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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349514/l-carnitine-for-cognitive-enhancement-in-people-without-cognitive-impairment
#1
REVIEW
Ning Chen, Mi Yang, Muke Zhou, Jing Xiao, Jian Guo, Li He
BACKGROUND: Safe interventions to enhance cognitive function in cognitively healthy people would be very valuable for several reasons, including a better quality of life and professional success. While L-carnitine has been reported to enhance cognitive function in some conditions, its efficacy is disputed. The evidence of its efficacy for cognitively healthy people has not previously been systematically reviewed. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of L-carnitine for the enhancement of cognitive function in people without cognitive impairment...
March 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346814/nicotinamide-riboside-a-form-of-vitamin-b3-and-nad-precursor-relieves-the-nociceptive-and-aversive-dimensions-of-paclitaxel-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-in-female-rats
#2
Marta V Hamity, Stephanie R White, Roxanne Y Walder, Mark S Schmidt, Charles Brenner, Donna L Hammond
Injury to sensory afferents may contribute to the peripheral neuropathies that develop after administration of chemotherapeutic agents. Manipulations that increase levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) can protect against neuronal injury. This study examined whether nicotinamide riboside (NR), a third form of vitamin B3 and precursor of NAD, diminishes tactile hypersensitivity and place escape-avoidance behaviors in a rodent model of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received 3 intravenous injections of 6...
May 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262191/protective-effect-of-acetyl-l-carnitine-against-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity-in-wistar-albino-rats
#3
Hatice Adiguzel Dundar, Muge Kiray, Mustafa Kir, Efsun Kolatan, Alper Bagriyanik, Zekiye Altun, Safiye Aktas, Hulya Ellidokuz, Osman Yilmaz, Kamer Mutafoglu, Nur Olgun
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Anthracyclines are one of the most preferred agents in practical pediatric oncology despite their dose-dependent cardiotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) has protective effects on doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into four groups; control, DOX, ALCAR and ALCAR+DOX. Rats in the first group were given saline on study days, whereas those in the second group were given a single dose of DOX on the 5(th) day and saline on the other days...
October 2016: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226317/neuroprotective-effects-of-acetyl-l-carnitine-on-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-induced-brain-injury-in-rats
#4
Shiyu Tang, Su Xu, Xin Lu, Rao P Gullapalli, Mary C McKenna, Jaylyn Waddell
Perinatal hypoxia ischemia (HI) is a significant cause of brain injury in surviving infants. Although hypothermia improves outcomes in some infants, additional therapies are needed since about 40% of infants still have a poor outcome. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR), an acetylated derivative of L-carnitine, protected against early changes in brain metabolites and mitochondrial function after HI on postnatal day (PND) 7 in a rat pup model of near-term HI injury. However, its efficacy in long-term structural and functional outcomes remains unexplored...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163216/possible-promoting-effects-of-melatonin-leptin-and-alcar-on-regeneration-of-the-sciatic-nerve
#5
Mehmet Emin Onger, Suleyman Kaplan, Ömür Gülsüm Deniz, Gamze Altun, Berrin Zuhal Altunkaynak, Kemal Balcı, Stefania Raimondo, Stefano Geuna
Peripheral nerve injury is a widespread and disabling condition that can impair the individual's daily life. Studies involving medications that may positively affect peripheral nerve regeneration are rare. The aim of this study was to investigate new treatments after peripheral nerve injury using various neuroprotectants, melatonin, alcar and leptin, in the regenerative process in an experimental rat model. Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into eight groups containing equal number of animals. Intraperitoneal injection of melatonin (50mg/kg, for 21days), leptin (1mg/kg, for 21days) and acetyl-l-carnitine (50mg/kg, for six weeks) was performed postoperatively...
April 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975173/acetyl-l-carnitine-via-upegulating-dopamine-d1-receptor-and-attenuating-microglial-activation-prevents-neuronal-loss-and-improves-memory-functions-in-parkinsonian-rats
#6
Sonu Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Neha Srivastava, Rakesh Shukla, Shubha Shukla
Parkinson's disease is accompanied by nonmotor symptoms including cognitive impairment, which precede the onset of motor symptoms in patients and are regulated by dopamine (DA) receptors and the mesocorticolimbic pathway. The relative contribution of DA receptors and astrocytic glutamate transporter (GLT-1) in cognitive functions is largely unexplored. Similarly, whether microglia-derived increased immune response affects cognitive functions and neuronal survival is not yet understood. We have investigated the effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) on cognitive functions and its possible underlying mechanism of action in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced hemiparkinsonian rats...
December 14, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683241/sex-dependent-alterations-in-mitochondrial-electron-transport-chain-proteins-following-neonatal-rat-cerebral-hypoxic-ischemia
#7
T G Demarest, R A Schuh, E L Waite, J Waddell, M C McKenna, Gary Fiskum
Males are more susceptible to brain mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction following neonatal cerebral hypoxic-ischemia (HI) than females. Mitochondrial biogenesis has been implicated in the cellular response to HI injury, but sex differences in biogenesis following HI have not been described. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial biogenesis or the expression of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) proteins are differentially stimulated in the brains of 8 day old male and female rats one day following HI, and promoted by treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR)...
