses brown fat genes, whereas the depletion of HOXC10 in adipocytes and myoblasts increases the expression of brown fat genes...
February 10, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180061/kinase-suppressor-of-ras-2-ksr2-expression-in-the-brain-regulates-energy-balance-and-glucose-homeostasis
#3
Lili Guo, Diane L Costanzo-Garvey, Deandra R Smith, Beth K Neilsen, Richard G MacDonald, Robert E Lewis
OBJECTIVE: Kinase Suppressor of Ras 2 (KSR2) is a molecular scaffold coordinating Raf/MEK/ERK signaling that is expressed at high levels in the brain. KSR2 disruption in humans and mice causes obesity and insulin resistance. Understanding the anatomical location and mechanism of KSR2 function should lead to a better understanding of physiological regulation over energy balance. METHODS: Mice bearing floxed alleles of KSR2 (KSR2(fl/fl)) were crossed with mice expressing the Cre recombinase expressed by the Nestin promoter (Nes-Cre) to produce Nes-CreKSR2(fl/fl) mice...
February 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166943/cold-adaptive-thermogenesis-following-consumption-of-certain-pungent-spice-principles-a-validation-study
#4
Chaitanya Pandit, K R Anilakumar
Identifying a means to activate or potentiate thermogenic mechanisms through ingestion of dietary compounds have important implications in cold endurance and survival. Although many reports discuss the thermogenic potential of spices, it is surprising that none of the studies verify whether consumption of spices can improve cold endurance. In this study, we have attempted to evaluate if ingestion of certain spices can activate heat-generating mechanisms in the body such that a fall in. core body temperature (CBT) can be delayed or prevented when faced with a cold challenge...
February 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154330/analgesic-effects-and-side-effects-of-ephedra-herb-extract-and-ephedrine-alkaloids-free-ephedra-herb-extract
#5
Yoshinori Kobayashi
 Ephedra Herb is classified "pungent, slightly bitter, and warm" in tastes and natures, and is used to provide warmth to the body, dispel coldness, remove dampness, and reduce pain. Similar herbs are "pungent and hot" chili peppers, "pungent and hot" evodia fruit," "pungent and warm" ginger, "pungent and hot" processed ginger, "pungent and hot" Zanthoxylum fruit, etc. These herbs are prescribed to provide heat to the outer or inner body. Some pungent components such as capsaicin, evodiamine, gingerol, and shogaol are known to be activators of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145515/role-of-thermal-physiology-and-bioenergetics-on-adaptation-in-tree-shrew-tupaia-belangeri-the-experiment-test
#6
Lin Zhang, Fang Yang, Zheng-Kun Wang, Wan-Long Zhu
Ambient conditions, as temperature and photoperiod, play a key role in animals' physiology and behaviors. To test the hypothesis that the maximum thermal physiological and bioenergetics tolerances are induced by extreme environments in Tupaia belangeri. We integrated the acclimatized and acclimated data in several physiological, hormonal, and biochemical markers of thermogenic capacity and bioenergetics in T. belangeri. Results showed that T. belangeri increased body mass, thermogenesis capacity, protein contents and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity of liver and brown adipose tissue in winter-like environments, which indicated that temperature was the primary signal for T...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138103/turning-up-the-heat-against-metabolic-syndrome-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
William T Festuccia
Brown adipose tissue (BAT), an organ specialized in the conversion of chemical energy from nutrients into heat through a process denominated as nonshivering thermogenesis, plays an important role in defence of body weight and homoeothermy in mammals. BAT nonshivering thermogenesis relies on the activity of the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), a mitochondrial protein that, on demand, deviates proton gradient from ATP synthesis to heat generation. Energetically, this process is supported by BAT-elevated mitochondrial density and outstanding capacity to oxidize fatty acids and glucose...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130074/loss-of-ucp2-impairs-cold-induced-non-shivering-thermogenesis-by-promoting-a-shift-toward-glucose-utilization-in-brown-adipose-tissue
#8
Alexandre Caron, Sébastien M Labbé, Sophie Carter, Marie-Claude Roy, Roger Lecomte, Daniel Ricquier, Frédéric Picard, Denis Richard
Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) was discovered in 1997 and classified as an uncoupling protein largely based on its homology of sequence with UCP1. Since its discovery, the uncoupling function of UCP2 has been questioned and there is yet no consensus on the true function of this protein. UCP2 was first proposed to be a reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulator and an insulin secretion modulator. More recently, it was demonstrated as a regulator of the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, which prompted us to investigate its role in the metabolic and thermogenic functions of brown adipose tissue...
