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Katie M Parkins, Amanda M Hamilton, Ashley V Makela, Yuanxin Chen, Paula J Foster, John A Ronald
Cellular MRI involves sensitive visualization of iron-labeled cells in vivo but cannot differentiate between dead and viable cells. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) measures cellular viability, and thus we explored combining these tools to provide a more holistic view of metastatic cancer cell fate in mice. Human breast carcinoma cells stably expressing Firefly luciferase were loaded with iron particles, injected into the left ventricle, and BLI and MRI were performed on days 0, 8, 21 and 28. The number of brain MR signal voids (i...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lyndon G Amorin-Woods, Gregory F Parkin-Smith, Lee Nedkoff, Colleen Fisher
BACKGROUND: This paper reports the quantitative outcomes of a mixed-methods pilot study of the characteristics and demographics of chiropractic practices and patients in Western Australia. METHODS: This was a mixed-methods data transformation model (qualitative to quantitative) pilot study. A non-random sample of chiropractic practices across Western Australia was recruited and data collected anonymously from consecutive new patients using an online platform. Data covered practice and patient demographics and characteristics, alongside quality of life measures...
2016: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
Kelly L Stauch, Lance M Villeneuve, Phillip R Purnell, Sanjit Pandey, Chittibabu Guda, Howard S Fox
This article reports changes in the striatal non-synaptic mitochondrial proteome of DJ-1, Parkin, and PINK1 knockout (KO) rats at 3 months of age. DJ-1, Parkin, and PINK1 mutations cause autosomal-recessive parkinsonism. It is thought that loss of function of these proteins contributes to the onset and pathogenesis of Parkinson׳s disease (PD). As DJ-1, Parkin, and PINK1 have functions in the regulation of mitochondria, the dataset generated here highlights protein expression changes, which can be helpful for understanding pathological mitochondrial alterations...
December 2016: Data in Brief
Richard Laugharne, Matt Branch, Anji Mitchell, Lindsay Parkin, Phil Confue, Rohit Shankar, Diane Wilson-James, Mike Marshall, Maria Edgecombe, Bernie Keaney, Kiran Gill, Juliet Harrison
OBJECTIVE: The sudden closure of 30 out of 54 acute psychiatric beds in Cornwall presented a stressful challenge to staff but also a natural experiment on how a service dealt with this situation. We aimed to evaluate the outcomes of patients needing to leave the closed ward, how bed occupancy rates were affected and the impact on admission rates. DESIGN: A service evaluation of the impact of the ward closure. SETTING: A comprehensive secondary NHS mental health service in Cornwall serving 550,000 population...
October 2016: JRSM Open
Ashley V Makela, Donna H Murrell, Katie M Parkins, Jenna Kara, Jeffrey M Gaudet, Paula J Foster
Cellular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an evolving field of imaging with strong translational and research potential. The ability to detect, track, and quantify cells in vivo and over time allows for studying cellular events related to disease processes and may be used as a biomarker for decisions about treatments and for monitoring responses to treatments. In this review, we discuss methods for labeling cells, various applications for cellular MRI, the existing limitations, strategies to address these shortcomings, and clinical cellular MRI...
October 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Laura N Anderson, Jonathon L Maguire, Gerald Lebovic, Anthony J Hanley, Jill Hamilton, Khosrow Adeli, Brian W McCrindle, Cornelia M Borkhoff, Patricia C Parkin, Catherine S Birken
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between fasting duration and lipid and metabolic test results. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted in healthy children aged 0-6 years from The Applied Research Group for Kids! (TARGet Kids!) primary care practice network, Toronto, Canada, 2008-2013. The associations between duration of fasting at blood collection and serum lipid tests and metabolic tests were evaluated using linear regression. RESULTS: Among 2713 young children with blood tests the fasting time ranged from 0 to 5 hours (1st and 99th percentiles)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Marina Villanueva-Paz, Mario D Cordero, Ana Delgado Pavón, Beatriz Castejón Vega, David Cotán, Mario De la Mata, Manuel Oropesa-Ávila, Elizabet Alcocer-Gomez, Isabel de Lavera, Juan Garrido-Maraver, José Carrascosa, Ana Paula Zaderenko, Jordi Muntané, Manuel de Miguel, José Antonio Sánchez-Alcázar
Systemic treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been largely unsuccessful. This study investigated the antitumoral activity of Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant, in hepatoma cells. Amitriptyline-induced toxicity involved early mitophagy activation that subsequently switched to apoptosis. Amitriptyline induced mitochondria dysfunction and oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. Amitriptyline specifically inhibited mitochondrial complex III activity that is associated with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψm) and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...