December 2016: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27197831/sex-dependent-mitochondrial-respiratory-impairment-and-oxidative-stress-in-a-rat-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#8
Tyler G Demarest, Rosemary A Schuh, Jaylyn Waddell, Mary C McKenna, Gary Fiskum
Increased male susceptibility to long-term cognitive deficits is well described in clinical and experimental studies of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. While cell death signaling pathways are known to be sexually dimorphic, a sex-dependent pathophysiological mechanism preceding the majority of secondary cell death has yet to be described. Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to cell death following cerebral hypoxic-ischemia (HI). Several lines of evidence suggest that there are sex differences in the mitochondrial metabolism of adult mammals...
June 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27191126/acetyl-l-carnitine-targets-adenosine-triphosphate-synthase-in-protecting-zebrafish-embryos-from-toxicities-induced-by-verapamil-and-ketamine-an-in-vivo-assessment
#9
Xiaoqing Guo, Melanie Dumas, Bonnie L Robinson, Syed F Ali, Merle G Paule, Qiang Gu, Jyotshna Kanungo
Verapamil is a Ca(2)(+) channel blocker and is highly prescribed as an anti-anginal, antiarrhythmic and antihypertensive drug. Ketamine, an antagonist of the Ca(2)(+) -permeable N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptors, is a pediatric anesthetic. Previously we have shown that acetyl l-carnitine (ALCAR) reverses ketamine-induced attenuation of heart rate and neurotoxicity in zebrafish embryos. Here, we used 48 h post-fertilization zebrafish embryos that were exposed to relevant drugs for 2 or 4 h. Heart beat and overall development were monitored in vivo...
February 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27079660/acetyl-l-carnitine-alcar-to-enhance-nerve-regeneration-in-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Matthew W T Curran, Jaret Olson, Michael Morhart, Dory Sample, K Ming Chan
BACKGROUND: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common form of peripheral nerve injury, affecting approximately 3 % of the population. While surgery is effective in mild and moderate cases, nerve and functional recovery are often not complete in severe cases. Therefore, there is a need for adjuvant methods to improve nerve regeneration in those cases. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) is involved in lipid transport, vital for mitochondrial function. Although it has been shown to be effective in various forms of neuropathies, it has not been used in traumatic or compressive peripheral nerve injury...
April 14, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26902121/repositioning-of-antibiotic-levofloxacin-as-a-mitochondrial-biogenesis-inhibitor-to-target-breast-cancer
#11
Min Yu, Ruishu Li, Juan Zhang
Targeting mitochondrial biogenesis has become a potential therapeutic strategy in cancer due to their unique metabolic dependencies. In this study, we show that levofloxacin, a FDA-approved antibiotic, is an attractive candidate for breast cancer treatment. This is achieved by the inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in a panel of breast cancer cell lines while sparing normal breast cells. It also acts synergistically with conventional chemo drug in two independent in vivo breast xenograft mouse models...
March 18, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26898327/distinct-effects-of-ketamine-and-acetyl-l-carnitine-on-the-dopamine-system-in-zebrafish
#12
Bonnie L Robinson, Melanie Dumas, Elvis Cuevas, Qiang Gu, Merle G Paule, Syed F Ali, Jyotshna Kanungo
Ketamine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist is commonly used as a pediatric anesthetic. We have previously shown that acetyl L-carnitine (ALCAR) prevents ketamine toxicity in zebrafish embryos. In mammals, ketamine is known to modulate the dopaminergic system. NMDA receptor antagonists are considered as promising anti-depressants, but the exact mechanism of their function is unclear. Here, we measured the levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), in the zebrafish embryos exposed to ketamine in the presence and absence of 0...
March 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26773361/molecular-and-biochemical-evidence-on-the-protection-of-cardiomyocytes-from-phosphine-induced-oxidative-stress-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-apoptosis-by-acetyl-l-carnitine
#13
Amir Baghaei, Reza Solgi, Abbas Jafari, Amir Hossein Abdolghaffari, Alireza Golaghaei, Mohammad Hossein Asghari, Maryam Baeeri, Seyed Nasser Ostad, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Mohammad Abdollahi
The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) on pathologic changes of mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, ATP production, oxidative stress, and cellular apoptosis/necrosis induced by aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning. The study groups included: the Sham that received almond oil only; the AlP that received oral LD50 dose of aluminum; the AC-100, AC-200, and AC-300 which received concurrent oral LD50 dose of AlP and single 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg of ALCAR by intraperitoneal injection...
