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cold thermogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040448/male-brown-fat-specific-double-knockout-of-igfir-ir-atrophy-mitochondrial-fission-failure-impaired-thermogenesis-and-obesity
#1
Vanesa Viana-Huete, Carlos Guillén, Gema García, Silvia Fernández, Ana García-Aguilar, C R Kahn, Manuel Benito
It is unknown how the lack of IR (insulin receptor)/ IGFIR (insulin like growth factor receptor) in a tissue-specific manner does affect brown fat development and mitochondrial integrity and function and its impact on the redistribution of the adipose organ and the metabolic status. To address this important issue, we have developed the IR/IGFIR double knockout in brown adipose tissue-specific manner (DKO). Lack of those receptors caused a severe brown fat atrophy, an enhanced beige cell clusters in inguinal fat, loss of mitochondrial mass, mitochondrial damage related to cristae disruption, and the loss of proteins involved in autophagosome formation, mitophagy, mitochondrial quality control and dynamics and thermogenesis...
October 10, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037389/lower-critical-temperature-and-cold-induced-thermogenesis-of-lean-and-overweight-humans-are-inversely-related-to-body-mass-and-basal-metabolic-rate
#2
Kimberly J Nahon, Mariëtte R Boon, Fleur Doornink, Ingrid M Jazet, Patrick C N Rensen, Gustavo Abreu-Vieira
It is colloquially stated that body size plays a role in the human response to cold, but the magnitude and details of this interaction are unclear. To explore the inherent influence of body size on cold-exposed metabolism, we investigated the relation between body composition and resting metabolic rate in humans at thermoneutrality and during cooling within the nonshivering thermogenesis range. Body composition and resting energy expenditure were measured in 20 lean and 20 overweight men at thermoneutrality and during individualized cold exposure...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033896/the-influence-of-a-kdt501-a-novel-isohumulone-on-adipocyte-function-in-humans
#3
Brian S Finlin, Beibei Zhu, Bernard P Kok, Cristina Godio, Philip M Westgate, Neile Grayson, Robert Sims, Jeffrey S Bland, Enrique Saez, Philip A Kern
OBJECTIVE: In a phase II clinical trial in nine obese, insulin-resistant humans, we observed that treatment with KDT501, a novel isohumulone drug, increased total and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin in plasma. The objective was to determine whether KDT501 increased adiponectin secretion from subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SC WAT) and the underlying mechanism(s). METHODS: Nine obese participants with either prediabetes or with normal glucose tolerance plus three features of metabolic syndrome were part of the study...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031716/adipocyte-glucocorticoid-receptor-is-important-in-lipolysis-and-insulin-resistance-due-to-exogenous-steroids-but-not-insulin-resistance-caused-by-high-fat-feeding
#4
Yachen Shen, Hyun Cheol Roh, Manju Kumari, Evan D Rosen
OBJECTIVE: The critical role of adipose tissue in energy and nutrient homeostasis is influenced by many external factors, including overnutrition, inflammation, and exogenous hormones. Prior studies have suggested that glucocorticoids (GCs) in particular are major drivers of physiological and pathophysiological changes in adipocytes. In order to determine whether these effects directly require the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) within adipocytes, we generated adipocyte-specific GR knockout (AGRKO) mice...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026172/mitochondrial-glycerol-3-phosphate-facilitates-bumblebee-pre-flight-thermogenesis
#5
Stewart W C Masson, Christopher P Hedges, Jules B L Devaux, Crystal S James, Anthony J R Hickey
Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) fly at low ambient temperatures where other insects cannot, and to do so they must pre-warm their flight muscles. While some have proposed mechanisms, none fully explain how pre-flight thermogenesis occurs. Here, we present a novel hypothesis based on the less studied mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase pathway (mGPDH). Using calorimetry, and high resolution respirometry coupled with fluorimetry, we report substrate oxidation by mGPDH in permeabilised flight muscles operates, in vitro, at a high flux, even in the absence of ADP...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026134/mct1-and-mct4-expression-and-lactate-flux-activity-increase-during-white-and-brown-adipogenesis-and-impact-adipocyte-metabolism
#6
Charlotte Petersen, Mette D Nielsen, Elise S Andersen, Astrid L Basse, Marie S Isidor, Lasse K Markussen, Birgitte M Viuff, Ian H Lambert, Jacob B Hansen, Stine F Pedersen
Adipose tissue takes up glucose and releases lactate, thereby contributing significantly to systemic glucose and lactate homeostasis. This implies the necessity of upregulation of net acid and lactate flux capacity during adipocyte differentiation and function. However, the regulation of lactate- and acid/base transporters in adipocytes is poorly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that adipocyte thermogenesis, browning and differentiation are associated with an upregulation of plasma membrane lactate and acid/base transport capacity that in turn is important for adipocyte metabolism...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023733/tonic-inhibition-of-brown-adipose-tissue-sympathetic-nerve-activity-via-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-the-rostral-raphe-pallidus
#7
Ellen Paula Santos da Conceição, Christopher J Madden, Shaun F Morrison
We sought to determine if body temperature and energy expenditure are influenced by a cholinergic input to neurons in the rostral raphe pallidus (rRPa), the site of sympathetic premotor neurons controlling brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Nanoinjections of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) receptor agonist, oxotremorine, or the cholinesterase inhibitor, neostigmine (NEOS), in the rRPa of anaesthetized rats decreased cold-evoked BAT sympathetic nerve activity (SNA, nadirs: -72%, and -95%), BAT temperature (TBAT, -0...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988822/lipolysis-in-brown-adipocytes-is-not-essential-for-cold-induced-thermogenesis-in-mice
#8
Hyunsu Shin, Yinyan Ma, Tatyana Chanturiya, Qiang Cao, Youlin Wang, Anil K G Kadegowda, Rachel Jackson, Dominic Rumore, Bingzhong Xue, Hang Shi, Oksana Gavrilova, Liqing Yu
Lipid droplet (LD) lipolysis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is generally considered to be required for cold-induced nonshivering thermogenesis. Here, we show that mice lacking BAT Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58), a lipolytic activator essential for the stimulated LD lipolysis, have normal thermogenic capacity and are not cold sensitive. Relative to littermate controls, these animals had higher body temperatures when they were provided food during cold exposure. The increase in body temperature in the fed, cold-exposed knockout mice was associated with increased energy expenditure and with increased sympathetic innervation and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT)...
October 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988821/cold-induced-thermogenesis-depends-on-atgl-mediated-lipolysis-in-cardiac-muscle-but-not-brown-adipose-tissue
#9
Renate Schreiber, Clemens Diwoky, Gabriele Schoiswohl, Ursula Feiler, Nuttaporn Wongsiriroj, Mahmoud Abdellatif, Dagmar Kolb, Joris Hoeks, Erin E Kershaw, Simon Sedej, Patrick Schrauwen, Guenter Haemmerle, Rudolf Zechner
Fatty acids (FAs) activate and fuel UCP1-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Release of FAs from intracellular fat stores by adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is considered a key step in NST. Accordingly, the severe cold intolerance of global ATGL knockout (AKO) mice has been attributed to defective BAT lipolysis. Here we show that this conclusion is incorrect. We demonstrate that although the BAT-specific loss of ATGL impairs BAT lipolysis and alters BAT morphology, it does not compromise the β3-adrenergic thermogenic response or cold-induced NST...
