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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722322/treatment-with-acetyl-l-carnitine-exerts-a-neuroprotective-effect-in-the-sciatic-nerve-following-loose-ligation-a-functional-and-microanatomical-study
#1
Daniele Tomassoni, Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli, Vincenzo Bramanti, Carla Ghelardini, Francesco Amenta, Alessandra Pacini
Peripheral neuropathies are chronic painful syndromes characterized by allodynia, hyperalgesia and altered nerve functionality. Nerve tissue degeneration represents the microanatomical correlate of peripheral neuropathies. Aimed to improve the therapeutic possibilities, this study investigated the hypersensitivity and the neuromorphological alterations related to the loose ligation of the sciatic nerve in rats. Effects elicited by treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) in comparison to gabapentin were assessed...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678548/acetyl-l-carnitine-is-an-anti-angiogenic-agent-targeting-the-vegfr2-and-cxcr4-pathways
#2
Denisa Baci, Antonino Bruno, Barbara Bassani, Matilde Tramacere, Lorenzo Mortara, Adriana Albini, Douglas M Noonan
Carnitines play an important role in the energy exchange in cells, involved in the transport of fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane. L-Acetylcarnitine (ALCAR) is an acetic acid ester of carnitine that has higher bioavailability than carnitine and is considered a fat-burning energizer supplement. We previously found that in serum samples from prostate cancer (PCa) patients, 3 carnitine family members were significantly decreased, suggesting a potential protective role of carnitine against PCa...
April 17, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656010/age-related-defects-in-short-term-plasticity-are-reversed-by-acetyl-l-carnitine-at-the-mouse-calyx-of-held
#3
Mahendra Singh, Pedro Miura, Robert Renden
Hearing acuity and sound localization are affected by aging and may contribute to cognitive dementias. Although loss of sensorineural conduction is well documented to occur with age, little is known regarding short-term synaptic plasticity in central auditory nuclei. Age-related changes in synaptic transmission properties were evaluated at the mouse calyx of Held, a sign-inverting relay synapse in the circuit for sound localization, in juvenile adults (1 month old) and late middle-aged (18-21 months old) mice...
March 21, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225006/mechanistic-studies-on-ketamine-induced-mitochondrial-toxicity-in-zebrafish-embryos
#4
Bonnie L Robinson, Melanie Dumas, Syed F Ali, Merle G Paule, Qiang Gu, Jyotshna Kanungo
Ketamine, a phencyclidine derivative, is an antagonist of the Ca2+ -permeable N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors. It is a pediatric anesthetic and has been implicated in developmental neurotoxicity. Ketamine has also been shown to deplete ATP in mammalian cells. Our previous studies showed that acetyl l-carnitine (ALCAR) prevented ketamine-induced cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity in zebrafish embryos. Based on our finding that ALCAR's protective effect was blunted by oligomycin A, an inhibitor of ATP synthase, we further investigated the effects of ketamine and ALCAR on ATP levels, mitochondria and ATP synthase in zebrafish embryos...
December 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164469/antibiotic-anisomycin-induces-cell-cycle-arrest-and-apoptosis-through-inhibiting-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-osteosarcoma
#5
Chuanhua Cao, Haiying Yu, Feng Wu, Huixiong Qi, Jingbo He
The anti-cancer activities of antibiotic anisomycin have been demonstrated in kidney, colon and ovarian cancers whereas its underlying mechanisms are not well elucidated. In this work, we investigated whether anisomycin is effective in sensitizes osteosarcoma cell response to chemotherapy. We show that anisomycin inhibits proliferation via inducing osteosarcoma cell arrest at G2/M phase, accompanied by the increased levels of mitotic marker cyclin B and the decreased levels of Rb and E2F-1. Anisomycin also induces apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner in osteosarcoma cells...
December 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822835/neuroprotective-effects-of-acetyl-l-carnitine-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation-in-mice-involvement-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#6
Filiz Kazak, Gul Fatma Yarim
Neuroinflammation is the inflammation of nervous tissue that can lead to neurodegeneration. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin which affects growth, function and survival of neurons, enhances the stabilization of synapses, regulates synaptic function and branching of dendrites and axons. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is believed to be involved in the pathophysiology of central nervous system (CNS) diseases associated with neuroinflamation. The aim of this study was to investigate new protective and therapeutic effect of acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) in neuroinflammation...
September 29, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807823/dietary-supplementation-with-acetyl-l-carnitine-counteracts-age-related-alterations-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis-dynamics-and-antioxidant-defenses-in-brain-of-old-rats
#7
Luigi Nicassio, Flavio Fracasso, Giuseppe Sirago, Clara Musicco, Anna Picca, Emanuele Marzetti, Riccardo Calvani, Palmiro Cantatore, Maria Nicola Gadaleta, Vito Pesce
We previously reported the ability of dietary supplementation with acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) to prevent age-related decreases of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and liver of old rats. Here, we investigate the effects of ALCAR supplementation in cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum of old rats by analyzing several parameters linked to mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial dynamics and antioxidant defenses. We measured the level of the coactivators PGC-1α and PGC-1β and of the factors regulating mitochondrial biogenesis, finding an age-related decrease of PGC-1β, whereas PGC-1α level was unvaried...
