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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792802/the-anti-biofouling-properties-of-superhydrophobic-surfaces-are-short-lived
#1
Gi Byoung Hwang, Kristopher Page, Adnan Patir, Sean P Nair, Elaine Allan, Ivan P Parkin
Superhydrophobic surfaces are present in nature on the leaves of many plant species. Water rolls on these surfaces and the rolling motion picks up particles including bacteria and viruses. Man-made superhydrophobic surfaces have been made in an effort to reduce biofouling. We show here that the anti-biofouling property of a superhydrophobic surface is due to an entrapped air-bubble layer that reduces contact between the bacteria and the surface. Further, we show that prolonged immersion of superhydrophobic surfaces in water led to loss of the bubble-layer and subsequent bacterial adhesion that unexpectedly, exceeded that of the control materials...
May 24, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769545/short-term-temporal-memory-in-idiopathic-and-parkin-associated-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Bertrand Degos, Ilhame Ameqrane, Sophie Rivaud-Péchoux, Pierre Pouget, Marcus Missal
In a rapidly changing environment, we often know when to do something before we have to do it. This preparation in the temporal domain is based on a 'perception' of elapsed time and short-term memory of previous stimulation in a similar context. These functions could be perturbed in Parkinson's disease. Therefore, we investigated their role in eye movement preparation in sporadic Parkinson's disease and in a very infrequent variant affecting the Parkin gene. We used a simple oculomotor task where subjects had to orient to a visual target and movement latency was measured...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760428/generation-and-characterisation-of-a-parkin-pacrg-knockout-mouse-line-and-a-pacrg-knockout-mouse-line
#3
Sarah E M Stephenson, Timothy D Aumann, Juliet M Taylor, Jessica R Riseley, Ruili Li, Jeffrey R Mann, Doris Tomas, Paul J Lockhart
Mutations in PARK2 (parkin) can result in Parkinson's disease (PD). Parkin shares a bidirectional promoter with parkin coregulated gene (PACRG) and the transcriptional start sites are separated by only ~200 bp. Bidirectionally regulated genes have been shown to function in common biological pathways. Mice lacking parkin have largely failed to recapitulate the dopaminergic neuronal loss and movement impairments seen in individuals with parkin-mediated PD. We aimed to investigate the function of PACRG and test the hypothesis that parkin and PACRG function in a common pathway by generating and characterizing two novel knockout mouse lines harbouring loss of both parkin and Pacrg or Pacrg alone...
May 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757501/important-considerations-for-the-utilisation-of-methanolysis-in-steroid-analysis
#4
Marjaana Viljanto, Catarina Horro Pita, James Scarth, Christopher J Walker, Andrew T Kicman, Mark C Parkin
The effective analysis of anabolic-androgenic steroids in urine usually requires a suitable deconjugation method for the analysis of phase II metabolites such as sulfates and glucuronides. Acid hydrolysis using methanolysis is one adopted method of deconjugation that efficiently and rapidly cleaves both sulfates and glucuronides contemporaneously. The formation of artefactual by-products is a known disadvantage of this harsh method. However, the possible promotion of deuterium-hydrogen exchange of isotopically labelled internal standards has received little attention in the literature...
May 14, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757056/whey-protein-augments-leucinemia-and-post-exercise-p70s6k1-activity-compared-to-a-hydrolysed-collagen-blend-when-in-recovery-from-training-with-low-carbohydrate-availability
#5
Samuel G Impey, Kelly M Hammond, Robert Naughton, Carl Langan-Evans, Sam O Shepherd, Adam P Sharples, Jessica Cegielski, Kenneth Smith, Stewart Jeromson, D Lee Hamilton, Graeme L Close, James P Morton
We examined the effects of whey versus collagen protein on skeletal muscle cell signalling responses associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and protein synthesis in recovery from an acute training session completed with low carbohydrate (CHO) availability. In a repeated measures design (after adhering to a 36-h exercise-dietary intervention to standardise pre-exercise muscle glycogen), eight males completed a 75-min non-exhaustive cycling protocol and consumed 22 g of a hydrolysed collagen blend (COLLAGEN) or whey (WHEY) protein 45 min prior to exercise, 22 g during exercise and 22 g immediately post-exercise...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756684/a-prospective-bottom-up-study-of-the-costs-of-faecal-incontinence-in-ambulatory-patients
#6
Vicki Patton, Katrina Parkin, Kate H Moore
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The few studies that have examined direct costs of faecal incontinence are limited in that they employed retrospective databases, postal surveys, and focused upon institutionalised patients or post partum women. The aim of the current study was to identify the direct pre-treatment costs of faecal incontinence expended by a range of home dwelling patients and identify relationships between costs and severity of incontinence. METHODS: Consecutive patients attending an outpatient clinic for treatment of faecal incontinence were interviewed using a questionnaire, modeled on the Dowel Bryant Incontinence Cost Index...