October 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982014/the-role-of-suppression-of-hepatic-scd1-expression-in-the-metabolic-effects-of-dietary-methionine-restriction
#10
Laura A Forney, Kirsten P Stone, Desiree Wanders, James M Ntambi, Thomas W Gettys
Dietary methionine restriction (MR) produces concurrent increases in energy intake and expenditure, but the proportionately larger increase in energy expenditure (EE) effectively limits weight gain and adipose tissue accretion over time. Increased hepatic FGF21 is essential to MR-dependent increases in EE, but it is unknown whether the downregulation of hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) by MR could also be a contributing factor. Global deletion of SCD1 mimics cold exposure in mice housed at 23°C by compromising the insular properties of the skin...
October 5, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968573/infrared-thermal-imaging-as-a-method-to-evaluate-heat-loss-in-newborn-lambs
#11
L Labeur, G Villiers, A H Small, G N Hinch, S Schmoelzl
Thermal imaging technology has been identified as a potential method for non-invasive study of thermogenesis in the neonatal lamb. In comparison to measurement of the core body temperature, infrared thermography may observe thermal loss and thermogenesis linked to subcutaneous brown fat depots. This study aimed to identify a suitable method to measure heat loss in the neonatal lamb under a cold challenge. During late pregnancy (day 125), ewes were subjected to either shearing (n=15) or mock handling (sham-shorn for 2min mimicking the shearing movements) (n=15)...
September 27, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944268/shivering-thermogenesis-in-humans-origin-contribution-and-metabolic-requirement
#12
REVIEW
François Haman, Denis P Blondin
As endotherms, humans exposed to a compensable cold environment rely on an increase in thermogenic rate to counteract heat lost to the environment, thereby maintaining a stable core temperature. This review focuses primarily on the most important contributor of heat production in cold-exposed adult humans, shivering skeletal muscles. Specifically, it presents current understanding on (1) the origins of shivering, (2) the contribution of shivering to total heat production and (3) the metabolic requirements of shivering...
2017: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944087/exercise-induced-irisin-in-bone-and-systemic-irisin-administration-reveal-new-regulatory-mechanisms-of-bone-metabolism
#13
Jin Zhang, Paloma Valverde, Xiaofang Zhu, Dana Murray, Yuwei Wu, Liming Yu, Hua Jiang, Michel M Dard, Jin Huang, Zhiwei Xu, Qisheng Tu, Jake Chen
Irisin is a polypeptide hormone derived from the proteolytic cleavage of fibronectin-type III domain-containing 5 (FNDC5) protein. Once released to circulation upon exercise or cold exposure, irisin stimulates browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression, leading to an increase in total body energy expenditure by augmented UCP1-mediated thermogenesis. It is currently unknown whether irisin is secreted by bone upon exercise or whether it regulates bone metabolism in vivo...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943398/cold-sensing-trpm8-channel-participates-in-circadian-control-of-the-brown-adipose-tissue
#14
Maria Nathália Moraes, Leonardo Vinicius Monteiro de Assis, Felipe Dos Santos Henriques, Miguel Luiz Batista, Ali D Güler, Ana Maria de Lauro Castrucci
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are known to regulate energy metabolism, and TRPM8 has become an interesting player in this context. Here we demonstrate the role of the cold sensor TRPM8 in the regulation of clock gene and clock controlled genes in brown adipose tissue (BAT). We investigated TrpM8 temporal profile in the eyes, suprachiasmatic nucleus and BAT; only BAT showed temporal variation of TrpM8 transcripts. Eyes from mice lacking TRPM8 lost the temporal profile of Per1 in LD cycle. This alteration in the ocular circadian physiology may explain the delay in the onset of locomotor activity in response to light pulse, as compared to wild type animals (WT)...