November 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601299/possible-effects-of-some-agents-on-the-injured-nerve-in-obese-rats-a-stereological-and-electron-microscopic-study
#8
Mehmet Emin Onger, Süleyman Kaplan, Stefano Geuna, Aysin Pinar Türkmen, Luisa Muratori, Gamze Altun, Berrin Zuhal Altunkaynak
PURPOSE: The main aim of this study was to research new treatments following peripheral nerve injury involving melatonin (Mel), acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR), and leptin (Lep) using updated unbiased methods at the stereological and electron microscopic levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into nine equal groups; control (Cont), obese control (OG), obese group exposed to sciatic nerve resection (Gap) (OGG), obese group injected intraperitoneally (i...
August 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577987/alcar-promote-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-by-regulating-cell-survival-and-cell-death-related-signals-in-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-like-phenotypes
#9
Sonu Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Sandeep Kumar Mishra, Shubha Shukla
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway that leading to progressive motor and nonmotor symptoms. The formation of newborn neurons in the adult hippocampus is affected by many factors such as anxiety, depression and impairment in learning and memory that are commonly observed nonmotor symptoms in PD, indicating the role of adult neurogenesis in PD pathophysiology. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR), regulate mitochondrial metabolism and has been reported to improve cognitive functions in different neurodegenerative disorders through an unknown mechanism...
September 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569378/cyclosporine-exacerbates-ketamine-toxicity-in-zebrafish-mechanistic-studies-on-drug-drug-interaction
#10
Bonnie L Robinson, Melanie Dumas, Syed F Ali, Merle G Paule, Qiang Gu, Jyotshna Kanungo
Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an immunosuppressive drug commonly used in organ transplant patients to prevent allograft rejections. Ketamine is a pediatric anesthetic that noncompetitively inhibits the calcium-permeable N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors. Adverse drug-drug interaction effects between ketamine and CsA have been reported in mammals and humans. However, the mechanism of such drug-drug interaction is unclear. We have previously reported adverse effects of combination drugs, such as verapamil/ketamine and shown the mechanism through intervention by other drugs in zebrafish embryos...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508995/l-carnitine-and-acetyl-l-carnitine-roles-and-neuroprotection-in-developing-brain
#11
REVIEW
Gustavo C Ferreira, Mary C McKenna
L-Carnitine functions to transport long chain fatty acyl-CoAs into the mitochondria for degradation by β-oxidation. Treatment with L-carnitine can ameliorate metabolic imbalances in many inborn errors of metabolism. In recent years there has been considerable interest in the therapeutic potential of L-carnitine and its acetylated derivative acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) for neuroprotection in a number of disorders including hypoxia-ischemia, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease and in conditions leading to central or peripheral nervous system injury...
June 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447140/quadriceps-muscle-weakness-is-related-to-increased-risk-of-radiographic-knee-oa-but-not-its-progression-in-both-women-and-men-the-matsudai-knee-osteoarthritis-survey
#12
Shigeru Takagi, Go Omori, Hiroshi Koga, Kazuo Endo, Yoshio Koga, Atsushi Nawata, Naoto Endo
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the causal relationship between quadriceps muscle strength and radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA) in a longitudinal study. METHODS: The present study included 976 knees from 488 subjects who participated in both the 5th (2007) and 7th (2013) surveys of the Matsudai Knee Osteoarthritis Survey. Bilateral quadriceps strengths of each subject were measured using the quadriceps training machine (QTM-05F, Alcare Co...
April 26, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349514/l-carnitine-for-cognitive-enhancement-in-people-without-cognitive-impairment
#13
REVIEW
Ning Chen, Mi Yang, Muke Zhou, Jing Xiao, Jian Guo, Li He
BACKGROUND: Safe interventions to enhance cognitive function in cognitively healthy people would be very valuable for several reasons, including a better quality of life and professional success. While L-carnitine has been reported to enhance cognitive function in some conditions, its efficacy is disputed. The evidence of its efficacy for cognitively healthy people has not previously been systematically reviewed. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of L-carnitine for the enhancement of cognitive function in people without cognitive impairment...
March 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346814/nicotinamide-riboside-a-form-of-vitamin-b3-and-nad-precursor-relieves-the-nociceptive-and-aversive-dimensions-of-paclitaxel-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-in-female-rats
#14
Marta V Hamity, Stephanie R White, Roxanne Y Walder, Mark S Schmidt, Charles Brenner, Donna L Hammond
Injury to sensory afferents may contribute to the peripheral neuropathies that develop after administration of chemotherapeutic agents. Manipulations that increase levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) can protect against neuronal injury. This study examined whether nicotinamide riboside (NR), a third form of vitamin B3 and precursor of NAD, diminishes tactile hypersensitivity and place escape-avoidance behaviors in a rodent model of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received 3 intravenous injections of 6...