July 2016: Genes & Cancer
Kyoko Ito, Raphaël Turcotte, Jinhua Cui, Samuel E Zimmerman, Sandra Pinho, Toshihide Mizoguchi, Fumio Arai, Judith M Runnels, Clemens Alt, Julie Teruya-Feldstein, Jessica C Mar, Rajat Singh, Toshio Suda, Charles P Lin, Paul S Frenette, Keisuke Ito
A single hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is capable of reconstituting hematopoiesis and maintaining homeostasis by balancing self-renewal and cell differentiation. The mechanisms of HSC division balance, however, are not yet defined. Here we demonstrate, by characterizing at the single cell level a purified and minimally heterogeneous Tie2(+) HSC population, that these top hierarchical HSCs preferentially undergo symmetric divisions. The induction of mitophagy, a quality-control process in mitochondria, plays an essential role in self-renewing expansion of Tie2(+) HSCs...
October 13, 2016: Science
Lyndon G Amorin-Woods, Gregory F Parkin-Smith, Lee Nedkoff, Colleen Fisher
BACKGROUND: Practice-based data collection can offer insight into the nature of chiropractic practice and contribute to resolving the conundrum of the chiropractic profession's role in contemporary healthcare, subsequently informing care service policy. However, there is little formal data available about chiropractic practice to inform decision-makers about the nature and role of chiropractic within the context of a modern multidisciplinary healthcare context in Australia, particularly at a local and regional level...
2016: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
Bradley C Johnston, Joshua Z Goldenberg, Patricia C Parkin
Clinical Question: In children prescribed an antibiotic, is the co-administration of a probiotic associated with lower rates of antibiotic-associated diarrhea without an increase in clinically important adverse events? Bottom Line: Moderate-quality evidence suggests that probiotics are associated with lower rates of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children (aged 1 month to 18 years) without an increase in adverse events.
October 11, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Mauricio P Cunha, Francis L Pazini, Vicente Lieberknecht, Josiane Budni, Ágatha Oliveira, Júlia M Rosa, Gianni Mancini, Leidiane Mazzardo, André R Colla, Marina C Leite, Adair R S Santos, Daniel F Martins, Andreza F de Bem, Carlos Alberto S Gonçalves, Marcelo Farina, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induces motor and nonmotor dysfunctions resembling Parkinson's disease (PD); however, studies investigating the effects of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), an active oxidative product of MPTP, are scarce. This study investigated the behavioral and striatal neurochemical changes (related to oxidative damage, glial markers, and neurotrophic factors) 24 h after intracerebroventricular administration of MPP(+) (1.8-18 μg/mouse) in C57BL6 mice...
October 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Sacha Noimark, Enrico Salvadori, Rafael Gómez-Bombarelli, Alexander J MacRobert, Ivan P Parkin, Christopher W M Kay
Surfaces with built-in antimicrobial activity have the potential to reduce hospital-acquired infections. One promising strategy is to create functionalised surfaces which, following illumination with visible light, are able to generate singlet oxygen under aerobic conditions. In contrast to antibiotics, the mechanism of bacterial kill by species derived from reactions with singlet oxygen is completely unselective, therefore offering little room for evolutionary adaptation. Here we consider five commercially available organic photosensitiser dyes encapsulated in silicone polymer that show varied antimicrobial activity...
October 12, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jeison A Fischer, Leonid M Sandratskii, Soo-Hyon Phark, Safia Ouazi, André A Pasa, Dirk Sander, Stuart S P Parkin
Non-collinear magnetization textures provide a route to novel device concepts in spintronics. These applications require laterally confined non-collinear magnets (NCM). A crucial aspect for potential applications is how the spatial proximity between the NCM and vacuum or another material impacts the magnetization texture on the nanoscale. We focus on a prototypical exchange-driven NCM given by the helical spin order of bilayer Fe on Cu(111). Spin-polarized scanning tunnelling spectroscopy and density functional theory reveal a nanosize- and proximity-driven modification of the electronic and magnetic structure of the NCM in interfacial contact with a ferromagnet or with vacuum...