May 14, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756486/osteonectin-as-a-screening-marker-for-pancreatic-cancer-a-prospective-study
#7
Angeliki Papapanagiotou, George Sgourakis, Kyriakos Karkoulias, Dimitris Raptis, Edward Parkin, Pantelis Brotzakis, Sanjay Panchal, Athanasios G Papavassiliou
Objective Osteonectin plays a central role in various processes during the development of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This prospective pilot study was performed to determine the feasibility of serum osteonectin as a screening tool for pancreatic cancer. Methods Blood samples were collected from 15 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer and 30 matched healthy controls. Serum osteonectin was measured using an osteonectin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The primary outcomes were the diagnostic performance of serum osteonectin and the threshold value for differentiation of patients from controls...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755459/type-i-interferons-autophagy-and-host-metabolism-in-leprosy
#8
REVIEW
Thiago Gomes Toledo Pinto, Leonardo Ribeiro Batista-Silva, Rychelle Clayde Affonso Medeiros, Flávio Alves Lara, Milton Ozório Moraes
For those with leprosy, the extent of host infection by Mycobacterium leprae and the progression of the disease depend on the ability of mycobacteria to shape a safe environment for its replication during early interaction with host cells. Thus, variations in key genes such as those in pattern recognition receptors ( NOD2 and TLR1 ), autophagic flux ( PARK2, LRRK2 , and RIPK2 ), effector immune cytokines ( TNF and IL12 ), and environmental factors, such as nutrition, have been described as critical determinants for infection and disease progression...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755319/ambra1-mediated-mitophagy-counteracts-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-induced-by-neurotoxicity-in-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells
#9
Anthea Di Rita, Pasquale D'Acunzo, Luca Simula, Silvia Campello, Flavie Strappazzon, Francesco Cecconi
Therapeutic strategies are needed to protect dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Oxidative stress caused by dopamine may play an important role in PD pathogenesis. Selective autophagy of mitochondria (mitophagy), mainly regulated by PINK1 and PARKIN, plays an important role in the maintenance of cell homeostasis. Mutations in those genes cause accumulation of damaged mitochondria, leading to nigral degeneration and early-onset PD. AMBRA1ActA is a fusion protein specifically expressed at the mitochondria, and whose expression has been shown to induce a powerful mitophagy in mammalian cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749025/photobiomodulation-induces-antinociception-recovers-structural-aspects-and-regulates-mitochondrial-homeostasis-in-peripheral-nerve-of-diabetic-mice
#10
Victória Regina da Silva de Oliveira, Diego Pulzatto Cury, Laura Basílio Yamashita, Marcos Vinicius Esteca, Ii-Sei Watanabe, Yoko Fee Bergmann, Elaine Flamia Toniolo, Camila Squarzoni Dale
Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN) is a nervous disorder caused by diabetes mellitus, affecting about 50% of patients in clinical medicine. Chronic pain is one of the major and most unpleasant symptoms developed by those patients, and conventional available treatments for the neuropathy, including the associated pain, are still unsatisfactory and benefit only a small number of patients. Photobiomodulation (PBM) has been gaining clinical acceptance once it is able to promote early nerve regeneration resulting in significant improvement peripheral nerves disabilities...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748324/separation-of-enantiomers-by-their-enantiospecific-interaction-with-achiral-magnetic-substrates
#11
Koyel Banerjee-Ghosh, Oren Ben Dor, Francesco Tassinari, Eyal Capua, Shira Yochelis, Amir Capua, See-Hun Yang, Stuart S P Parkin, Soumyajit Sarkar, Leeor Kronik, Lech Tomasz Baczewski, Ron Naaman, Yossi Paltiel
It is commonly assumed that recognition and discrimination of chirality, both in nature and in artificial systems, depend solely on spatial effects. However, recent studies have suggested that charge redistribution in chiral molecules manifests an enantiospecific preference in electron spin orientation. We therefore reasoned that the induced spin polarization may affect enantiorecognition through exchange interactions. Here, we show experimentally that the interaction of chiral molecules with a perpendicularly magnetized substrate is enantiospecific...