May 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262191/protective-effect-of-acetyl-l-carnitine-against-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity-in-wistar-albino-rats
#15
Hatice Adiguzel Dundar, Muge Kiray, Mustafa Kir, Efsun Kolatan, Alper Bagriyanik, Zekiye Altun, Safiye Aktas, Hulya Ellidokuz, Osman Yilmaz, Kamer Mutafoglu, Nur Olgun
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Anthracyclines are one of the most preferred agents in practical pediatric oncology despite their dose-dependent cardiotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) has protective effects on doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into four groups; control, DOX, ALCAR and ALCAR+DOX. Rats in the first group were given saline on study days, whereas those in the second group were given a single dose of DOX on the 5th day and saline on the other days...
October 2016: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226317/neuroprotective-effects-of-acetyl-l-carnitine-on-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-induced-brain-injury-in-rats
#16
Shiyu Tang, Su Xu, Xin Lu, Rao P Gullapalli, Mary C McKenna, Jaylyn Waddell
Perinatal hypoxia ischemia (HI) is a significant cause of brain injury in surviving infants. Although hypothermia improves outcomes in some infants, additional therapies are needed since about 40% of infants still have a poor outcome. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR), an acetylated derivative of L-carnitine, protected against early changes in brain metabolites and mitochondrial function after HI on postnatal day (PND) 7 in a rat pup model of near-term HI injury. However, its efficacy in long-term structural and functional outcomes remains unexplored...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163216/possible-promoting-effects-of-melatonin-leptin-and-alcar-on-regeneration-of-the-sciatic-nerve
#17
Mehmet Emin Onger, Suleyman Kaplan, Ömür Gülsüm Deniz, Gamze Altun, Berrin Zuhal Altunkaynak, Kemal Balcı, Stefania Raimondo, Stefano Geuna
Peripheral nerve injury is a widespread and disabling condition that can impair the individual's daily life. Studies involving medications that may positively affect peripheral nerve regeneration are rare. The aim of this study was to investigate new treatments after peripheral nerve injury using various neuroprotectants, melatonin, alcar and leptin, in the regenerative process in an experimental rat model. Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into eight groups containing equal number of animals. Intraperitoneal injection of melatonin (50mg/kg, for 21days), leptin (1mg/kg, for 21days) and acetyl-l-carnitine (50mg/kg, for six weeks) was performed postoperatively...
April 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975173/acetyl-l-carnitine-via-upegulating-dopamine-d1-receptor-and-attenuating-microglial-activation-prevents-neuronal-loss-and-improves-memory-functions-in-parkinsonian-rats
#18
Sonu Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Neha Srivastava, Rakesh Shukla, Shubha Shukla
Parkinson's disease is accompanied by nonmotor symptoms including cognitive impairment, which precede the onset of motor symptoms in patients and are regulated by dopamine (DA) receptors and the mesocorticolimbic pathway. The relative contribution of DA receptors and astrocytic glutamate transporter (GLT-1) in cognitive functions is largely unexplored. Similarly, whether microglia-derived increased immune response affects cognitive functions and neuronal survival is not yet understood. We have investigated the effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) on cognitive functions and its possible underlying mechanism of action in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced hemiparkinsonian rats...
January 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683241/sex-dependent-alterations-in-mitochondrial-electron-transport-chain-proteins-following-neonatal-rat-cerebral-hypoxic-ischemia
#19
T G Demarest, R A Schuh, E L Waite, J Waddell, M C McKenna, Gary Fiskum
Males are more susceptible to brain mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction following neonatal cerebral hypoxic-ischemia (HI) than females. Mitochondrial biogenesis has been implicated in the cellular response to HI injury, but sex differences in biogenesis following HI have not been described. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial biogenesis or the expression of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) proteins are differentially stimulated in the brains of 8 day old male and female rats one day following HI, and promoted by treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR)...
December 2016: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27197831/sex-dependent-mitochondrial-respiratory-impairment-and-oxidative-stress-in-a-rat-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#20
Tyler G Demarest, Rosemary A Schuh, Jaylyn Waddell, Mary C McKenna, Gary Fiskum
Increased male susceptibility to long-term cognitive deficits is well described in clinical and experimental studies of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. While cell death signaling pathways are known to be sexually dimorphic, a sex-dependent pathophysiological mechanism preceding the majority of secondary cell death has yet to be described. Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to cell death following cerebral hypoxic-ischemia (HI). Several lines of evidence suggest that there are sex differences in the mitochondrial metabolism of adult mammals...
June 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
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