October 10, 2016: Nature Communications
Rijan Bajracharya, J William O Ballard
Dietary management plays a key role in the treatment of many diseases. However, no prospective studies have critically investigated the potential for dietary modification to delay the onset, or slow the progression, of Parkinson's Disease (PD). To study whether manipulating the Protein to Carbohydrate (P:C) ratio in the diet could affect the progression of PD, we compared Drosophila melanogaster parkin null mutants and their experimental controls fed with diets differing in their P:C ratio. We considered lifespan and feeding behaviors as well as motor and cellular functions on the 1:2 and 1:16 P:C diets...
October 6, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Keqiang Chen, Ruoxi Yuan, Shuo Geng, Yao Zhang, Taojing Ran, Elizabeth Kowalski, Jingze Liu, Liwu Li
The excessive accumulation of specific cellular proteins or autophagic vacuoles (AVs) within neurons is a pathologic hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases. Constitutive autophagy in neurons prevents abnormal intracellular protein aggregation and is critical for maintaining cell survival. Since our previous study showed that Toll-interacting protein (Tollip)-deficient macrophages had constitutive disruption of endosome-lysosome fusion, we hypothesize that Tollip deficiency may also promote neuron death via blockage of autophagy completion...
October 5, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Sandra-Fausia Soukup, Sabine Kuenen, Roeland Vanhauwaert, Julia Manetsberger, Sergio Hernández-Díaz, Jef Swerts, Nils Schoovaerts, Sven Vilain, Natalia V Gounko, Katlijn Vints, Ann Geens, Bart De Strooper, Patrik Verstreken
Synapses are often far from the soma and independently cope with proteopathic stress induced by intense neuronal activity. However, how presynaptic compartments turn over proteins is poorly understood. We show that the synapse-enriched protein EndophilinA, thus far studied for its role in endocytosis, induces macroautophagy at presynaptic terminals. We find that EndophilinA executes this unexpected function at least partly independent of its role in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. EndophilinA-induced macroautophagy is activated when the kinase LRRK2 phosphorylates the EndophilinA-BAR domain and is blocked in animals where EndophilinA cannot be phosphorylated...
October 5, 2016: Neuron
Marjaana Viljanto, James Scarth, Pamela Hincks, Lynn Hillyer, Adam Cawley, Craig Suann, Glenys Noble, Christopher J Walker, Andrew T Kicman, Mark C Parkin
Detection of testosterone and/or its pro-drugs in the gelding is currently regulated by the application of an international threshold for urinary testosterone of 20 ng/mL. The use of steroid ratios may provide a useful supplementary approach to aid in differentiating between the administration of these steroids and unusual physiological conditions that may result in atypically high testosterone concentrations. In the current study, an ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to quantify testosterone (T) and epitestosterone (E)...
October 7, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Vaishali Kakkar, E F Elsiena Kuiper, Abhinav Pandey, Ineke Braakman, Harm H Kampinga
Parkinson's disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders and several mutations in different genes have been identified to contribute to the disease. A loss of function parkin RING1 domain mutant (C289G) is associated with autosomal-recessive juvenile-onset Parkinsonism (AR-JP) and displays altered solubility and sequesters into aggregates. Single overexpression of almost each individual member of the Hsp40 (DNAJ) family of chaperones efficiently reduces parkin C289G aggregation and requires interaction with and activity of endogenously expressed Hsp70 s...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Christopher G Parkin, Anita Homberg, Rolf Hinzmann
International experts in the field of diabetes and diabetes technology met in Madrid, Spain, for the 9th Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose. The goal of these meetings is to establish a global network of experts, thus facilitating new collaborations and research projects to improve the lives of people with diabetes. The 2016 meeting comprised a comprehensive scientific program, parallel interactive workshops, and two keynote lectures.
October 6, 2016: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Diana A Olszewska, Tim Lynch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
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