March 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128199/a-fabp-mediates-adaptive-thermogenesis-by-promoting-intracellular-activation-of-thyroid-hormones-in-brown-adipocytes
#9
Lingling Shu, Ruby L C Hoo, Xiaoping Wu, Yong Pan, Ida P C Lee, Lai Yee Cheong, Stefan R Bornstein, Xianglu Rong, Jiao Guo, Aimin Xu
The adipokine adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) has been implicated in obesity-related cardio-metabolic complications. Here we show that A-FABP increases thermogenesis by promoting the conversion of T4 to T3 in brown adipocytes. We find that A-FABP levels are increased in both white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues and the bloodstream in response to thermogenic stimuli. A-FABP knockout mice have reduced thermogenesis and whole-body energy expenditure after cold stress or after feeding a high-fat diet, which can be reversed by infusion of recombinant A-FABP...
January 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117556/brown-adipose-tissue-does-not-seem-to-mediate-metabolic-adaptation-to-overfeeding-in-men
#10
Courtney M Peterson, Mahdi Orooji, Deanna N Johnson, Mort Naraghi-Pour, Eric Ravussin
OBJECTIVE: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) generates heat in response to cold, and low BAT activity has been linked to obesity. However, recent studies were inconclusive as to whether BAT is involved in diet-induced thermogenesis and mitigates weight gain from prolonged overeating. Therefore, this study investigated whether BAT activity is related to metabolic adaptation arising from 8 weeks of overfeeding in humans. METHODS: Fourteen men (aged 24 ± 3 years, BMI 24...
March 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109720/ucp1-in-adipose-tissues-two-steps-to-full-browning
#11
Anastasia V Kalinovich, Jasper M A de Jong, Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergaard
The possibility that brown adipose tissue thermogenesis can be recruited in order to combat the development of obesity has led to a high interest in the identification of "browning agents", i.e. agents that increase the amount and activity of UCP1 in brown and brite/beige adipose tissues. However, functional analysis of the browning process yields confusingly different results when the analysis is performed in one of two alternative steps. Thus, in one of the steps, using cold acclimation as a potent model browning agent, we find that if the browning process is followed in mice initially housed at 21 °C (the most common procedure), there is only weak molecular evidence for increases in UCP1 gene expression or UCP1 protein abundance in classical brown adipose tissue; however, in brite/beige adipose depots, there are large increases, apparently associating functional browning with events only in the brite/beige tissues...
March 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108609/visualization-and-quantification-of-browning-using-a-ucp1-2a-luciferase-knock-in-mouse-model
#12
Liufeng Mao, Baoming Nie, Tao Nie, Xiaoyan Hui, Xuefei Gao, Xiaoliang Lin, Xin Liu, Yong Xu, Xiaofeng Tang, Ran Yuan, Kuai Li, Peng Li, Ke Ding, Yu Wang, Aimin Xu, Jian Fei, Weiping Han, Pentao Liu, Lise Madsen, Karsten Kristiansen, Zhiguang Zhou, Sheng Ding, Donghai Wu
Both mammals and adult humans possess classic brown adipocytes and beige adipocytes, and the amount and activity of these adipocytes are considered key factors in combating obesity and its associated metabolic diseases. Uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) is the functional marker of both brown and beige adipocytes. To facilitate a reliable, easy, and sensitive measurement of Ucp1 expression both in vivo and in vitro, we generated a Ucp1-2A-luciferase knock-in mouse by deleting the stop codon for the mouse Ucp1 gene and replacing it with a 2A peptide...
February 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089568/inhibition-of-intracellular-triglyceride-lipolysis-suppresses-cold-induced-brown-adipose-tissue-metabolism-and-increases-shivering-in-humans
#13
Denis P Blondin, Frédérique Frisch, Serge Phoenix, Brigitte Guérin, Éric E Turcotte, François Haman, Denis Richard, André C Carpentier
Indirect evidence from human studies suggests that brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is fueled predominantly by fatty acids hydrolyzed from intracellular triglycerides (TGs). However, no direct experimental evidence to support this assumption currently exists in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the role of intracellular TG in BAT thermogenesis, in cold-exposed men. Using positron emission tomography with (11)C-acetate and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose, we showed that oral nicotinic acid (NiAc) administration, an inhibitor of intracellular TG lipolysis, suppressed the cold-induced increase in BAT oxidative metabolism and glucose uptake, despite no difference in BAT blood flow...
February 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077392/bidirectional-crosstalk-between-the-sensory-and-sympathetic-motor-systems-innervating-brown-and-white-adipose-tissue-in-male-siberian-hamsters
#14
Vitaly Ryu, Alan G Watts, Bingzhong Xue, Timothy J Bartness
The brain networks connected to the sympathetic motor and sensory innervations of brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissues were originally described using two transneuronally transported viruses: the retrogradely transported pseudorabies virus (PRV), and the anterogradely transported H129 strain of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 H129). Further complexity was added to this network organization when combined injections of PRV and HSV-1 H129 into either BAT or WAT of the same animal generated sets of co-infected neurons in the brain, spinal cord, sympathetic and dorsal root ganglia...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057582/a-nutritional-perspective-on-ucp1-dependent-thermogenesis
#15
REVIEW
M Luisa Bonet, Josep Mercader, Andreu Palou
Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is the hallmark protein responsible for cold- and diet-induced thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). UCP1 activity is protective against body fat accumulation. UCP1 has re-gained researchers' attention in the context of obesity following the realization that BAT is present and can be activated in adult humans and of inducible UCP1-expressing cells in white fat depots. UCP1-mediated thermogenesis is activated by specific food compounds, which function by stimulating sympathetic nervous system activity to adipose tissues and/or by acting on the adipose cells directly or indirectly, through humoral factors released upon their intake...