May 10, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743507/re-exploration-of-u-s-triangle-brassica-species-based-on-chloroplast-genomes-and-45s-nrdna-sequences
#12
Chang-Kug Kim, Young-Joo Seol, Sampath Perumal, Jonghoon Lee, Nomar Espinosa Waminal, Murukarthick Jayakodi, Sang-Choon Lee, Seungwoo Jin, Beom-Soon Choi, Yeisoo Yu, Ho-Cheol Ko, Ji-Weon Choi, Kyoung-Yul Ryu, Seong-Han Sohn, Isobel Parkin, Tae-Jin Yang
The concept of U's triangle, which revealed the importance of polyploidization in plant genome evolution, described natural allopolyploidization events in Brassica using three diploids [B. rapa (A genome), B. nigra (B), and B. oleracea (C)] and derived allotetraploids [B. juncea (AB genome), B. napus (AC), and B. carinata (BC)]. However, comprehensive understanding of Brassica genome evolution has not been fully achieved. Here, we performed low-coverage (2-6×) whole-genome sequencing of 28 accessions of Brassica as well as of Raphanus sativus [R genome] to explore the evolution of six Brassica species based on chloroplast genome and ribosomal DNA variations...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740311/-sophora-flavescens-aiton-decreases-mpp-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#13
Hee-Young Kim, Hyongjun Jeon, Hyungwoo Kim, Sungtae Koo, Seungtae Kim
Sophora flavescens Aiton (SF) has been used to treat various diseases including fever and inflammation in China, South Korea and Japan. Several recent reports have shown that SF has anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, indicating that it is a promising candidate for treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). We evaluated the protective effect of SF against neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+ )-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, an in vitro PD model. SH-SY5Y cells were incubated with SF for 24 h, after which they were treated with MPP+ ...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737919/has-there-been-a-change-in-the-knowledge-of-gp-registrars-between-2011-and-2016-as-measured-by-performance-on-common-items-in-the-applied-knowledge-test
#14
Catherine A Neden, Claire Parkin, Carol Blow, Aloysius Niroshan Siriwardena
The aim of this study was to assess whether the absolute standard of candidates sitting the MRCGP Applied Knowledge Test (AKT) between 2011 and 2016 had changed. It is a descriptive study comparing the performance on marker questions of a reference group of UK graduates taking the AKT for the first time between 2011 and 2016. Using aggregated examination data, the performance of individual 'marker' questions was compared using Pearson's chi-squared tests and trend-line analysis. Binary logistic regression was used to analyse changes in performance over the study period...
May 8, 2018: Education for Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732454/chemically-treated-3d-printed-polymer-scaffolds-for-biomineral-formation
#15
Richard J Jackson, P Stephen Patrick, Kristopher Page, Michael J Powell, Mark F Lythgoe, Mark A Miodownik, Ivan P Parkin, Claire J Carmalt, Tammy L Kalber, Joseph C Bear
We present the synthesis of nylon-12 scaffolds by 3D printing and demonstrate their versatility as matrices for cell growth, differentiation, and biomineral formation. We demonstrate that the porous nature of the printed parts makes them ideal for the direct incorporation of preformed nanomaterials or material precursors, leading to nanocomposites with very different properties and environments for cell growth. Additives such as those derived from sources such as tetraethyl orthosilicate applied at a low temperature promote successful cell growth, due partly to the high surface area of the porous matrix...