March 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26643543/neuroprotective-effects-of-acetyl-l-carnitine-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-induced-neural-stem-cell-death
#14
Seong Wan Bak, Hojin Choi, Hyun-Hee Park, Kyu-Yong Lee, Young Joo Lee, Moon-Young Yoon, Seong-Ho Koh
Deprivation of oxygen and glucose is the main cause of neuronal cell death during cerebral infarction and can result in severe morbidity and mortality. In general, the neuroprotective therapies that are applied after ischemic stroke have been unsuccessful, despite many investigations. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) plays an important role in mitochondrial metabolism and in modulating the coenzyme A (CoA)/acyl-CoA ratio. We investigated the protective effects of ALCAR against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in neural stem cells (NSCs)...
December 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26474770/quadriceps-muscle-strength-radiographic-knee-osteoarthritis-and-knee-pain-the-road-study
#15
Shigeyuki Muraki, Toru Akune, Masatoshi Teraguchi, Ryohei Kagotani, Yoshiki Asai, Munehito Yoshida, Fumiaki Tokimura, Sakae Tanaka, Hiroyuki Oka, Hiroshi Kawaguchi, Kozo Nakamura, Noriko Yoshimura
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to clarify the association of quadriceps muscle strength with knee pain using a large-scale, population-based cohort of the Research on Osteoarthritis/osteoporosis Against Disability (ROAD) study. METHODS: From the 2566 subjects at the third visit of the ROAD study, the present study analyzed 2152 subjects who completed radiographic examinations and measurements of muscle strength and mass (690 men and 1462 women; mean age, 71...
October 16, 2015: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26374445/mitochondrial-modulators-improve-lipid-composition-and-attenuate-memory-deficits-in-experimental-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Arpit Mehrotra, Abhilasha Sood, Rajat Sandhir
3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is an irreversible inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase and induces neuropathological changes similar to those observed in Huntington's disease (HD). The objective of the present study was to investigate neuroprotective effect of mitochondrial modulators; alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) on 3-NP-induced alterations in mitochondrial lipid composition, mitochondrial structure and memory functions. Experimental model of HD was developed by administering 3-NP at sub-chronic doses, twice daily for 17 days...
December 2015: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26365406/opposing-effects-of-ketamine-and-acetyl-l-carnitine-on-the-serotonergic-system-of-zebrafish
#17
Bonnie L Robinson, Melanie Dumas, Merle G Paule, Syed F Ali, Jyotshna Kanungo
Ketamine, a pediatric anesthetic, is a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist. Studies show that ketamine is neurotoxic in developing mammals and zebrafish. In both mammals and zebrafish, acetyl L-carnitine (ALCAR) has been shown to be protective against ketamine toxicity. Ketamine is known to modulate the serotonergic system in mammals. Here, we measured the levels of serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the embryos exposed to ketamine in the presence and absence of ALCAR...
October 21, 2015: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26316064/l-carnitine-and-pyruvate-are-prosurvival-factors-during-the-storage-of-stallion-spermatozoa-at-room-temperature
#18
Zamira Gibb, Sarah R Lambourne, Julianne Quadrelli, Nathan D Smith, Robert J Aitken
The spermatozoa of many stallions do not tolerate being cooled, restricting the commercial viability of these animals and necessitating the development of a chemically defined room temperature (RT) storage medium. This study examined the impact of two major modulators of oxidative phosphorylation, pyruvate (Pyr) and L-carnitine (L-C), on the storage of stallion spermatozoa at RT. Optimal concentrations of Pyr (10 mM) and L-C (50 mM) were first identified and these concentrations were then used to investigate the effects of these compounds on sperm functionality and oxidative stress at RT...
October 2015: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26223802/alcar-exerts-neuroprotective-and-pro-neurogenic-effects-by-inhibition-of-glial-activation-and-oxidative-stress-via-activation-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-parkinsonian-rats
#19
Sonu Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Shubha Shukla
Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are known causative factors in progressive degeneration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Neural stem cells (NSCs) contribute in maintaining brain plasticity; therefore, survival of NSCs and neuroblasts during neurodegenerative process becomes important in replenishing the pool of mature neuronal population. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR), present in almost all body cells, increases endogenous antioxidants and regulates bioenergetics. Currently, no information is available about the putative mechanism and neuroprotective effects of ALCAR in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced rat model of PD-like phenotypes...
September 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26108035/effects-of-dietary-bacillus-licheniformis-on-growth-performance-immunological-parameters-intestinal-morphology-and-resistance-of-juvenile-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-to-challenge-infections
#20
Biao Han, Wei-Qing Long, Ju-Yun He, Yong-Jian Liu, Yu-Qi Si, Li-Xia Tian
The effects of oral administration of Bacillus licheniformis on growth performance, immunity, intestinal morphology and disease resistance of juvenile tilapia were investigated. Six experimental diets supplemented with different concentrations of B. licheniformis (0%, 0.02%, 0.04%, 0.06%, 0.08% and 0.1% of AlCare(®), containing live germ 2 × 10(10) CFU/g) were formulated, viz. control, T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 30 fishes (3.83 ± 0.03 g). After 10 weeks of feeding trial, weight gain (WG), final body wet weight (FBW) and specific growth rate (SGR) increased significantly in groups T2, T3, T4 and T5 compared with control and T1 (p < 0...
October 2015: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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