September 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919880/non-mammalian-vertebrates-distinct-models-to-assess-the-role-of-ion-gradients-in-energy-expenditure
#15
REVIEW
Caroline E Geisler, Kyle P Kentch, Benjamin J Renquist
Animals store metabolic energy as electrochemical gradients. At least 50% of mammalian energy is expended to maintain electrochemical gradients across the inner mitochondrial membrane (H(+)), the sarcoplasmic reticulum (Ca(++)), and the plasma membrane (Na(+)/K(+)). The potential energy of these gradients can be used to perform work (e.g., transport molecules, stimulate contraction, and release hormones) or can be released as heat. Because ectothermic species adapt their body temperature to the environment, they are not constrained by energetic demands that are required to maintain a constant body temperature...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883799/rem-sleep-and-endothermy-potential-sites-and-mechanism-of-a-reciprocal-interference
#16
REVIEW
Matteo Cerri, Marco Luppi, Domenico Tupone, Giovanni Zamboni, Roberto Amici
Numerous data show a reciprocal interaction between REM sleep and thermoregulation. During REM sleep, the function of thermoregulation appears to be impaired; from the other hand, the tonic activation of thermogenesis, such as during cold exposure, suppresses REM sleep occurrence. Recently, both the central neural network controlling REM sleep and the central neural network controlling thermoregulation have been progressively unraveled. Thermoregulation was shown to be controlled by a central "core" circuit, responsible for the maintenance of body temperature, modulated by a set of accessory areas...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877455/global-analysis-of-plasma-lipids-identifies-liver-derived-acylcarnitines-as-a-fuel-source-for-brown-fat-thermogenesis
#17
Judith Simcox, Gisela Geoghegan, John Alan Maschek, Claire L Bensard, Marzia Pasquali, Ren Miao, Sanghoon Lee, Lei Jiang, Ian Huck, Erin E Kershaw, Anthony J Donato, Udayan Apte, Nicola Longo, Jared Rutter, Renate Schreiber, Rudolf Zechner, James Cox, Claudio J Villanueva
Cold-induced thermogenesis is an energy-demanding process that protects endotherms against a reduction in ambient temperature. Using non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based lipidomics, we identified elevated levels of plasma acylcarnitines in response to the cold. We found that the liver undergoes a metabolic switch to provide fuel for brown fat thermogenesis by producing acylcarnitines. Cold stimulates white adipocytes to release free fatty acids that activate the nuclear receptor HNF4α, which is required for acylcarnitine production in the liver and adaptive thermogenesis...
September 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877451/the-liver-as-a-hub-in-thermogenesis
#18
Nada A Abumrad
Manipulating thermogenesis could increase energy expenditure and improve metabolism. Brown fat is a major site of nonshivering thermogenesis, but other tissues, notably muscle and liver, can contribute to cold adaptation. In this issue, Simcox et al. (2017) demonstrate in cold-exposed mice that liver-generated acylcarnitines are required to fuel thermogenesis.
September 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859408/fuel-use-in-mammals-conserved-patterns-and-evolved-strategies-for-aerobic-locomotion-and-thermogenesis
#19
Grant B McClelland, Sulayman A Lyons, Cayleih E Robertson
Effective aerobic locomotion depends on adequate delivery of oxygen and an appropriate allocation of metabolic substrates. The use of metabolic substrates during exercise follows a predictive pattern of lipid and carbohydrate oxidation that is similar in lowland native cursorial mammals. We have found that in two highland lineages of mice (Phyllotis and Peromyscus) the fuel use pattern is shifted to a greater reliance on carbohydrates compared to their lowland conspecifics and congenerics. However, there is variation between lineages in the importance of phenotypic plasticity in the expression of this metabolic phenotype...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847139/swimming-three-ice-miles-within-fifteen-hours
#20
Mirko Stjepanovic, Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Beat Knechtle
Ice Mile swimming (1608 m in water of below 5 °Celsius) is becoming increasingly popular. This case study aimed to identify body core temperature and selected haematological and biochemical parameters before and after repeated Ice Miles. An experienced ice swimmer completed three consecutive Ice Miles within 15 h. Swim times, body core temperatures, and selected urinary and haematological parameters were recorded. Body core temperature reached its maximum between 5, 8 and 15 min after immersion (37.7°C, 38...
August 31, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
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