April 30, 2018: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731987/molecular-imaging-with-positron-emission-tomography-and-computed-tomography-pet-ct-for-selecting-first-line-targeted-treatment-in-metastatic-breast-cancer-a-cost-effectiveness-study
#16
Rositsa G Koleva-Kolarova, Marcel J W Greuter, Talitha L Feenstra, Karin M Vermeulen, Erik F J de Vries, David Parkin, Erik Buskens, Geertruida H de Bock
Our aim was to evaluate the potential cost-effectiveness of PET/CT with FES and 89 Zr-trastuzumab compared to pathology to select first-line targeted treatment in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients with non-rapidly progressive disease. A previously published and validated model was extended and adapted for this analysis. Two alternative scenarios were compared. In the care as usual pathway first-line targeted treatment of MBC patients was assigned on the basis of pathology results, while in the intervention pathway treatment selection was based on the results from the PET/CT imaging...
April 13, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729358/doxorubicin-induced-mitophagy-and-mitochondrial-damage-is-associated-with-dysregulation-of-the-pink1-parkin-pathway
#17
Jian Yin, Jiabin Guo, Qiang Zhang, Lan Cui, Li Zhang, Tingfen Zhang, Jun Zhao, Jin Li, Alistair Middleton, Paul L Carmichael, Shuangqing Peng
The usefulness of doxorubicin (DOX), a potent anticancer agent, is limited by its cardiotoxicity. Mitochondria play a central role in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity though the precise mechanisms are still obscure. Increasing evidence indicates that excessive activation of mitophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction are key causal events leading to DOX-induced cardiac injury. The PINK1/parkin pathway has emerged as a critical pathway in regulation of mitophagy as well as mitochondrial function. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of PINK1/parkin pathway in DOX-induced mitochondrial damage and cardiotoxicity...
May 3, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723177/co-prescribing-of-contraindicated-and-use-with-caution-drugs-in-a-national-cohort-of-new-users-of-simvastatin-how-well-are-prescribing-guidelines-followed
#18
Joshua Quon, Lianne Parkin, Katrina Sharples, David Barson
AIM: To describe the use of contraindicated and use-with-caution medicines among new users of simvastatin. METHODS: We used information from Ministry of Health national datasets to establish a cohort of all patients aged >18 years who initiated simvastatin use between January 2006 and December 2013 (n=349,371). We estimated the cumulative incidences of the first dispensing of contraindicated and use-with-caution medicines during simvastatin use, and explored factors associated with co-prescription, using Kaplan-Meir and Cox regression methods, respectively...
May 4, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719509/mangiferin-enhanced-autophagy-via-inhibiting-mtorc1-pathway-to-prevent-high-glucose-induced-cardiomyocyte-injury
#19
Jun Hou, Dezhi Zheng, Wenjing Xiao, Dandan Li, Jie Ma, Yonghe Hu
Mangiferin functions as a perfect anti-oxidative compound in the diabetic heart, however, the exact mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here, we show the cardioprotective effect of mangiferin under high glucose-induced cardiotoxic condition mainly contributed to enhanced autophagy via suppressing mTORC1 downstream signal transduction. Primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were cultured to detect myocytes injury, autophagy, and related signal transduction under different doses of glucose and mangiferin treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719505/cellular-and-molecular-basis-of-neurodegeneration-in-parkinson-disease
#20
REVIEW
Xian-Si Zeng, Wen-Shuo Geng, Jin-Jing Jia, Lei Chen, Peng-Peng Zhang
It has been 200 years since Parkinson disease (PD) was described by Dr. Parkinson in 1817. The disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Although the pathogenesis of PD is still unknown, the research findings from scientists are conducive to understand the pathological mechanisms. It is well accepted that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the onset of PD. In this review, we summarize the mutations of main seven genes (α-synuclein, LRRK2, PINK1, Parkin, DJ-1, VPS35 and GBA1) linked to PD, discuss the potential mechanisms for the loss of dopaminergic neurons (dopamine metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, impaired autophagy, and deregulation of immunity) in PD, and expect the development direction for treatment of PD...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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