March 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053227/a-hypothalamic-circuit-that-controls-body-temperature
#16
Zheng-Dong Zhao, Wen Z Yang, Cuicui Gao, Xin Fu, Wen Zhang, Qian Zhou, Wanpeng Chen, Xinyan Ni, Jun-Kai Lin, Juan Yang, Xiao-Hong Xu, Wei L Shen
The homeostatic control of body temperature is essential for survival in mammals and is known to be regulated in part by temperature-sensitive neurons in the hypothalamus. However, the specific neural pathways and corresponding neural populations have not been fully elucidated. To identify these pathways, we used cFos staining to identify neurons that are activated by a thermal challenge and found induced expression in subsets of neurons within the ventral part of the lateral preoptic nucleus (vLPO) and the dorsal part of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMD)...
January 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049943/repeated-cold-stress-enhances-the-acute-restraint-stress-induced-hyperthermia-in-mice
#17
Tomoyoshi Miyamoto, Yoshinori Funakami, Erika Kawashita, Ai Nomura, Nanako Sugimoto, Haruka Saeki, Maho Tsubota, Seiji Ichida, Atsufumi Kawabata
The rodents exposed to repeated cold stress according to a specific schedule, known as specific alternation of rhythm in temperature (SART), exhibit autonomic imbalance, and is now used as an experimental model of fibromyalgia. To explore the susceptibility of SART-stressed animals to novel acute stress, we tested whether exposure of mice to SART stress for 1 week alters the extent of acute restraint stress-induced hyperthermia. Mice were subjected to 7-d SART stress sessions; i.e., the mice were alternately exposed to 24 and 4°C at 1-h intervals during the daytime (09:00-16:00) and kept at 4°C overnight (16:00-09:00)...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030827/reducing-smad3-atf4-was-essential-for-sirt1-inhibiting-er-stress-induced-apoptosis-in-mice-brown-adipose-tissue
#18
Zhenjiang Liu, Huihui Gu, Lu Gan, Yatao Xu, Fei Feng, Muhammad Saeed, Chao Sun
Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) promotes adaptive thermogenesis by controlling the acetylation status of enzymes and transcriptional factors in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT). However, the effects of Sirt1 on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis of iBAT remain elusive. In this study, the mRNA levels of Sirt1 and thermogenesis genes were reduced but the genes related with ER stress were elevated in iBAT of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Moreover, ER stress further inhibited mRNA level of Sirt1 and triggered brown adipocyte apoptosis in vitro and in vivo...
February 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028078/ire1%C3%AE-in-pomc-neurons-is-required-for-thermogenesis-and-glycemia
#19
Ting Yao, Zhuo Deng, Yong Gao, Jia Sun, Xingxing Kong, Yiru Huang, Zhenyan He, Yanchao Xu, Yongsheng Chang, Kai-Jiang Yu, Brianna G Findley, Eric D Berglund, Rui-Tao Wang, Hongbo Guo, Hong Chen, Xu Li, Randal J Kaufman, Jianqun Yan, Tiemin Liu, Kevin W Williams
Whether neuronal inositol-requiring enzyme 1(Ire1) is required for the proper regulation of energy balance and glucose homeostasis is unclear. We found that pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc)-specific deficiency of Ire1α accelerated diet-induced obesity concomitant with a decrease in energy expenditure. This hypometabolic phenotype included deficits in thermogenic responses to diet and cold exposure as well as 'beiging' of white adipose tissue. We also demonstrate that loss of Ire1α in Pomc neurons impaired whole-body glucose and insulin tolerance as well as hepatic insulin sensitivity...
December 27, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025824/four-week-cold-acclimation-in-adult-humans-shifts-uncoupling-thermogenesis-from-skeletal-muscles-to-brown-adipose-tissue
#20
Denis P Blondin, Amani Daoud, Taryn Taylor, Hans C Tingelstad, Véronic Bézaire, Denis Richard, André C Carpentier, Albert W Taylor, Mary-Ellen Harper, Céline Aguer, François Haman
KEY POINTS: Muscle-derived thermogenesis during acute cold exposure in humans consists of a combination of cold-induced increases in skeletal muscle proton leak and shivering. Daily cold exposure results in an increase in brown adipose tissue oxidative capacity coupled with a decrease in the cold-induced skeletal muscle proton leak and shivering intensity. Improved coupling between electromyography-determined muscle activity and whole-body heat production following cold acclimation suggests a maintenance of ATPase-dependent thermogenesis and decrease in skeletal muscle ATPase independent thermogenesis...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Physiology
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